Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

hormonske spremembe (86 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behavior. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bcl2 showed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bcl2 were increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death. Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats."
Radiations and male fertility
Kesari KK et al, Reprod Biol Endocrinol, december 2018
"From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations."
"Decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, sperm count, and viability along with increased germ cells apoptosis and decreased serum testosterone level, was observed in the testes of all the mobile phone exposed mice compared with control. We also observed that, mobile phone radiation exposure in all the three different operative modes alters the testicular redox status via increasing ROS, NO, and MDA level, and decreasing antioxidant enzymes levels leading to enhanced apoptosis of testicular cells by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins along with decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein."
"These data showed that EMR of Wi-Fi leads to hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress, and impaired insulin secretion in the rat pancreatic islets."
"Results showed that 2.45 GHz microwave radiation resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease (p < 0.001) in the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), testosterone and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05). Flow cytometer analysis of blood showed the formation of micronuclei in microwave-exposed group. Histopathological changes were also seen in seminiferous tubules of microwave-exposed group as compared to the sham-exposed group. It is concluded that 2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposure causes oxidative stress in testes and it may lead to detrimental and injurious effects on fertility potential of the male reproductive system of Swiss albino mice."
Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health
Pall ML, Environ Res, julij 2018
"Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs."
"We observed that 2.45 GHz MW irradiated mice showed slow learning and significantly increased number of working and reference memory errors in radial maze task. Further, 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure increases serum corticosterone level and the expression of CRH, CRH-R1, and i-NOS, while the expression of iGluRs, n-NOS, PSD-95, protein kinase Cε, protein kinase A, ERK-p-ERK, CREB, and p-CREB decreases in above mentioned hippocampal subregions in a duration dependent manner. Our findings led us to conclude that 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure induced local stress suppresses signaling mechanism(s) of hippocampal memory formation."
"We found there was a significant correlation between total radiation exposure and an increase in TSH among both groups - in those with and without family history of thyroid illness."
"We observed that mobile phone radiation induces significant elevation in ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, total carbonyl content and serum corticosterone coupled with significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes in hypothalamus, ovary and uterus of mice. Compared to control group, exposed mice exhibited reduced number of developing and mature follicles as well as corpus lutea. Significantly decreased serum levels of pituitary gonadotrophins (LH, FSH), sex steroids (E2 and P4) and expression of SF-1, StAR, P-450scc, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, cytochrome P-450 aromatase, ER-α and ER-β were observed in all the exposed groups of mice, compared to control. These findings suggest that mobile phone radiation induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, which affects the reproductive performance of female mice."
"Fifteen minutes of RF-EMF exposure exerts quantifiable effects on subtle energy levels of endocrine glands, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen of healthy teenagers. "
"Mice subjected to non-modulated microwave exposure had significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased intracellular calcium and nitric oxide levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and also had increased glucose and corticosterone levels in blood compared to control mice. These non-modulated microwave-exposed mice exhibited anxiety-like and depression-like behaviours."
"Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose–response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness, dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects."
"In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats."
"The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus."
"Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland."
"This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role."
"Elevated GC levels induced by immobilization were significantly reduced by exposure to an EF at 10 kV/m (P < 0.05), and the effect of EFs at 0-10 kV/m on GC levels increased in a kV/m-dependent manner (P < 0.05). In contrast, following treatment with EFs at 50 and 200 kV/m, GC levels were higher than those observed at 10 kV/m."
Extremely low frequency magnetic field modulates the level of neurotransmitters
Chung YH et al, Korean J Physiol Pharmacol, januar 2015
"The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized."
"We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy."
"Life-long exposure to ELF-MF induced decrease in the volume of ACTH cells and pituitary volume. We can conclude that the applied ELF-MF has a strong influence on morphometrical parameters of the pituitary ACTH cells and could be considered as a stressogenic factor."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway."
