Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

R (43 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"In both groups of rats irradiated as adults we have observed significant decrease of the number of dividing cells within the RMS. Exposure of juvenile rats to MWR induced only slight decrease in proliferation, however, it strikingly affected cell death even two months following irradiation. In addition, these rats displayed locomotor hyperactivity and decreased risk assessment in adulthood. Our results suggest that the long-lasting influence of radiation is manifested by affected cell survival and changes in animals' behavior."
"RESULTS: A significant decrease in the number of Purkinje cells and a tendency for granule cells to increase in cerebellum was found. CONCLUSION: Further studies in this area are needed due to the popular use of mobile telephones and relatively high exposure on developing brain."
"The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard."
"RESULTS: The analysis of mean number of the flushed blastocysts in the EMF group showed significant decrease as compared with the control group (P<0.03). Light microscopic study showed that the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells was significantly increased in the EMF group as compared with the control group (P<0.001). However the height of endometrial epithelial cells in the EMF group showed insignificant increase as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that ELF-EMF has detrimental effect on female reproductive system in mice by decreasing the number of flushed blastocysts and increasing the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells."
"After sacrifice, samples of skin and thyroid were processed for indirect immunohistochemistry or toluidine blue staining and then were analyzed using the methods of stereology. The antibody markers to serotonin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) were applied to skin sections and PGP, CGRP, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) markers to the thyroid. A significantly increased number of serotonin-positive MCs in the skin and NPY-containing nerve fibers in the thyroid of rats exposed to ELF-EMF was found compared to controls, indicating a possible EMF effect on skin and thyroid vasculature."
"The results indicate certain alterations of cutaneous and thyroid MC in rats exposed to EMF. However, the possible outcome of changes in the MC population under EMF influence on morphophysiological properties of other structures in skin and thyroid requires further investigation."
"Alterations in lysosomes, granular endoplasmic reticulum and cell nuclei compared to the control group were also observed. Taken together, the results of this study show the stimulative effect of power-frequency EMF on thyroid gland at both the light microscope and the ultrastructural level."
"Both the atrazine and the combined treatments, but not the single EMF exposure, increased the number of degranulated mast cells. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the control and both of the combined treatments (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Additionally, low and high doses of atrazine combined with the EMFs were found significantly different when compared to the EMF group alone (both at p<0.001). Considering the biological importance of mast cells in cutaneous immune reactions, future studies should reveal whether combined exposures to chemical and physical environmental agents pose a serious health risk."
The response of giant phospholipid vesicles to millimeter waves radiation
Ramundo-Orlando A et al, Biochim Biophys Acta, julij 2009
"Physical changes of vesicles, i.e. elongation, induced diffusion of fluorescent dye di-8-ANEPPS, and increased attractions between vesicles are demonstrated. These effects are reversible and occur only during irradiation with a "switch on" of the effect requiring a short time. Since the average temperature change was very small the effects could not be attributed to thermal mechanisms. We assume that the interaction of MMW with lipid membrane leads to changes at the membrane-water interface, where charged and dipolar residues are located."
"While about 60% of control cells (not exposed to RF radiation) were observed to exhibit about five spontaneous Ca(2+) spikes per cell in 60 min, exposure of cells to an 800 MHz, 0.5 W/kg RF radiation, for example, significantly increased the number of Ca(2+) spikes to 15.7 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.05). The increase in the Ca(2+) spiking activities was dependent on the frequency but not on the SAR between 0.5 to 5 W/kg. Using pharmacological agents, it was found that both the N-type Ca(2+) channels and phospholipase C enzymes appear to be involved in mediating increased Ca(2+) spiking. Interestingly, microfilament disruption also prevented the Ca(2+) spikes. Regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics by external physical stimulation such as RF radiation may provide a noninvasive and useful tool for modulating the Ca(2+)-dependent cellular and molecular activities of cells seeded in a 3D environment for which only a few techniques are currently available to influence the cells."
