Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

D (53 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"As far as genotoxicity is concerned, the micronucleus frequency result was not affected by CW exposure; however, a statistically significant micronucleus effect was found following exposure to phase modulated field. These results would suggest a genotoxic power of the phase modulation per se."
Experimental model for ELF-EMF exposure: Concern for human health
D'Angelo C et al, Saudi J Biol Sci, januar 2015
"Since, varying the parameters of EMFs different effects may be observed, we have studied MCP-1 expression in HaCaT, SH-SY5Y, THP-1 and K562 exposed to a sinusoidal EMF at 50 Hz frequency with a flux density of 1 mT (rms). Our preliminary results showed that EMF-exposure differently modifies the expression of MCP-1 in different cell types. Thus, the MCP-1 expression needs to be better determined, with additional studies, with different parameters and times of exposure to ELF-EMF."
"The average EEG band power in active exposure recordings was compared to corresponding sham recordings. Statistical tests indicated significant difference in the full-power mode trial within the EEG alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-32 Hz) bands. A subsequent statistical analysis of median spectral power in discrete EEG rhythms revealed significant differences in 7 of the 32 distinct frequencies overall. In conclusion, the results of this study lend support to EEG effects from mobile phones activated in talk-mode."
"Our results identified laboratory signs of thyroid dysfunction, liver dysfunction and chronic inflammatory processes in small but remarkable fractions of EHS sufferers as potential sources of symptoms that merit further investigation in future studies. In the cases of TSH and ALT/AST there were significant differences between cases and controls. The hypotheses of anaemia or kidney dysfunction playing a major role in EHS could be unambiguously refuted. Clinically it is recommended to check for signs of treatable somatic conditions when caring for individuals suffering from self-proclaimed EHS."
"Our investigation shows that the precautionary principle is not being used for its intended purpose in relation to exposure to EMF. The reason for this position is that decision-makers are being misled by inaccurate risk assessments."
"The evidence accrued to date suggests that microwave radiation causes measurable stress to transgenic nematodes, presumably reflecting increased levels of protein damage within cells (the common signal thought to trigger hsp gene induction). The response levels observed are comparable to those observed with moderate concentrations (ppm) of metal ions such as Zn2+ and Cu2+. We conclude that this approach deserves further and more detailed investigation, but that it has already demonstrated clear biological effects of microwave radiation in terms of the activation of cellular stress responses (hsp gene induction)."
"Beta amyloid protein, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde levels were found to be higher in the brain of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation. However, only the increase of protein carbonyl in the brain of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, 900 MHz radiation emitted from mobile/cellular phones can be an agent to alter some biomolecules such as protein. However, further studies are necessary."
"Long term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNAs expression and more studies should be devoted to the effects of RF radiation on miRNAs expression levels."
"900 MHz RF radiation can alter some of the miRNA, which, in turn, may lead to adverse effects. Therefore, further studies should be performed."
"Head defects increased in the exposure group (p < 0.05) while weight of the epididymis and seminal vesicles, seminiferous tubules diameter and tunica albuginea thickness were decreased in the exposure group (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001). However, other alterations of other parameters were not found significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, we observed that long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF emitted from Wi-Fi (2420 μW/kg, 1 g average) affects some of the reproductive parameters of male rats. We suggest Wi-Fi users to avoid long-term exposure of RF emissions from Wi-Fi equipment."
"Although results of MWM test revealed that Wi-Fi modem EMF caused impairment in spatial learning in rats exposed to EMF but physical activity could reduce negative effect of EMF in pregnant rat's offspring who exposed during pregnancy but performed swimming. In addition, results of open-field test showed that litter's motor function in EMF group significantly declined in comparison with physical activity and combined 2.4GHZ EMF and physical activity groups. According to our findings, it can be concluded that execution physical activity individually or along with wave-exposed pregnancy can significantly progressive effect on offspring' cognitive and motor functions."
