Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

2013 (43 od skupno 1329 raziskav)
"Long-term exposure to 100 μT and 500 μT ELF-MF did not affect oxidative or antioxidative processes, lipid peroxidation, or reproductive components such as sperm count and morphology in testes tissue of rats. However, long-term exposure to 500 μT ELF-MF did affect active-caspase-3 activity, which is a well-known apoptotic indicator."
The semen quality of the mobile phone users
Rago R et al, J Endocrinol Invest, december 2013
"These results suggest that the sperm DNA fragmentation could represent the only parameter significantly altered in the subjects who use the mobile phone for more than 4 h/day and in particular for those who use the device in the pocket of the trousers."
"This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels-independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep."
"This study suggested that impairment of LTP induction and the damages of hippocampal structure, especially changes of synapses, might contribute to cognitive impairment after microwave exposure."
"In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats."
The significance of microwaves in the environment and its effect on plants
Jayasanka SMDH, Asaeda T, Environ Rev, december 2013
"In conclusion, this review has found that it is necessary to rethink EMR exposure guidelines, including those endorsed by FCC and ICNIRP, as most studies addressing the effects of microwave on animals and plants have documented effects and responses at exposures below the limits specified in these guidelines. The present EMR guidelines are based on heating effects, and it will be necessary to consider the nonthermal effects that have been confirmed in the published literature in the preparation of future guidelines."
"Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been increasing with the increasing demand for communication devices. The aim of the study was to discuss the mechanisms and risk factors of EMR changes on reproductive functions and membrane oxidative biology in females and males. It was reported that even chronic exposure to EMR did not increase the risk of reproductive functions such as increased levels of neoantigens abort. However, the results of some studies indicate that EMR induced endometriosis and inflammation and decreased the number of follicles in the ovarium or uterus of rats. In studies with male rats, exposure caused degeneration in the seminiferous tubules, reduction in the number of Leydig cells and testosterone production as well as increases in luteinizing hormone levels and apoptotic cells. In some cases of male and female infertility, increased levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and decreased values of antioxidants such as melatonin, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase were reported in animals exposed to EMR. In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems. However, there is no evidence to this date to support an increased risk of female and male infertility related to EMR exposure."
Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens
Lahham A, Sharabati A, Radiat Prot Dosimetry, december 2013
"The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm(-2), and found in two cases only."
"These results suggest that abnormal activity of p25/CDK5 is partially involved in primary cultured cortical neuron injury induced by RF-EMF exposure."
"Our investigations suggested that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response. Olive leaves extract was able to correct glucose metabolism disorder by minimizing oxidative stress induced by RF in rat tissues."
"Exposure to ELF-EMFs increased the expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein in HFSF cells. Puerarin reversed the action to some extent in a specific concentration range. Our results implied that the puerarin might protect scleral tissue from increased expression induced by exposure to ELF-EMFs."
"This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma."
"Breast cancer occurring in women under the age of 40 is uncommon in the absence of family history or genetic predisposition, and prompts the exploration of other possible exposures or environmental risks. We report a case series of four young women—ages from 21 to 39—with multifocal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with nonionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones. All patients regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones. All patients had no family history of breast cancer, tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2, and had no other known breast cancer risks. Their breast imaging is reviewed, showing clustering of multiple tumor foci in the breast directly under the area of phone contact. Pathology of all four cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones."
"Rats in two experimental groups were exposed to 100- and 500-μT ELF-MFs (50 Hz) for 2 h/day for 10 months, which are the generally accepted safety standards for public and occupational exposures. The same procedures were applied to the rats in the sham group, but with the generator turned off. The results of this study showed that neither ELF-MFs used in this study altered BAP level significantly (p>0.05). However, PC and MDA levels were increased by the exposure to 100- and 500-μT ELF-MFs (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, both PC and MDA levels were altered by long-term exposure to either 100 or 500 μT ELF-MF. However, many further and more comprehensive studies will be required to elucidate the interaction mechanisms between ELF-MFs exposure and living organisms."
"This study demonstrates that personal RF-EMF exposure is affected by one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode because of its regular location update. Further dosimetric studies should quantify the contribution of location updates to the total RF-EMF exposure in order to clarify whether the duration of mobile phone use, the most common exposure surrogate in the epidemiological RF-EMF research, is actually an adequate exposure proxy."
"We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology."
"The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects."
"Millimeter waves significantly affect the polar interface of the membrane causing a decrease of the heavy water quadrupole splitting. This effect is as important as inducing the transition from the fluid to the gel phase when the membrane exposure occurs in the neighborhood of the transition point. On the molecular level, the above effect can be well explained by membrane dehydration induced by the radiation."
"In all gerbils, ELF-MF significantly increased oxidative stress in all tested brain regions. This effect was correlated with the value of magnetic induction and was higher in middle-aged gerbils. Three days after cessation of exposure, the values of examined parameters were closer to control levels. In adult gerbils, the effect of ELF-MF of 0.1 mT on NO level, O2(-) production and SOD activity was almost fully disappeared, and ILP was at the control level regardless of the value of magnetic induction. In middle-aged gerbils, the effect of ELF-MF was still present but to a lesser degree than those observed immediately after cessation of exposure. These findings pointed out the ability of ELF-MF to induce age- and magnetic induction-dependent modification of oxidative stress in the brain."
"RESULTS: The exposure to EMR resulted in significant changes in DA, NE and 5-HT in the four selected areas of adult rat brain. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure of adult rats to EMR may cause disturbances in monoamine neurotransmitters and this may underlie many of the adverse effects reported after EMR including memory, learning, and stress."