An Update on Neurological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields
Lai H, 2012 BioInitiative Working Groups, marec 2014
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been increasing with the increasing demand for communication devices. The aim of the study was to discuss the mechanisms and risk factors of EMR changes on reproductive functions and membrane oxidative biology in females and males. It was reported that even chronic exposure to EMR did not increase the risk of reproductive functions such as increased levels of neoantigens abort. However, the results of some studies indicate that EMR induced endometriosis and inflammation and decreased the number of follicles in the ovarium or uterus of rats. In studies with male rats, exposure caused degeneration in the seminiferous tubules, reduction in the number of Leydig cells and testosterone production as well as increases in luteinizing hormone levels and apoptotic cells. In some cases of male and female infertility, increased levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and decreased values of antioxidants such as melatonin, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase were reported in animals exposed to EMR. In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems. However, there is no evidence to this date to support an increased risk of female and male infertility related to EMR exposure."
"Our findings led us to conclude that a low level of MW irradiation-induced oxidative stress not only suppresses implantation, but it may also lead to deformity of the embryo in case pregnancy continues. We also suggest that MW radiation-induced oxidative stress by increasing ROS production in the body may lead to DNA strand breakage in the brain cells and implantation failure/resorption or abnormal pregnancy in mice."
"Testicular infertility or testicular cancer due to mobile phone or microwave radiations suggests an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though generation of ROS in testis has been responsible for possible toxic effects on physiology of reproduction, the reviews of last few decades have well established that these radiations are very harmful and cause mutagenic changes in reproductive pattern and leads to infertility. The debate will be focused on bio-interaction mechanism between mobile phone and testicular cancer due to ROS formation. This causes the biological damage and leads to several changes like decreased sperm count, enzymatic and hormonal changes, DNA damage, and apoptosis formation."
"Our findings suggest the possibility that high intensity and chronic exposure to ELF-MF induces an increase in corticosterone secretion, along with depression- and/or anxiety-like behavior, without enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis."
"We exposed Wistar rats to 2.45 GHz pulsed MW irradiation at a power density of 1 mW/cm(2) for 3 h/day, for up to 30 days. MW exposure induced spatial learning and memory impairments in rats. Hippocampal glucose uptake was also reduced by MW exposure in the absence or presence of insulin, but the levels of blood glucose and insulin were not affected. However, these spatial memory deficits were reversed by systemic glucose treatment. Our results indicate that glucose administration attenuates the spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density MW exposure, and reduced hippocampal glucose uptake may be associated with cognitive impairment caused by MW exposure."
"The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data."
Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system
Gye M, Park C, Clin Exp Reprod Med, marec 2012
"The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks."
"The significant content differences of NE and DA were found in fetal rat brains in GL and GH groups, with the GL group increased and the GH group decreased. Through this study, we concluded that receiving a certain period of microwave radiation from cellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains."
Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain
Kesari KK et al, Appl Biochem Biotechnol, januar 2012
"The study concludes that a reduction in melatonin or an increase in caspase-3, creatine kinase, and calcium ion may cause significant damage in brain due to chronic exposure of these radiations. These biomarkers clearly indicate possible health implications of such exposures."
900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain
Kesari KK et al, Electromagn Biol Med, december 2011
"The study concludes that a reduction or an increase in antioxidative enzyme activities, protein kinase C, melatonin, caspase 3, and creatine kinase are related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications."
"This study showed significant decrease in volunteers' ACTH, cortisol, thyroid hormones, prolactin for young females, and testosterone levels."
"Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress."
"Our study revealed that ELF-MF exposure might influence the activity of endocrine cells, an important element of the intrinsic regulatory system in the digestive tract. The pathophysiological character of these changes and the mechanism responsible for neuroendocrine cell are still unclear and require further studies."
"RESULTS: Morphological analyses revealed hypothyrophy of the gland in the 900 MHz RF exposure group. The results indicated that thyroid hormone secretion was inhibited by the RF radiation. In addition, we also observed formation of apoptotic bodies and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in thyroid cells of the rats that were exposed to modulated RF fields. CONCLUSION: The overall findings indicated that whole body exposure to pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones can cause pathological changes in the thyroid gland by altering the gland structure and enhancing caspase-dependent pathways of apoptosis."