"Life-long exposure to ELF-MF induced decrease in the volume of ACTH cells and pituitary volume. We can conclude that the applied ELF-MF has a strong influence on morphometrical parameters of the pituitary ACTH cells and could be considered as a stressogenic factor."
"Exposure to the membranes to a field of 75 Hz frequency and different amplitudes caused CA activity to a reproducible decrease in enzymatic activity by 17% with a threshold of about 0.74 mT. The decrease in enzymatic activity was independent of the time of permanence in the field and was completely reversible."
"Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT activity and a rise in O2(-) levels. Together these studies support the further evaluation of ELF-EMF exposure in cellular and in vivo preclinical models to define mechanisms potentially impacted in humans."
"Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children."
"Adolescents' estimation of their cellphone use indicated that it was performed on a mental logarithmic scale. This is the first time this phenomenon has been observed in the estimation of recalled, as opposed to observed, numerical quantities. Our findings provide empirical justification for log-transforming data for analysis. We recommend the use of the geometric rather than arithmetic mean when a recalled numerical range is provided. A point of calibration may improve recall."
Cordless telephone use: implications for mobile phone research
Redmayne M et al, J Environ Monit, april 2010
"There was a statistically significant positive relationship (r = 0.38, p < 0.01) between cordless and mobile phone use. Taken together, this increases total RF exposure and its ratio in high-to-low mobile users. Therefore, the design and analysis of future epidemiological telecommunication studies need to assess cordless phone exposure to accurately evaluate total RF telephone exposure effects."
"We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy."
"Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals."
Twelve institutes in seven countries have found genotoxic effects and modified expressions on numerous genes and proteins after Radio frequency and extremely low frequency EMF exposure at low levels, below current international safety guidance, to living cells in-vitro. These results confirm the likelihood of long-term genetic damage in the blood and brains of users of mobile phones and other sources of electromagnetic fields. The idea behind the REFLEX study was to attempt replicate damage already reported to see if the effects were real and whether, or not, more money should be spent of research into the possible adverse health effects of EMF exposure. They concluded that in-vitro damage is real and that it is important to carry out much more research, especially monitoring the long-term health of people.
"Laboratory studies have shown that electromagnetic fields similar to those from high-voltage transmission lines can produce biological effects. Surveys of the actual effects of such lines on exposed individuals usually have been hampered by complicating factors tending to blur the data. By means of a new approach, however, correlation has been established between the presence of transmission-line fields and the occurrence of suicides in part of the Midlands of England."
"Dogs that lived in homes with very high current codes had the highest risk (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 1.6-28.5). Moderate, imprecise increases in risk (odds ratios of 1.5-1.9) were found for residence in a home with a sidewalk (plumbing), backyard, or front yard magnetic field of 2.0 mG or greater, but not for indoor measurements at this level. Risk increased among dogs that spent more than 25% of the day outdoors. Laboratory and observational studies of dogs as an animal model for the effects of magnetic fields are recommended."
"The concentrations of total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were higher among persons with higher melatonin excretion. Similar associations were seen between melatonin excretion and helper T cells and NK cells when the data were analyzed as continuous variables (table 10). Therefore, we then evaluated the association between exposure to RF and immune markers among persons with total overnight melatonin excretion above and below the median (table 11). Paradoxically, associations between RF exposure and immune markers were found among persons with melatonin excretion below the median but not among persons with melatonin excretion above the median. For the group of individuals with low melatonin excretion, the concentrations of total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells were all significantly increased among persons in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of household RF exposure."
The influence of electromagnetic fields on human brain activity
Reiser H et al, Eur J Med Res, oktober 1995
"All volunteers also underwent a control experiment with no field exposure. Application of the MEGA-WAVE instrument caused an increase in EEG power in the frequency bands Alpha2, Beta1 and Beta2 during and after field exposure. Operation of the mobile telephone caused an increase in the same frequency bands with a delay of approximately 15 minutes after exposure."
"Analysis of the affected gene families does not point towards a stress response. However, following microwave exposure, some but not all human cells might react with an increase in expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and therefore up-regulating the cellular metabolism."
