2011 (82 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"Overall, the assessment that ELF-MF are a possible carcinogen and may cause childhood leukaemia remains valid. Ongoing research activities, mainly experimental and few new epidemiological studies, hopefully provide additional insight to bring clarity to a research area that has remained inconclusive."
"ELF-MF parameters of 7 mT, 40 Hz, 30 min/day for 10 days caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and insignificant increase in H(2)O(2) and free -SH groups. The same ELF-MF parameters but applied for 60 min/day caused a significant increase in free -SH groups and protein concentration in the brain homogenates indicating the adaptive mechanism. The study has shown that ELF-MF applied for 30 min/day for 10 days can affect free radical generation in the brain. Prolongation of the exposure to ELF-MF (60/min/day) caused adaptation to this field. The effect of ELF-MF irradiation on oxidative stress parameters depends on the time of animal exposure to magnetic field."
"ELF-MF significantly induced concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase without alteration in glutathione peroxidase activity. While glutathione contents were not altered, ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased by ELF-MF exposure. These results indicate that ELF-MF may induce oxidative stress in mouse cerebellum. However, the mechanism remains further to be characterized."
"Our findings indicate that the EMF exposure in preimplantation stage could have detrimental effects on female mouse fertility and embryo development by decreasing the number of blastocysts and increasing the blastocysts DNA fragmentation."
"The subject demonstrated statistically reliable somatic reactions in response to exposure to subliminal EMFs under conditions that reasonably excluded a causative role for psychological processes. EMF hypersensitivity can occur as a bona fide environmentally inducible neurological syndrome."
"The results of this study suggest that, under the experimental conditions applied, repeated 915 MHz irradiation could be a cause of DNA breaks in renal and liver cells, but not affect the cell genome at the higher extent compared to the basal damage."
"The hypothesis of a correlation between genotoxic assays and ELF-MF exposure value was partially supported, especially as regards MN assay. Since these results are derived from a small-scale pilot study, a larger scale study should be undertaken."
"The study concludes that a reduction or an increase in antioxidative enzyme activities, protein kinase C, melatonin, caspase 3, and creatine kinase are related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications."
"The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure."
"The lipid peroxidation (LP) levels were higher in the radiation-exposed groups than in the control and sham control groups."
"Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended."
"The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment."
"Consequently, it can be concluded that GSM-like RF radiation may induce biochemical changes by increasing free radical attacks to structural biomolecules in the rabbit as an experimental animal model."
"Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary."
"A significant increase in albumin was found in the brains of the RF-exposed male rats when compared to sham-exposed male brains. These results suggest that exposure to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz CW RFR at levels below the international limits can affect the vascular permeability in the brain of male rats. The possible risk of RFR exposure in humans is a major concern for the society. Thus, this topic should be investigated more thoroughly in the future."
"Based on the results of this experiment, we conclude that membrane receptors could be one of the main targets that RFR interacts with cells, and the dose-rate threshold, in the case of EGF receptors, is between SAR of 0.1 and 0.5 W/kg. The results indicate a sigmoid dependence of RFR effects on intensity."
"We hypothesise that short-time MW exposures at the water resonance frequency cause, in V79 cells, reversible alterations of the mitotic spindle, this representing, in turn, a pro-apoptotic signal for the cell line."
"This study showed significant decrease in volunteers' ACTH, cortisol, thyroid hormones, prolactin for young females, and testosterone levels."
"Contrary to our previous studies, in this work external antennas located far away from the subjects were connected to the cellular phones. This setup prevents any emission of RFR from the internal antenna, thus drastically reducing RFR exposure. Despite that, the results remain similar to those obtained in our previous work. These results indicate that some of the effects previously attributed to RFR can be the result of some confounders."
"Detailed in vitro motility analysis of bovine spermatozoa exposed to microwave radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility."