"The results showed that exposure of trophoblasts to MF at 0.2 mT for 72 h did not affect secretion of hCG and progesterone from these cells. There was also no significant change in secretion of these hormones when trophoblasts were exposed to a 0.4 mT MF for 48 h. However, MF significantly inhibited hCG and progesterone secretion of trophoblasts after exposure for 72 h at 0.4 mT. Results of apoptosis-related gene expression analysis showed that, within 72 h of exposure at 0.4 mT, there was no significant difference between MF exposure and control on the expression pattern of each gene. Based on results of the present experiment, it is suggested that exposure to MF for a longer duration (72 h) could inhibit secretion of hCG and progesterone by human first trimester villous trophoblasts, however, the effect might not be related to trophoblast apoptosis."
"The electronic equipment repairers, exposed to ELF-EMF, are at a risk of oxidative stress and sleep insufficiency, which could be explained by lower plasma melatonin levels and higher MDA levels. Health education about the hazards of ELF-EMF, shortening of exposure time per day, and taking antioxidant vitamins should be done to ameliorate the oxidative effect of EMF on those workers."
"RESULTS: In scenario 3 from session 4 to session 5 (from "low" to "high" exposure), an increase of cortisol was detected, while in scenarios 1 and 2, a higher concentration of alpha-amylase related to the baseline was identified as compared to that in scenario 3. IgA concentration was not significantly related to the exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers."
"Both groups of animals of experiment III showed reduced median survival times by 6.25% (95% CI -0.3 to 12.4%) (p=0.0604) compared to the corresponding groups of experiment IV (53 days: sham-exposed animals, 48 days: RF-exposed animals) which may be due to the fact that animals of experiment III were born in October and animals of experiment IV in May indicating that the month of birth affects life span. From the results of the last two experiments it has to be concluded that chronic exposure to a low-intensity GSM-like signal may exert negative health effects and shorten survival if treatment is applied sufficiently long and the observational period covers the full life span of the animals concerned. The current data show that survival of rats kept under controlled laboratory conditions varies within certain limits depending on the month of birth. In view of our previous observations regarding an inhibitory or no effect of RF-exposure on DMBA-induced mammary cancer during the 1997-2000 period, an additional modulatory influence on a year-to-year basis should be considered which might be related to changing solar activity during the the 11-years' sunspot cycle. These potentially complex influences of the natural environment modulating the effects of anthropogenic RF-signals on health and survival require a systematic continuation of such experiments throughout solar cycle 24 which started in 2009."
"Thus the highest ER alpha expression was observed in diestrous and the lowest in proestrous. The pattern of ER beta mRNA was less variable, the lowest expression was observed in diestrous. ER-alpha mRNA and -beta mRNA expression level in the male OB did not exhibit any variation either in ELF EMF-exposed or non-ELF EMF-exposed animals. In summary, ELF EMF modulate ER beta gene expression in the OB of female adult rats but not in males."
"This means that each experiment with horizontal polarization of magnetic fields has a higher probability to result in "not changed melatonin level" pattern. On the other hand, ANNs, a more powerful model which has not been introduced in predicting melatonin excretion patterns in the rat exposed to ELF-MF, showed high performance measure values and higher reliability, especially obtaining 0.55 value of MCC through jackknife tests. Obtained results showed that such predictor models are promising and may play a useful role in defining guidelines for experimental designs relating to exposure conditions. In conclusion, analysis of the bioelectromagnetic data could result in finding a relationship between electromagnetic fields and different biological processes."
"As far as the study is concerned, this is the first human study to assess the associations between mobile phone use and alterations in the levels of TSH and thyroid hormones. Based on the findings, a higher than normal TSH level, low mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations in mobile users were observed. It seems that minor degrees of thyroid dysfunction with a compensatory rise in TSH may occur following excessive use of mobile phones. It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of mobile microwaves on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones."