"Results: The evidence indicates that long-term significant occupational exposure to ELF MF may certainly increase the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. There is now evidence that two relevant biological processes (increased production of amyloid beta and decreased production of melatonin) are influenced by high long-term ELF MF exposure that may lead to Alzheimer's disease. There is further evidence that one of these biological processes (decreased melatonin production) may also lead to breast cancer. Finally, there is evidence that exposures to RF MF and ELF MF have similar biological consequences. Conclusion: It is important to mitigate ELF and RF MF exposures through equipment design changes and environmental placement of electrical equipment, e.g., AC/DC transformers. Further research related to these proposed and other biological processes is required."
"The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents."
"In 2011, the World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) advised that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone and other wireless devices constitutes a "possible human carcinogen," 2B. Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review that take into account these methodological shortcomings from a number of authors find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma."
"Occupational use of hand-held radar was the only shared risk factor among all six officers, and all routinely held the radar gun directly in close proximity to their testicles. Health effects of occupational radar use have not been widely studied, and further research into a possible association with testicular cancer is warranted."
"Lower nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was associated with more hours of daylight, older age, higher body mass index, current alcohol consumption, and current use of medications classified as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, or psychotropics. After adjustment for these factors, higher bedroom magnetic field level was associated with significantly lower urinary concentration of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin during the same night, primarily in women who used these medications and during times of the year with the fewest hours of darkness. These results suggest that exposure to nighttime residential 60-Hz magnetic fields can depress the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin."
"Magnetic field exposure was associated with decreased 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, but no changes in reproductive hormone levels were observed. Participants using prescription medications and anovulatory participants had more pronounced decreases in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels with magnetic field exposure. This study provides further evidence that exposure to magnetic fields is associated with decreased nocturnal melatonin levels, but does not support the hypothesis that such exposure results in increased urinary levels of estrogens, LH, or FSH."
"ELF-EMFs significantly decreased the number of living sperm and the quality of movement of sperm, although these adversities did not impact on the outcome of the other parameters investigated."
"RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring."
"Exposure to microwave radiation enhances the aggregation of bovine serum albumin in vitro in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Microwave radiation also promotes amyloid fibril formation by bovine insulin at 60 degrees C. These alterations in protein conformation are not accompanied by measurable temperature changes, consistent with estimates from field modelling of the specific absorbed radiation (15-20 mW kg(-1)). Limited denaturation of cellular proteins could explain our previous observation that modest heat-shock responses are induced by microwave exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also show that heat-shock responses both to heat and microwaves are suppressed after RNA interference ablating heat-shock factor function."
"Paternal average extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure >0.4 microTesla was weakly associated with neuroblastoma (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-2.8), whereas maternal exposure was not. Overall, there was scant supportive evidence of strong associations between parental exposures in electromagnetic spectrum and neuroblastoma in offspring."
"The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained."
"Ten healthy right-handed volunteers were evaluated. The CNV was recorded during a 10 min time interval in each of the three experimental conditions A, B, and C, in order to assess the iCNV amplitude and habituation. The iCNV amplitude decreased and habituation increased during both A and B conditions, compared with condition C. This effect was diffuse over the scalp, and there was no significant prevalence of iCNV amplitude reduction on the left side, were the phones were located. Mobile Phones exposures A and B seemed to act on brain electrical activity, reducing the arousal and expectation of warning stimulus. This evidence, limited by the low number of subjects investigated, could be explained in terms of an effect induced by both the GSM signal and the extremely low frequency magnetic field produced by battery and internal circuits."
"These results indicate that although the effect size was about half of the effect previously reported, close maternal residential proximity to sources of ELF-EMF remained associated with suboptimal fetal growth."
Cell bathing medium as a target for non thermal effect of millimeter waves
Deghoyan A et al, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2013
"Non thermal (NT) effect of direct radiation 4 Hz-modulated 90-160 GHz of Millimeter Waves (MMW) and preliminary MMW-treated physiological solution (PS) influence were studied on snail isolated neuron, rat's brain tissue hydration and skin penetration. It was shown that the 4 Hz-modulated low intensity 90-160 GHz MMW direct radiation and MMW-treated PS leads to on single neuron shrinkage."
