Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

mutagenost (19 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"By varying duration of exposure, the embryos were exposed to different doses of radiation, sacrificed at different periods of incubation and subjected to histological processing. On light microscopic study it was observed that developing neurons of dorsal root ganglion suffered a damage which was dose dependent and persisted in spite of giving the exposure-free period between two exposures."
"Testicular infertility or testicular cancer due to mobile phone or microwave radiations suggests an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though generation of ROS in testis has been responsible for possible toxic effects on physiology of reproduction, the reviews of last few decades have well established that these radiations are very harmful and cause mutagenic changes in reproductive pattern and leads to infertility. The debate will be focused on bio-interaction mechanism between mobile phone and testicular cancer due to ROS formation. This causes the biological damage and leads to several changes like decreased sperm count, enzymatic and hormonal changes, DNA damage, and apoptosis formation."
"The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment."
"The hypothesis of a correlation between genotoxic assays and ELF-MF exposure value was partially supported, especially as regards MN assay. Since these results are derived from a small-scale pilot study, a larger scale study should be undertaken."
Mutagenic response of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure on rat brain
Kesari KK et al, Int J Radiat Biol, april 2010
"The study concludes that the chronic exposure to these radiations may cause significant damage to brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion (Behari and Paulraj 2007)."
"ELF MFs have been reported to enhance the effects of known carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in a few animal studies and in several in vitro studies. This paper discusses the findings of studies on such combined effects. The majority of in vitro studies have reported positive findings, which supports the conclusion that MFs of 100 microT or higher interact with other chemical and physical agents. Further studies should address biophysical mechanisms and dose-response relationship below 100 microT."
"The combined exposure of the cells to RF-EMF in the presence of ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) revealed a weak and insignificant cytogenetic effect when compared to cells exposed to EMS alone in CA test. Also, the comet assay results to evaluate the ability of RF-EMF alone to damage DNA were nearly negative, although showing a small increase in tail moment. However, the applied RF-EMF had potentiation effect in comet assay when administered in combination with model clastogens (cyclophosphamide or 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide). Thus, our results imply that we cannot confidently exclude any possibility of an increased risk of genetic damage, with important implications for the possible health effects of exposure to 835-MHz electromagnetic fields."
"To test whether this controversy might reflect differences between the cellular targets examined we exposed cultured cells derived from different tissues to an intermittent ELF-EMF (50 Hz sinusoidal, 1 mT) for 1-24h. The alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess ELF-EMF-induced DNA strand breaks. We could identify three responder (human fibroblasts, human melanocytes, rat granulosa cells) and three non-responder cell types (human lymphocytes, human monocytes, human skeletal muscle cells), which points to the significance of the cell system used when investigating genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF."
[Effects of 2,450 MHz microwave on DNA damage induced by three chemical mutagens in vitro]
Zhang MB et al, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi, avgust 2003
"2 450 MHz MW (5 mW/cm(2)) did not induce DNA damage directly, but could enhance the DNA damage effects induced by MMC."
"The co-exposure of cells to BP and 0.8 mT ELF-EMF for 24 h, followed by BP exposure for 48 h led to significant increases in the frequencies of MN and SCE compared to BP treatment for 72 h alone (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between field exposed and sham exposed control cells. The obtained results suggest that low density ELF-EMF could act as an enhancer of the initiation process of BP rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in human lymphocytes."
"The conditions of intermittence showed an impact on the induction of DNA strand breaks, producing the highest levels at 5min field-on/10min field-off. We also found individual differences in response to ELF-EMF as well as an evident exposure-response relationship between magnetic flux density and DNA migration in the comet assay. Our data strongly indicate a genotoxic potential of intermittent EMF. This points to the need of further studies in vivo and consideration about environmental threshold values for ELF exposure."
The effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the formation of DNA lesions
Lourencini da Silva R et al, Redox Rep, januar 2000
"The results indicate that EMF, in the presence of a transition metal, is capable of causing DNA damage. These observations support the idea that EMF, probably through secondary generation of reactive oxygen species, can be clastogenic and provide a possible explanation for the observed correlation between EMF exposure and the frequency of certain types of cancers in humans."
"The potential mutagenic effect of low power microwave at the DNA sequence level in the mouse genome was evaluated by direct DNA analysis. Animals were exposed to microwave at a power density of 1 mW/cm2 for 2 h/day at a frequency of 2.45 GHz over a period of 120, 150 and 200 days. HinfI digested DNA samples from testis and brain of control and exposed animals were hybridized with a synthetic oligo probe (OAT 36) comprising nine repeats of 5'-GACA-3'. As compared to control animals, band patterns in exposed animals were found to be distinctly altered in the range of 7-8 kb which was also substantiated by densitometric analysis. Though the mechanism of this rearrangement is not yet clear, the results obtained at the present dose are of significance. This dose, which has been set as the safe limit for general public exposure by the Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of the International Radiation Protection Association, may imply a need for (re)evaluation of the mutagenic potential of microwaves at the prescribed safe limit for the personnel and people who are being exposed."
"Exposure conditions vary greatly among different end points measured, making comparisons and conclusions among experiments difficult. Although most of the available evidence does not suggest that electric and/or magnetic fields cause DNA damage, the existence of some positive findings and limitations in the set of studies carried out suggest a need for additional work."
"The comparison of frequencies of size distribution of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of humans exposed to each of these three mutagens showed that X-rays and microwaves were preferentially clastogens while vinyl chloride monomer showed aneugenic activity as well. Microwaves possess some mutagenic characteristics typical of chemical mutagens."
[The participation of thyroid hormones in modifying the mutagenic effect of microwaves]
Koveshnikova IV, Antipenko EN, Radiobiologiia, januar 1991
"The mutagenic effect of microwaves (2,450 or 2,750 MHz, 500 microW/cm2, 30 days, 7 h a day) increases with both low and high thyroid hormone content in rats. This indicates that normal functioning of the thyroid gland is an important condition for the stabilization of chromosome integrity under the effect of nonionizing radiation of microwaves."
The effect of microwave radiation on the cell genome
Garaj-Vrhovac V et al, Mutat Res, februar 1990
"Results discussed in this study suggest that microwave radiation causes changes in the synthesis as well as in the structure of DNA molecules."

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