"There was no increase in risk of acoustic neuroma with ever regular use of a mobile phone or for users who began regular use 10 years or more before the reference date. Elevated odds ratios observed at the highest level of cumulative call time could be due to chance, reporting bias or a causal effect. As acoustic neuroma is usually a slowly growing tumour, the interval between introduction of mobile phones and occurrence of the tumour might have been too short to observe an effect, if there is one."
"When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups."
"Our results suggest that repeated exposure to ELF-MF leads to prolonged locomotor stimulation and long-term expression of FRA in the striatal complex of the mice via stimulation of dopaminergic D1 receptor."
"Though results from this study suggest a reduction of human standing balance with MF exposure, as well as an increase of physiological tremor amplitude within the frequency range associated with central nervous system contribution, no exposure effect appeared on other investigated parameters (e.g., EEG or voluntary motor control). These results suggest that 1 h of 60 Hz, 1,800 uT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the cortical electrical activity."
"This study submits the results of a four-year monitoring of a complex diagnostics of the psychophysiological indicators for 196 children aged 7 to 12 years old: 147 of them are child users of mobile communication (test group) and 49 are in the control group. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, an increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found."
"While amount and duration of use are important determinants of RF dose in the brain, their impact can be substantially modified by communication system, frequency band and location in the brain. It is important to take these into account in analyses of risk of brain tumours from RF exposure from mobile phones."
"Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men."
"There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma in long-term mobile phone users with high RF exposure and of similar, but apparently much smaller, increases in meningioma risk. The uncertainty of these results requires that they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made."
"Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress."
"In a subset of study participants for whom operator recorded data were available, brain tumor risk was related to the time elapsed since the mobile phone subscription was started but not to amount of use. No increased risk of brain tumors was observed for brain areas receiving the highest amount of exposure."
"These results confirm previous findings of mobile phone-like emissions affecting the EEG during non-REM sleep. Importantly, this low-level effect was also shown to be sensitive to individual variability. Furthermore, this indicates that previous negative results are not strong evidence for a lack of an effect and, given the far-reaching implications of mobile phone research, we may need to rethink the interpretation of results and the manner in which research is conducted in this field."
"Repeated irradiation at 3 W increased cellular activation of PVN by more than 100% compared to animals subjected to acute irradiation and to repeated non-radiated repeated session control animals. The results suggest that PVN is sensitive to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation at non-thermal SAR levels."
"CRIP2, PLXND1, PTX3, SERPINF1, and TRPV2, were confirmed as differentially expressed after 6 h of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study reporting on potential gene expression modification associated with MMW radiation used in wireless communication applications."
"No difference in the medians of all-night ELF-MFs of railway current was observed. RF-EMFs increased from 41.35 to 59.56 uW m(-2). Increases primarily occurred in the frequency ranges of Global System for Mobile 900 MHz, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System and Wireless Local Area Network. Television changeover from analogue to digital resulted in a reduction within the Ultra-high Frequency-band from 0.47 to 0.35 uW m(-2). The base stations of the recently established terrestrial trunked radio system caused a median of 0.05 uW m(-2)."
"Radiofrequency exposure at the mobile connection frequency (1 GHz) at different energy flow densities, 5 μW/cm(2)(2-fold below the maximum permissible level) and 50 μW/cm(2)(5-fold surpassing this level), caused a reduction of motor activity in unicellular hydrobionts Spirostomum ambiguum Ehrbg infusoria. In all cases, the effect was similar by the intensity and developed in a jump-wise manner after exposure of a certain duration, after which did not increase with prolongation of the exposure."
"Our findings provide new epidemiological evidence that high maternal MF levels in pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma in offspring."
"Children living within 200m of power lines presented an increased risk of ALL (OR 1.67; 95% CI 0.49-5.75), compared to children living at 600m or more of power lines. For those living within 50m of power lines the OR was 3.57 (95% CI 0.41-31.44)."
"Our results indicated that ELF-MFs exposure altered the proliferative status and other important cell biology-related parameters, such as cell growth pattern, and cytoskeletal organization. These findings support our hypothesis that ELF radiation could trigger a shift towards a more invasive phenotype."