"The results show that PMF-exposed cells had a lower number of both retrotransposition events and DNA DSB compared with sham-exposed samples. These results suggest that exposure to PMF can interfere with retrotransposition activity by inducing a decrease of retrotransposition events."
"In our earlier experiments, we found that extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) affect heat shock protein (HSP) expression in wild type Escherichia coli cells. In the present work we investigate the ability of ELF-MF exposure to trigger an increase of DnaK and GroEL protein levels also in E. coli cells not exhibiting the classic heat shock response (HSR) when subjected to a 42 degrees C heat stress. We find that these cells, although lacking a HSR to heat shock treatment, show an enhancement of DnaK and GroEL protein levels after 30 or 90 min sinusoidal ELF-MF exposure (50 Hz, 1 mT). This result suggests that the HSP induction pathway triggered by ELF-MF exposure could be different from that elicited by heat shock treatment."
"We found that RF-EMF exposure reduced the number of neurites generated by both cell systems, and this alteration correlates to increased expression of beta-thymosin mRNA."
"Exposure to RF did not change viability/proliferation rate of the SN56 cholinergic cells or viability of cortical neurons. Co-exposure to RF exacerbated neurotoxic effect of hydrogen peroxide in SN56, but not in primary cortical neurons, whereas no cooperative effects of RF with glutamate and 25-35AA beta-amyloid were found. These data suggest that only under particular circumstances exposure to GSM modulated, 900 MHz signal act as a co-stressor for oxidative damage of neural cells."
"On measurements of 120 phones, the three-dimensional distribution of SAR in phantom models did not appear to be related to particular external phone characteristics or measurement characteristics, which could be used for refining the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency energy within the brain in epidemiological studies such as the Interphone."
"This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling."
"In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain."
"The ELF-EMF acted on the bacterial population during the biofilm formation displaying significant differences in cell viability, as well as, in morphotypes measured by the prevalence of spiral forms (58.41%) in respect to the controls (33.14%), whereas, on mature biofilm, no significant differences were found when compared to the controls. The measurement of biofilm cell mass was significantly reduced in exposed cultures in both examined experimental conditions. No changes in DNA patterns were recorded, whereas a modulation in amiA gene expression was detected. An exposure to ELF-EMF of H. pylori biofilm induces phenotypic changes on adhering bacteria and decreases the cell adhesion unbalancing the bacterial population therefore reducing the H. pylori capability to protect itself."
Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?
Di Ciaula A, Int J Hyg Environ Health, februar 2018
"The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases."
"The enhancement of the CA reaction rate was observed at a lesser extent on liposomes with a larger diameter and, in turn with leaflets less bent. The different packing of the phospholipid bilayer-due to the higher curvature-could be a critical factor in eliciting membrane permeability changes indicating a possible role for water molecules bound to functional groups in the glycerol region. Since numerical dosimetry indicates that the temperature rise during the exposure was negligible, the observed effects cannot be attributed to heating of the samples."
"Effects occurred after 16 h exposure in both cell types and after different mobile-phone modulations. The intermittent exposure showed a stronger effect in the comet assay than continuous exposure. Therefore we conclude that the induced DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects."
"RESULTS: ELF magnetic field shortens developmental time, increases viability and does not affect sex ratio of D. subobscura. No matter which developmental stage is exposed, ELF magnetic field significantly decreases locomotor activity of adult flies, but after exposure of just eclosed adults observed change lasts longer. CONCLUSIONS: Applied ELF magnetic field modifies fitness components and locomotor activity of D. subobscura. Observed effects can be attributed to the influence of magnetic field on different stages of development where the hormonal and nervous systems play important role in the control of examined parameters."