"In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful."
"Thirty years ago, Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper published the first report on the association between childhood cancer and "electrical current configuration" of houses in Denver, Colorado. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined 50-60 Hz magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" because of the "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity of residential exposure relatively to childhood leukemia. With respect to health effects other than cancer, namely neurodegenerative disorders, miscarriage, subtle differences in the timing of melatonin release, altered autonomic control of the heart, and changes in the number of natural killer cells, some open questions still remain. Several authors recommended further investigation of the possible long-term effects of magnetic fields, focussing on populations experiencing high exposure levels. In this frame a research team of ISS searched for a suitable location to implement an epidemiological study aimed at a wide range of outcomes for which a priori hypotheses could be formulated. The recently published findings of this project showed an increase of primary and secondary malignant neoplasms, ischaemic disease and haematological diseases. Future studies should thus address the most exposed sectors of the population, take into account different outcomes (all neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, immunological disorders, specific cardiovascular effects) and follow research protocols that enable subsequent pooled analyses. A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision making where the available resources for environmental remediation be prioritatively allocated to worst-off situations."
"Results: The evidence indicates that long-term significant occupational exposure to ELF MF may certainly increase the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. There is now evidence that two relevant biological processes (increased production of amyloid beta and decreased production of melatonin) are influenced by high long-term ELF MF exposure that may lead to Alzheimer's disease. There is further evidence that one of these biological processes (decreased melatonin production) may also lead to breast cancer. Finally, there is evidence that exposures to RF MF and ELF MF have similar biological consequences. Conclusion: It is important to mitigate ELF and RF MF exposures through equipment design changes and environmental placement of electrical equipment, e.g., AC/DC transformers. Further research related to these proposed and other biological processes is required."
"These results indicate that a 900 MHz EMF emitted by cellular phones, especially in the case of long-term exposure, increased the serum cortisol and T4 levels and decreased the T3 level, and suggest that it can destroy the endocrine system in general."
"Transient electromagnetic fields (dirty electricity), in the kilohertz range on electrical wiring, may be contributing to elevated blood sugar levels among diabetics and pre-diabetics. By closely following plasma glucose levels in four Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics, we find that they responded directly to the amount of dirty electricity in their environment."
"Low energy microwave irradiation may be harmful as it is sufficient to alter the levels of thyroid hormones as well as the emotional reactivity of the irradiated compared to control animals."
"The level of progesterone and estrogen was significantly decreased after 12 weeks of exposure (P < 0.05), while no other effects on progesterone level was observed during exposure or after removing the exposure. The level of estrogen was also significantly reduced at 12 weeks after removing the field (P < 0.05). These results suggest possible adverse effect on mammalian fertility and reproduction. The effects of ELF-MF on sex hormones were shown to be partly reversible."
"The cancer incidence in the teachers at this school is unusually high and is strongly associated with high frequency voltage transients, which may be a universal carcinogen, similar to ionizing radiation."
"At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies."
"In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects."
"Our results show that MW-exposed rats had significant deficits in spatial learning and memory performance. MW exposure increased levels of plasma corticosterone, and consequently GC receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and apoptosis in the hippocampus. However, co-administration of the GR antagonist RU486 with MW exposure partially reversed the cognitive impairment and neuronal loss. These data indicate that GCs might contribute to the cognition deficit induced by chronic low-power-density MW exposure."
"RF and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were associated with increased E1G excretion among postmenopausal women. Women with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion may represent a sensitive subgroup."
"Alterations in lysosomes, granular endoplasmic reticulum and cell nuclei compared to the control group were also observed. Taken together, the results of this study show the stimulative effect of power-frequency EMF on thyroid gland at both the light microscope and the ultrastructural level."