"The International Oversight Committee (IOC) provided oversight on the conduct of the studies and was the firewall committee that dealt with the sponsors and researchers. This paper gives the IOC comments and conclusions on the differing results between the two studies."
"We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication."
"Thus the highest ER alpha expression was observed in diestrous and the lowest in proestrous. The pattern of ER beta mRNA was less variable, the lowest expression was observed in diestrous. ER-alpha mRNA and -beta mRNA expression level in the male OB did not exhibit any variation either in ELF EMF-exposed or non-ELF EMF-exposed animals. In summary, ELF EMF modulate ER beta gene expression in the OB of female adult rats but not in males."
"A statistical significant increase in fetal and neonatal HR, and statistical significant decrease in stroke volume and COP before and after use of mobile phone were noted. All these changes are attenuated with increase in gestational age. Exposure of pregnant women to mobile phone significantly increase fetal and neonatal HR, and significantly decreased the COP."
"The development of cataract as a result of electromagnetic radiations is well established. Formerly it was supposed that this effect was unique to the action of infra-red, ultraviolet and roentgen radiations, although as early as 1926 in a survey of work in these fields Duke-Elder1 suggested that other portions of the spectrum, if of sufficient magnitude, might produce cataract. On the other hand, as late as 1944 it was the opinion of Bellows, basing his views on the work of Legge and of Hartridge and Hill, that electromagnetic waves longer than 20,000 angstrom units would be absorbed completely by the cornea. In 1948 it was demonstrated by Richardson, Duane and Hines5 that lenticular opacities could be produced by continuous microwave radiations of 12.25 cm. wavelength. These observations were confirmed by the contemporary work of Daily, Wakim, Herrick and Parkhill, which was completed later in 1948. The following year Salisbury, Clark and Hines in a technical article attributed the damage to a ready transmission through the cornea and a high absorption by the lens of microwaves 10 to 12 cm in wavelength."
"Clusters involved many different types of tumors. Latency periods were extremely brief in index patients and a larger self-reported group. The findings suggest that young persons exposed to high levels of RF/MW radiation for long periods in settings where preventive measures were lax were at increased risk for cancer. Very short latency periods suggest high risks from high-level exposures."
"These results show, for the first time, that the neuromodulation induced by exposure to low-intensity low-frequency magnetic fields can be observed in humans using functional brain imaging and that the detection mechanism for these effects may be different from those used by animals for orientation and navigation. Magnetoreception may be more common than presently thought."
"It was concluded that, when a dialing mobile phone is placed on the ear, its radiation, although unconsciously, is electrically detected by the brain. The question of whether or not this cortical reactivity results in a negative health outcome has to be answered in future longitudinal experiments."
"During the exposure to MMWs and gradual bath heating at a rate of 0.04°C/s (2.4°C/min), the ganglionic neurons exhibited similar dose-dependent hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and decrease in the action potential amplitude. However, narrowing of the action potential half-width during MMW irradiation at 4 mW/cm(2) was 5 times more pronounced compared with that during equivalent bath heating of 0.6°C. Even more dramatic difference in the effects of MMW irradiation and bath heating was noted in the firing rate, which was suppressed at all applied MMW power densities and increased in a dose-dependent manner during gradual bath heating. The mechanism of enhanced narrowing of action potentials and suppressed firing by MMW irradiation, compared with that by gradual bath heating, is hypothesized to involve specific coupling of MMW energy with the neuronal plasma membrane."
"Complainants related their symptoms most frequently to exposure to mobile phone base stations (74%), followed by mobile phones (36%), cordless phones (29%) and power lines (27%). No distinct symptoms related to a specific field source could be identified. Eighty-five percent of the people who consulted a public authority because of their symptoms were unsatisfied with the response, whereas consultation of self-help groups or building ecologists usually fulfilled expectations. Two thirds of complainants had taken some action to reduce their symptoms. The most common measure was to avoid exposure if possible."