"Through employing the alternate cut points, stratification by level of exposure or distance and the relation on different ways of exposure, there appeared consistent evidence of increased risk between acute myeloid leukemia in adults and the extremely low frequency-electromagnetic to field exposure."
"It was found that MNi rate increased 11-fold and STAT3 expression decreased 7-fold in the cell cultures which were exposed to RF. Cell phones which spread RF may damage DNA and change gene expression in brain cells."
"Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4V/m and the smallest was 0.4V/m."
"The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently published a new research agenda for radiofrequency fields. The document lists high priority and other research needs for health effects research, subdivided into epidemiology, human studies, animal studies, cellular studies and mechanisms, and for social science research."
"In view of the limited evidence in humans and in experimental animals, the [International Agency for Research on Cancer] Working Group classified RF EMF as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2B). This evaluation was supported by a large majority of Working Group members."
"We observed generally higher RF power output in rural areas. There was good correlation between average power control settings in the software-modified phones and power measurements in the phantoms. Our findings suggest that phone technology, and to a lesser extent, degree of urbanization, are the two stronger influences on RF power output. Software-modified phones should be useful for improving epidemiologic exposure assessment."
"Extremely low-frequency (ELF) MFs up to several tens of uT were measured in the mentioned working environments. 25% of the measured MFs were found less than 0.3 uT, the background exposure level that staff receive at home, 75% were above 0.3 uT with the highest value of 6.8 uT. The mean and median personal exposures were calculated to be 1.19 uT and 0.56 uT, respectively. Most of the staff (83%) is under risk based on epidemiological studies that reported a statistically significant association between risk of leukemia and averaged magnetic fields of 0.2 uT or over. Results showed that risk evaluation should be considered to minimize the possibility of the workers being harmed due to exposure to work-related electromagnetic sources."
"Results showed that exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (10 uT) significantly increases IL-6 when subjects were exposed to an intermittent magnetic field. However, no effect has been observed on interleukin IL-1B, IL-2, IL-1RA, and IL-2R."
"Our study revealed that ELF-MF exposure might influence the activity of endocrine cells, an important element of the intrinsic regulatory system in the digestive tract. The pathophysiological character of these changes and the mechanism responsible for neuroendocrine cell are still unclear and require further studies."
"Exposure to the membranes to a field of 75 Hz frequency and different amplitudes caused CA activity to a reproducible decrease in enzymatic activity by 17% with a threshold of about 0.74 mT. The decrease in enzymatic activity was independent of the time of permanence in the field and was completely reversible."
"Electromagnetic field affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related events in testis tissue."
"Independent of the above effect, within the response inhibition condition there was also a significant gender X radiation interaction effect manifested at 15 leads by decreased P300 amplitudes of males in comparison to female subjects only at the presence of EMF. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Wi-Fi exposure may exert gender-related alterations on neural activity associated with the amount of attentional resources engaged during a linguistic test adjusted to induce WM."
"ELF-MF exposure affects transposition activity and the effects critically depend on the wave shape of the field, but not on the frequency and the exposure time, at least in the range observed."
"Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by long-term mobile phone use or latency."
"In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs."
"On measurements of 120 phones, the three-dimensional distribution of SAR in phantom models did not appear to be related to particular external phone characteristics or measurement characteristics, which could be used for refining the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency energy within the brain in epidemiological studies such as the Interphone."
"In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby. In addition, model studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17-24 months of MW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. To that, such metabolic changes, as overproduction of reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine formation, or ornithine decarboxylase activation under exposure to low intensity MW confirm a stress impact of this factor on living cells. We also address the issue of standards for assessment of biological effects of irradiation. It is now becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation based on physical (thermal) approach used in recommendations of current regulatory bodies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, requires urgent reevaluation."
"The risk for astrocytoma was highest in the group with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20; mobile phone use OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11, cordless phone use OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-8.7. In conclusion, an increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20."