"Magnetic field exposure was associated with decreased 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, but no changes in reproductive hormone levels were observed. Participants using prescription medications and anovulatory participants had more pronounced decreases in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels with magnetic field exposure. This study provides further evidence that exposure to magnetic fields is associated with decreased nocturnal melatonin levels, but does not support the hypothesis that such exposure results in increased urinary levels of estrogens, LH, or FSH."
"The resonance solution also suggests that mitochondrial proton gradients may be critical to the process. The model offers an alternative explanation to the variations of Faraday's Law and the Boltzmann constant that have been employed to explain and to dismiss biological effects from weak magnetic fields."
Occupational magnetic field exposure and melatonin: interaction with light-at-night
Juutilainen J, Kumlin T, Bioelectromagnetics, julij 2006
"Based on questionnaire data on exposure to light-at-night (LAN), and measurement-based MF data, the 60 women were classified to four groups: no MF, no LAN; MF, no LAN; no MF, LAN; MF, LAN. The lowest excretion of 6-OHMS was observed in the group of women who were exposed to both MF and LAN, and the differences between the four groups were significant (P < .0001). The result is based on low numbers, but supports the hypothesis that daytime occupational exposure to MF enhances the effects of nighttime light exposure on melatonin production."
"The concentrations of total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were higher among persons with higher melatonin excretion. Similar associations were seen between melatonin excretion and helper T cells and NK cells when the data were analyzed as continuous variables (table 10). Therefore, we then evaluated the association between exposure to RF and immune markers among persons with total overnight melatonin excretion above and below the median (table 11). Paradoxically, associations between RF exposure and immune markers were found among persons with melatonin excretion below the median but not among persons with melatonin excretion above the median. For the group of individuals with low melatonin excretion, the concentrations of total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells were all significantly increased among persons in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of household RF exposure."
"This review focuses on research examining the effects of EMFs on birds; most studies indicate that EMF exposure of birds generally changes, but not always consistently in effect or in direction, their behavior, reproductive success, growth and development, physiology and endocrinology, and oxidative stress under EMF conditions."
Dirty Electricity and Electrical Hypersensitivity: Five Case Studies
Havas M, Stetzer D, World Health Organization Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity, oktober 2004
"Deteriorating power quality is becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Poor power quality, also known as dirty electricity, refers primarily to a combination of harmonics and transients generated primarily by electronic devices and by non-linear loads. We have assumed, until recently, that this form of energy is not biologically active. However, when Graham/Stetzer™ filters were installed in homes and schools, symptoms associated with electrical hypersensitivity (such as chronic fatigue, depression, headaches, body aches and pains, ringing in the ears, dizziness, impaired sleep, memory loss, and confusion) were reduced."
"Taken together, these EMF induced reactions could lead to a higher incidence of DNA damage and therefore, to an increased risk of tumour development. While the effects on melatonin and the extension of the lifetime of radicals can explain the link between EMF exposure and the incidence of for example leukaemia, the two additional mechanisms described here specifically for mouse macrophages, can explain the possible correlation between immune cell system stimulation and EMF exposure."
"In pineal glands isolated in the morning, 4-h in vitro exposure did not affect the basal release of melatonin from the pineal gland as well as the basal NAT and HIOMT activities. Pineal gland exposure to MF 30 min before norepinephrine addition significantly (p<0.05) increased NAT activity, HIOMT activity and melatonin release (p<0.05). These effects were not observed in pineals co-treated with MF and norepinephrine or in sonicated glands exposed to MF. The results suggest that in pineals isolated in the morning, 4-h MF exposure changes melatonin release by affecting the signal transduction pathway leading from the norepinephrine receptor to NAT and HIOMT and not via a direct effect at the enzyme levels."
Melatonin metabolite excretion among cellular telephone users
Burch JB et al, Int J Radiat Biol, november 2002
"Exposure-related reductions in 6-OHMS excretion were observed in Study 2, where daily cellular telephone use of >25 min was more prevalent. Prolonged use of cellular telephones may lead to reduced melatonin production, and elevated 60-Hz MF exposures may potentiate the effect."