"Similarly, most of the recent observational studies did not show associations between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms. However, the exposure gradients were small and possible exposure misclassification is a limitation of these studies. Longitudinal studies as well as studies in children and adolescents are scarce. In summary, recent research did not indicate health-related quality of life to be affected by RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. Furthermore, none of the studies showed that individuals with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) were more susceptible to RF-EMF than the rest of the population. Nevertheless, the rapid technological development and anticipated increase in exposure levels warrant the conduct of further longitudinal studies. Due to the widespread use of wireless communication technologies potential adverse health effects would have major public health consequences."
"It is concluded that exposure to EMF during the developmental period could affect both oocyte differentiation and folliculogenesis and may result in reduced fertility, by decreasing ovarian reservoir."
Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers
Rothman KJ et al, Epidemiology, maj 1996
"We found age-specific rates to be similar for users of the two types of telephones. For customers with accounts at least 3 years old, the ratio of mortality rates in 1994 for portable telephone users, compared with mobile telephone users, was 0.86 (90% confidence interval = 0.47-1.53)."
"Present results suggest that EMF exposure may interfere with normal process of folliculogenesis."
"Our results tend to show a direct relationship between HF‐EMF exposure of tomato plants and responses at the level of gene expression. Although not identical, the kinetics and amplitudes (three‐ to seven‐fold increases) of the targeted transcripts showed striking similarities with the previously described physiologic responses following injurious treatments such as leaf flaming or electrical stimulation (Stankovic and Davies 1997, Vian et al. 1999). Accordingly, we propose here that HF‐EMF exposure may constitute an environmental stimulus for the tomato plants."
"Transcript accumulation was maximal at normal Ca(2+) levels and was depressed at higher Ca(2+), especially for those encoding calcium-binding proteins. Removal of Ca(2+) (by addition of chelating agents or Ca(2+) channel blocker) led to total suppression of mRNA accumulation. Finally, 30 min after the electromagnetic treatment, ATP concentration and adenylate energy charge were transiently decreased, while transcript accumulation was totally prevented by application of the uncoupling reagent, CCCP. These responses occur very soon after exposure, strongly suggesting that they are the direct consequence of application of radio-frequency fields and their similarities to wound responses strongly suggests that this radiation is perceived by plants as an injurious stimulus."
Influence of a 50 hz extra low frequency electromagnetic field on spermatozoa motility and fertilization rates in rabbits
Roychoudhury S et al, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ, avgust 2009
"Hormonally stimulated adult (9-12 months) females (n = 140) were inseminated with semen samples from G1, G2, G3 and CG (0.88 x 109 spermatozoa/0.5 mL average insemination portion) immediately after ELF EMF exposure and fertilization (kindling) rates were calculated. For the G2 it was 54.28% data indicate 50 Hz ELF EMF induced alterations of spermatozoa motility and kindling rate in rabbits, therefore influencing fertility."
Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields
Ruediger HW, Pathophysiology, marec 2009
"101 publications are exploited which have studied genotoxicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in vivo and in vitro. Of these 49 report a genotoxic effect and 42 do not. In addition, 8 studies failed to detect an influence on the genetic material, but showed that RF-EMF enhanced the genotoxic action of other chemical or physical agents. The controversial results may in part be explained by the different cellular systems. Moreover, inconsistencies may depend from the variety of analytical methods being used, which differ considerably with respect to sensitivity and specificity. Taking altogether there is ample evidence that RF-EMF can alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way. This genotoxic action may be mediated by microthermal effects in cellular structures, formation of free radicals, or an interaction with DNA-repair mechanisms."
Electromagnetic fields and the induction of DNA strand breaks
Ruiz-Gomez MJ, Martinez-Morillo M, Electromagn Biol Med, maj 2009
"In relation to these data it seems that MF could act as a co-inductor of DNA damage rather than as a genotoxic agent per se. Nevertheless, the published results, in some cases conflicting with negative findings, do not facilitate to obtain a common consensus about MF effects and biophysical interaction mechanisms."

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