The Effect of Cell Phone Radiations on the Life Cycle of Honeybees
El Halabi N et al, IEEE EUROCON 2013, julij 2013
"As many other species, honeybees are becoming extinct in the world; this phenomenon is called the Colony Collapse Disorder. Many reasons have been proven to be behind this environmental disaster like climate changes, pesticides, fungal pathogens and others, in addition to radiations generated by mobile phones, especially, since in recent years wild life has been exposed to microwaves and radio frequency's radiation signals from various sources, including wireless phones. Bees have a specific organ for sensing magnetic forces, enabling them to navigate using their own compass. The claim of the research is that radiations generated by mobile phones are disturbing the life cycle of honeybees and affecting their reproduction system and honey producing. The research involves testing the behavior of honeybees away from mobile phones, with a mobile phone in its standby mode and active communication mode. The results of the experiments verified that mobile phone affect the honeybees' life system."
"SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error."
Cell bathing medium as a target for non thermal effect of millimeter waves
Deghoyan A et al, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2013
"Non thermal (NT) effect of direct radiation 4 Hz-modulated 90-160 GHz of Millimeter Waves (MMW) and preliminary MMW-treated physiological solution (PS) influence were studied on snail isolated neuron, rat's brain tissue hydration and skin penetration. It was shown that the 4 Hz-modulated low intensity 90-160 GHz MMW direct radiation and MMW-treated PS leads to on single neuron shrinkage."
"In this case, a decrease in the water membrane permeability of the irradiated samples was observed. We advance the hypothesis that both the above effects may be explained in terms of a change of the polarization states of water induced by the radiation, which causes a partial dehydration of the membrane and consequently a greater packing density (increased membrane rigidity)."
Wi-Fi technology--an uncontrolled global experiment on the health of mankind
Markov M, Grigoriev YG, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2013
"This paper discusses the potential health hazard and lack of scientific assessment and regulatory actions in protection of the life on the planet."
"There is an apparent protective effect of melatonin on the Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the laryngotracheal mucosa of rats by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the glutathione peroxidase antioxidant system."
"Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places."
"Results of this preliminary study show that exposure to MW radiation might cause alterations in the rat cornea."
"Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth."
"These findings raise questions about the safety of radiofrequency exposure from Wi-Fi Internet access devices for growing organisms of reproductive age, with a potential effect on both fertility and the integrity of germ cells."
"In 2011, the World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) advised that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone and other wireless devices constitutes a "possible human carcinogen," 2B. Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review that take into account these methodological shortcomings from a number of authors find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma."
"The avoidance of electromagnetic radiation and fields effectively removed or lessened the symptoms in EHS persons."
"Our findings led us to conclude that a low level of MW irradiation-induced oxidative stress not only suppresses implantation, but it may also lead to deformity of the embryo in case pregnancy continues. We also suggest that MW radiation-induced oxidative stress by increasing ROS production in the body may lead to DNA strand breakage in the brain cells and implantation failure/resorption or abnormal pregnancy in mice."
"The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested."
"This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases."
"RESULTS: The study of scanning electron microscopic revealed shrinkage of the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Apoptotic bodies were found in exposed group. A flow cytometry examination showed formation of micronuclei body in lymphocytes of exposed group. Comet assay confirmed DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand break. Testosterone level was found significantly decreased with the shrinkage of testicular size. CONCLUSIONS: 10 GHz field has an injurious effect on fertility potential of male-exposed animals."
"We present experimental data showing that the endogenous electric currents and the corresponding functions they control can be easily varied by externally applied electric or magnetic fields of similar or even significantly smaller intensities than those generating the endogenous currents. We present two possible ways by which external EMFs like those produced by human technology can distort the physiological endogenous electric currents and the corresponding biological/physiological functions: a) By direct interference between the external and the endogenous fields and, b) By alteration of the intracellular ionic concentrations (i.e. by changing the number of electric current carriers within the cells) after irregular gating of electrosensitive ion-channels on the cell membranes. Finally, we discuss how maintenance of this delicate electromagnetic equilibrium between living organisms and their natural environment, determines health and well-being, and how its disturbance will inevitably lead sooner or later to health effects."
"This paper summarizes the effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell towers and wireless devices on the biosphere. Based on current available literature, it is justified to conclude that RF-EMF radiation exposure can change neurotransmitter functions, blood-brain barrier, morphology, electrophysiology, cellular metabolism, calcium efflux, and gene and protein expression in certain types of cells even at lower intensities. The biological consequences of such changes remain unclear. Short-term studies on the impacts of RF-EMF on frogs, honey bees, house sparrows, bats, and even humans are scarce and long-term studies are non-existent in India. Identification of the frequency, intensity, and duration of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields causing damage to the biosystem and ecosystem would evolve strategies for mitigation and would enable the proper use of wireless technologies to enjoy its immense benefits, while ensuring one’s health and that of the environment."
Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on the Liver of Immature Rats
Ghaedi S et al, Adv Environ Biol, januar 2013
"A significant increase in liver weight in the experimental group than the control group is 2. Changes indicative of liver fatty change, cell necrosis, grainy liver cells, and lymphocytes invade the core wall changes in groups of 20-minute experimental liver cell necrosis was observed in only 10 minutes (P<0.05)."
"There were severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark pyknotic nuclei and less neuron in the EMR groups compared to control groups. The most affected EMR group was the 2450 MHz group. In the frontal cortex and brain stem of the EMR groups, caspase-3 immunoreactivity was increased compared to the control group. The most affected group was again the 2450 MHz group. CONCLUSION: EMR causes to structural changes in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum and impair the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system. This deterioration can cause to disease including loss of these areas function and cancer development."
"Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields."
"In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain."
"RF EMF emissions measured from continuous and pulsed electrotherapeutic diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD."

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