"In this review, we describe the interaction of MF and biological systems, showing that preceding exposures to MF of 100 µT for 3, 5, and 7 days blocked the melatonin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner, while the functions of three components, such as melatonin receptor, G protein, and adenylyl cyclase that consist of the signal transduction pathway were not affected. It still remains to be developed which theoretical chemistry explains our findings."
"Lower nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was associated with more hours of daylight, older age, higher body mass index, current alcohol consumption, and current use of medications classified as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, or psychotropics. After adjustment for these factors, higher bedroom magnetic field level was associated with significantly lower urinary concentration of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin during the same night, primarily in women who used these medications and during times of the year with the fewest hours of darkness. These results suggest that exposure to nighttime residential 60-Hz magnetic fields can depress the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin."
"When either 24-hour or sleep-time exposure to magnetic field or electric field measurements was used, no exposure-effect relation was evident. However, the trend of decreasing 6-OHMS concentration with age was more pronounced for women living near the lines, as was a lower 6-OHMS concentration in women with high body mass index. Chronic residential exposure to magnetic fields from high-power lines may accentuate the decrease in melatonin secretion observed in some vulnerable subgroups of the population."
"Only 1a melatonin receptors were identified by the [125I]melatonin binding assay and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, preceding exposures to MF of 100 microT for 3, 5 and 7 days blocked the melatonin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner, while none of the melatonin receptor functions or GTPase and adenylyl cyclase activities were affected. Estrogen-evoked cell proliferation was not altered by MF either. Exposure to 1.2 microT MF exerted the same effects on the melatonin-signaling pathway as that to 100 microT. Thus, this is the first study to provide evidence that MF may cause uncoupling of signal transduction from melatonin receptors to adenylyl cyclase."
"The experiment results demonstrate that the conformation of insulin molecular has been altered by electric fields exposure for 30 minutes or by heat exposure for 50 hours. The results suggest that pulsed electric field exposure as heat exposure will after conformation of insulin molecular by breaking some hydrogen bonds and recombining another hydrogen bonds. The intercellular signal molecular may be an important target of electromagnetic fields."
"The follicles with failed antrum formation showed lower oestradiol release and granulosa cell DNA synthesis, but these effects were not related to granulosa cell apoptosis. Furthermore, a high percentage of the in-vitro grown oocytes obtained from exposed follicles had a reduced ability to resume meiotic maturation when compared with controls. These results suggest that ELF-EMF exposure might impair mammalian female reproductive potentiality by reducing the capacity of the follicles to reach a developmental stage that is an essential pre-requisite for reproductive success."
Semen quality and hormone levels among radiofrequency heater operators
Grajewski B et al, J Occup Environ Med, oktober 2000
"We observed minor semen quality and hormonal differences between the groups, including a slightly higher mean follicle-stimulating hormone level for exposed operators (7.6 vs 5.8 mIU/mL). Further occupational studies of RF-exposed men may be warranted."
"These results suggest that microwaves (CW, 2 mW/cm(2), 2450 MHz) produce uteroplacental circulatory disturbances and ovarian and placental dysfunction during pregnancy, probably through nonthermal actions. The uteroplacental disturbances appear to be due to actions of PGF(2)alpha and may pose some risk for pregnancy."
"There was a magnetic field-dependent reduction in adjusted mean nocturnal and post-work 6-OHMS levels among men working more than 2 hours per day in substation and 3-phase environments and no effect among those working 2 hours or less. No changes were observed among men working in 1-phase environments. The results suggest that circular or elliptical magnetic field polarization, or another factor linked to substations and 3-phase electricity, is associated with magnetic field induced melatonin suppression in humans."
"Geometric mean magnetic field exposures were not associated with 6-OHMS/cr excretion. Men in the highest quartile of temporally stable magnetic field exposure had lower 6-OHMS/cr concentrations on the second and third days compared with those in the lowest quartile. Light exposure modified the magnetic field effect. A progressive decrease in mean 6-OHMS/cr concentrations in response to temporally stable magnetic fields was observed in subjects with low workplace light exposures (predominantly office workers), whereas those with high ambient light exposure showed negligible magnetic field effects. Melatonin suppression may be useful for understanding human biologic responses to magnetic field exposures."