"Similarly, most of the recent observational studies did not show associations between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms. However, the exposure gradients were small and possible exposure misclassification is a limitation of these studies. Longitudinal studies as well as studies in children and adolescents are scarce. In summary, recent research did not indicate health-related quality of life to be affected by RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. Furthermore, none of the studies showed that individuals with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) were more susceptible to RF-EMF than the rest of the population. Nevertheless, the rapid technological development and anticipated increase in exposure levels warrant the conduct of further longitudinal studies. Due to the widespread use of wireless communication technologies potential adverse health effects would have major public health consequences."
"Therefore, actions to minimize exposure to mobile phones, e.g. by using a headset, have a larger potential than shielding against emissions from base stations. Both base stations and mobile phones apply power control mechanisms, capable to significantly reducing the transmit power and the associated exposure depending on the communication traffic. Present research investigates, whether children are more exposed to mobile telecommunication systems than adults."
"These effects depended on frequency within the frequency range of 7-11Hz. While NAL induced SOS response, ELF exposure did not induce the recA-lacZ fusion. Exposure to ELF did not modify the genotoxic effects of NAL either. All together, the data show that ELF, under specific conditions of exposure, acted as nontoxic but cell growth stimulating agent."
"A total of 225,414 electric field strength measurements were recorded in 12 different RF bands. Summary statistics were calculated with the robust regression on order statistics method. We found evidence for statistically significant variability of individual RF exposure across days of the week, though the relative magnitude of the differences observed was small. Larger studies are needed to validate these results and determine whether day of the week is an important determinant for inclusion in individual RF exposure prediction models that remain urgently needed to conduct epidemiological studies on potential health effects."
"The wide frequency range of interaction with EMF is the functional characteristic of a fractal antenna, and DNA appears to possess the two structural characteristics of fractal antennas, electronic conduction and self symmetry. These properties contribute to greater reactivity of DNA with EMF in the environment, and the DNA damage could account for increases in cancer epidemiology, as well as variations in the rate of chemical evolution in early geologic history."
"This study suggests the possibility of over-exposure of dentists to power frequency ELF-MF. Additionally, certain dental equipment may produce ELF-MF levels greater than 0.4 uT in areas where dentists usually work when treating patients."
"While the majority of recent studies have reported no modulation-specific effects, there are a few interesting exceptions indicating that there may be specific effects from amplitude-modulated RF fields on the human central nervous system. These findings warrant follow-up studies."
"There was a significant difference between the ELF-EMF and sham groups with respect to change in SBP value between baseline and the end of the exposure regimen (P=0.02), but not with respect to change in DBP (P=0.21). There were no adverse events other than mild paresthesia of the hands of two subjects in the ELF-EMF group. Our results suggest that repeated exposure to an ELF-EMF has a BP-lowering effect on humans with mild-to-moderate hypertension."
"Long-term microwave radiation may cause injury to male reproduction, which is positively correlated with the radiation dose, and has an obvious late effect."
"The protozoan Paramecium caudatum was examined under normal conditions versus aside a switched-on GSM telephone (900 MHz; 2 Watts). Exposed individuals moved more slowly and more sinuously than usual. Their physiology was affected: they became broader, their cytopharynx appeared broader, their pulse vesicles had difficult in expelling their content outside the cell, their cilia less efficiently moved, and trichocysts became more visible. All these effects might result from some bad functioning or damage of the cellular membrane. The first target of communication electromagnetic waves might thus be the cellular membrane."
"The present study investigates the effect of 10-GHz microwave radiation on the fertility pattern of 70-day-old male rats (sham exposed and exposed), which were exposed for 2 h/d for 45 days continuously at a specific absorption rate of 0.014 W/kg and a power density of 0.21 mW/cm(2). Results show a significant change in the level of reactive oxygen species, histone kinase, apoptotic cells, and percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in the exposed group compared with the sham-exposed group. The study concludes that there is a significant effect of microwave radiations on the reproductive pattern in male rats, which is a causative factor of male infertility."