"This study found that 5 mmol/L trolox protected the Wi-Fi-exposed semen in vitro from the damage of electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress."
Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children
Divan H et al, J Epidemiol Community Health, december 2010
"The findings of the previous publication were replicated in this separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at age 7 years in children, and this association was not limited to early users of the technology. Although weaker in the new dataset, even with further control for an extended set of potential confounders, the associations remained."
Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use
Divan H et al, Epidemiology, maj 2008
"Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology."
"Immunoglobulin concentrations and T-lymphocyte subsets in workers of TV re-transmission and satellite communication centres were assessed. An increase in IgG and IgA concentrations, an increased count of lymphocytes and T8 lymphocytes, an decreased count of NK cells and a lower value of T-helper/T-suppressor ratio were found. Neither disorders in immunoglobulin concentrations nor in the count of T8 and NK cells had any clinical implications."
"The model may therefore be extended to explain results obtained in studies of epileptic patients which show effects on the central nervous system from low frequency square wave and D.C. magnetic fields. In addition, the model also may provide a plausible mechanism linking exposure to magnetic fields from discontinuous transmission cellular telephones and disruption of normal cellular processes in the human brain."
"Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4V/m and the smallest was 0.4V/m."
"Therefore, ELF-EMF exposure can change the content of certain TEs in teeth and, after administering MLT and GL, the values of some of the TEs return to normal."
"The risk of adult leukemia within 2 km was 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.74), and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter (p = 0.001). These findings appeared to be consistent over the periods 1974-1980, 1981-1986, and were probably largely independent of the initially reported cluster, which appeared to concern mainly a later period."
"The hypothesis of a correlation between genotoxic assays and ELF-MF exposure value was partially supported, especially as regards MN assay. Since these results are derived from a small-scale pilot study, a larger scale study should be undertaken."
"There were no effects seen on levels of cytoskeletal protein synthesis or of beta-actin mRNA. Morphological changes persisted following subculture for at least 7 days in the absence of further exposure. It is hypothesized that effects of exposure to an electromagnetic field at 835 MHz may be mediated via a signal transduction pathway."
"A novel experimental system was used to investigate the localized effects of microwave radiation on bovine eye lenses in culture for over 2 weeks. Using this setup, we found clear evidence that this radiation has a significant impact on the eye lens. At the macroscopic level, it is demonstrated that exposure to a few mW at 1 GHz for over 36 h affects the optical function of the lens. Most importantly, self-recovery occurs if the exposure is interrupted. At the microscopic level, close examination of the lens indicates that the interaction mechanism is completely different from the mechanism-causing cataract via temperature increase. Contrary to the latter's effect, that is particularly pronounced in the vicinity of the sutures and it is assumed to be a result of local friction between the edges of the fibers consisting the lens. Even if macroscopically the lens has recovered from the irradiation, microscopically the indicators of radiation impact remain."
"There is an association between childhood leukaemia and proximity of home address at birth to high voltage power lines, and the apparent risk extends to a greater distance than would have been expected from previous studies. About 4% of children in England and Wales live within 600 m of high voltage lines at birth. If the association is causal, about 1% of childhood leukaemia in England and Wales would be attributable to these lines, though this estimate has considerable statistical uncertainty."
"Changes in neurobehavioral function in workers exposed to high-frequency radiation can reflect its important adverse effects."
"Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different."
Risk of brain tumors from wireless phone use
Dubey RB et al, J Comput Assist Tomogr, november 2010
"The debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. Wireless communication has dramatically influenced our lifestyle; its impact on human health has not been completely assessed. Widespread concern continues in the community about the deleterious effects of radiofrequency radiations on human tissues and the subsequent potential threat of carcinogenesis. Exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic field has been linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes. This article surveys the results of early cell phone studies, where exposure duration was too short to expect tumor genesis, and 2 sets of more recent studies with longer exposure duration: the Interphone studies and the Swedish studies led by Hardell."
"In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful."

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