"Modest reductions in the mean 6-OHMS levels occurred after RCMS exposures during work. The greatest reductions occurred when RCMS exposures both at work and at home were combined; therefore the effects of temporally stable magnetic fields may be integrated over a large portion of the day. Results from this study provide evidence that temporally stable magnetic field exposures are associated with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion in humans."
"The present results indicate that excessive exposure to whole-body microwave disorders pregnancy in terms of placental circulatory dysfunction. The data suggest the involvement of endocrine mechanisms in the decrease in placental blood flow which is induced via a detrimental effect of microwaves on PGF2 alpha and on pituitary functions such as general emotional stress."
Effects of whole body microwave exposure on the rat brain contents of biogenic amines
Inaba R et al, Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, januar 1992
"The noradrenaline content in the hypothalamus was significantly reduced after microwave exposure at a power density of 10 mW.cm-2. There were no differences in the dopamine (DA) content of any region of the brain between microwave exposed rats and control rats. The dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) content, the main metabolite of DA, was significantly increased in the pons plus medulla oblongata only at a power density of 10 mW.cm-2. The DA turnover rates, the DOPAC:DA ratio, in the striatum and cerebral cortex were significantly increased only at a power density of 10 mW.cm-2. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) content in all regions of the brain of microwave exposed rats was not different from that of the control rats. The 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in the cerebral cortex of microwave exposed rats was significantly increased at power densities of 5 and 10 mW.cm-2."
Chronic exposure to ELF fields may induce depression
Wilson BW, Bioelectromagnetics, februar 1988
"Chronic exposure to ELF electric or magnetic fields can disrupt normal circadian rhythms in rat pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase activity as well as in serotonin and melatonin concentrations. Such disruptions in the circadian rhythmicity of pineal melatonin secretion have been associated with certain depressive disorders in human beings. In the rat, ELF fields may interfere with tonic aspects of neuronal input to the pineal gland, giving rise to what may be termed "functional pinealectomy." If long-term exposure to ELF fields causes pineal dysfunction in human beings as it does in the rat, such dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression or may exacerbate existing depressive disorders."
"The current state of biological research is reviewed, and a summary of the known effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation exposure on animals and humans provided. These known effects appear to be principally thermal, similar to conventional electrical burn injuries, but with some unique systemic expression. Derangements of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematological, ophthalmological, and behavioral functions are well described in animal experimentation."
"The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard."
"The growing body of Russian and eastern European literature describing a wide variety of functional changes and clinical effects, leading to consideration of "radio-wave sickness" as a possible independent nosologic entity, cannot simply be ignored. With increasing uses and power, the stage is set for the appearance of late effects previously undetected possibly because of their infrequency, lack of distinctiveness or mild character. There may now be a better opportunity to resolve the uncertainties of present knowledge in the face of an increasing risk."
Pathological Effects of Radio Waves
Tolgskaya MS, Gordon ZV, Consultants Bureau, januar 1973
Tolgskaya and Gordon in 1973 published a long and detailed review of effects of microwave and lower frequency EMFs on experimental animals, mostly rodents. They report that non-thermal exposures impact many tissues, with the nervous system being the most sensitive organ in the body, based on histological studies, followed by the heart and the testis. They also report effects of non-thermal exposures on liver, kidney, endocrine and many other organs. The nervous system effects are very extensive and include many changes in cell structure, dysfunction of synaptic connections between neurons and programmed cell death.
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects, listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9 central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4 behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8 different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity, altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis) and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations documenting these various health effects.
As early as in the 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the “microwave syndrome”. The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. The microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment, even though the EMF were below today’s reference value. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from EMF. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were offered.

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