"The results of this study show that intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation in cardiac ventricles can increase in rats exposed to ELF magnetic field."
"The results confirm our previous findings showing that pre-exposure to MFs as low as 100 uT alters cellular responses to menadione, and show that increased genotoxicity results from such interaction. The present findings also indicate that complementary data at several chronological points may be critical for understanding the MF effects on DNA damage, repair, and post-repair integrity of the genome."
"Results of our study showed that pulse-modulated RF radiation causes oxidative injury in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues mediated by lipid peroxidation, increased level of NOx and suppression of antioxidant defense mechanism."
"Our results could explain one of the mechanisms and sites of action of ELF magnetic fields. A possible explanation of the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields could be a decrease in Ca(2+) influx through inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The detailed mechanism of effect, however, needs to be further studied under voltage-clamp conditions."
"The Interphone Study on brain cancer rests upon a case-control design with recall of past exposures recorded with substantial inaccuracy and low participation rates. This commentary questions the wisdom in choosing this design and argues that funding could and should have been used better by setting up a large-scale cohort study that could address other potential endpoints besides cancer."
"In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons."
"In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna. This finding is of unknown clinical significance."
"Power density analysis indicated an enhanced activation in the frequency ranges 0.5-1.5 and 5.75-10.5 Hz during the first 30 min of Stage 2 sleep, with 7.5-11.75 Hz being elevated within the first hour of Stage 2 sleep, and bands 4.75-8.25 Hz elevated during the second hour of Stage 2 sleep. No pronounced power changes were observed in SWS or for the third hour of scored Stage 2 sleep. No differences were found between controls and subjects with prior complaints of mobile phone-related symptoms. The results confirm previous findings that RF exposure increased the EEG alpha range in the sleep EEG, and indicated moderate impairment of SWS. Furthermore, reported differences in sensitivity to mobile phone use were not reflected in sleep parameters."
"Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Wave Exposure from Cellular Phones on the Reproductive Pattern in Male Wistar Rats."
"The recent Interphone study left me a bit concerned
about its lack of consideration for the social world. In
his letter to the editor, Milham argues that there is
some selection bias in the sample. I think that there is
sufficient evidence to suggest that any selection bias
may exist related to social inequality."
"The initial quiet period was characterized by rise in concentration of biomolecules including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, perhaps due to stimulation of body mechanism to fight the stressful condition created by the radiations. At later stages of exposure, there was a slight decline in the concentration of biomolecules probably because the body had adapted to the stimulus."
"The elevation of local CBF was correlated with temperature rise in both target and rectum at the end of RF exposure. However, the local CBF elevation seemed to be elevated by the rise in target temperature, but not by that of the rectal temperature, in the early part of RF exposure or at low-intensity RF exposure. These findings suggest that local RF exposure of the rat cortex drives a regulation of CBF accompanied by a local temperature rise, and our findings may be helpful for discussing physiological changes in the local cortex region, which is locally exposed to RF."
"Even if further studies remain necessary to identify the ROS/intracellular Ca(2+)cross-talking pathway activated by ELF-EMF exposure, we support the hypothesis that ROS and Ca(2+) could be the cellular "primum movens" of the ELF-EMF induced effects on biological systems."
"This is an in-vitro pilot study which established the effect of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from 2.4 GHz laptop antenna on human semen. Ten samples of the semen, collected from donors between the ages of 20 and 30 years were exposed when the source of the RFR was in active mode. Sequel to the exposure, both the exposed samples and another ten unexposed samples from same donors were analysed for sperm concentration, motility and morphology grading. A test of significance between results of these semen parameters using Mann-Whitney U-test at 0.05 level of significance showed a significant effect of RFR exposure on the semen parameters considered."
"Our results suggested that long-term internet addiction would result in brain structural alterations, which probably contributed to chronic dysfunction in subjects with IAD. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of IAD."