Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

radijski oddajnik (175 od skupno 1351 raziskav)
"Environmental pollutants, such as pesticides, herbicides, additives to food and water, and electromagnetic fields threaten public health by promotion of cancer, heart disease and chronic diseases of aging. Many of these pollutants cause adverse health outcomes by effects on mitochondrial function to produce oxidative stress through loss of the active site complex for oxidative phosphorylation, thioretinaco ozonide oxygen nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, from opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Glyphosate, fluoride, and electromagnetic fields are examples of carcinogenic pollutants that promote loss and decomposition of the active site for oxidative phosphorylation, producing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Ionizing radiation has long been known to be carcinogenic, and non-ionizing electromagnetic fields from microwaves, radar, cell phones and cathode ray screens are carcinogenic and produce deleterious effects on capillaries, nerve cells, blood brain barrier, embryonic and germ cells, lenses and cardiac function. Adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields include cataracts, infertility, congenital malformations, cancer, lymphocytosis, leukemia, hearing loss, blindness, retinal hemorrhages, cardiac arrhythmias, dermatitis, hair loss, depression, memory loss, premature aging, heart attacks, and weaponized mind control."
"However, for exposures at higher GHz frequencies (millimeter waves and 5G), RF energy absorption tends to be more superficial and concentrated. Energy deposition could quickly occur in a smaller tissue area or mass to cause intense temperature elevation within a very short-exposure time period."
"Mounting evidences suggest possible non-thermal biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on brain and behavior. Behavioral studies have particularly concentrated on the effects of RF-EMR on learning, memory, anxiety, and locomotion. The literature analysis on behavioral effects of RF-EMR demonstrates complex picture with conflicting observations. Nonetheless, numerous reports suggest a possible behavioral effect of RF-EMR. The scientific findings about this issue are presented in the current review. The possible neural and molecular mechanisms for the behavioral effects have been proposed in the light of available evidences from the literature."
"• Wireless systems increase radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in buildings. • Scientific evidence identifies adverse effects from RFR below regulatory limits. • Globally, some governments and public health agencies are reducing RFR exposures. • Low RFR best practices include wired technology instead of Wi-Fi, and corded phones. • Safer, sustainable strategies and solutions for “smart” buildings are feasible."
"In conclusion, according to NTP, there is now clear evidence that RFR causes cancer in experimental animals. RFR re-evaluation has also been listed as a priority by IARC. There is also stronger evidence that RFR exposure is responsible for causing alteration of various sperm parameters, thus, affecting male fertility. Although a clear quantification of the carcinogenic and reproductive risk is still lacking, these animal findings suggest that a precautionary approach should be promoted by regulatory and health agencies, especially for children and pregnant women. Caution should also be considered in the development and spread of the upcoming 5G technology, particularly in light of the proposed higher frequencies and intensities of the signal. Long-term animal studies are urgently necessary to verify the possible health effects of 5G technology."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"Those studies that are far more effective in showing effects employ real-life Mobile Telephony (MT) exposures emitted by commercially available mobile phones. The present review - of results published by my group from 2006 until 2016 - compares DNA fragmentation induced by six different EMFs on the same biological system - the oogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster - under identical conditions and procedures. Such a direct comparison between different EMFs - especially those employed in daily life - on the same biological endpoint, is very useful for drawing conclusions on their bioactivity, and novel. It shows that real MT EMFs are far more damaging than 50 Hz alternating magnetic field (MF) - similar or much stronger to those of power lines - or a pulsed electric field (PEF) found before to increase fertility. The MT EMFs were significantly more bioactive even for much shorter exposure durations than the other EMFs. Moreover, they were more damaging than previously tested cytotoxic agents like certain chemicals, starvation, dehydration. Individual parameters of the real MT EMFs like intensity, frequency, exposure duration, polarization, pulsing, modulation, are discussed in terms of their role in bioactivity. The crucial parameter for the intense bioactivity seems to be the extreme variability of the polarized MT signals, mainly due to the large unpredictable intensity changes."
"It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure."
High ambient radiofrequency radiation in Stockholm city, Sweden
Carlberg M et al, Oncol Lett, februar 2019
"The total mean level was 5,494 µW/m2 (median 3,346; range 36.6-205,155). The major contributions were down links from LTE 800 (4G), GSM + UMTS 900 (3G), GSM 1800 (2G), UMTS 2100 (3G) and LTE 2600 (4G). Regarding different places, the highest RF radiation was measured at the Hay Market with a mean level of 10,728 µW/m2 (median 8,578; range 335-68,815). This is a square used for shopping, and both retailers and visitors may spend considerable time at this place. Also, the Sergel Plaza had high radiation with a mean of 7,768 µW/m2. All measurements exceeded the target level of 30-60 µW/m2 based on non-thermal (no heating) effects, according to the BioInitiative Report. Based on short-term thermal effects, The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection established guideline 2 of 10 W/m2 (2,000,000-10,000,000 µW/m2) depending on frequency in 1998, and has not changed it despite solid evidence of non-thermal biological effects at substantially lower exposure levels. These environmental RF radiation levels are expected to increase with the introduction of 5G for wireless communication."
Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health
Singh R et al, Indian J Med Res, december 2018
"Available data indicate that exposure to EMF can cause adverse health effects. It is also reported that biological effects may occur at very low levels of exposure. The RFR effect can be more intensified based on the range and duration of the exposure. The RFR can also exert adverse effects in the first few minutes. Persistent exposures of EMF radiation can result in health hazards because these radiations interfere with normal physiological and biological function of the body. EMF works as an environmental pollutant and has undesirable health effects on animals and humans."
Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact
Bandara P, Carpenter DO, Lancet Planet Health, december 2018
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
"Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure."
"When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1)."
"Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure."
"Despite the improved exposure assessment approach used in this study, no clear associations were identified. However, the results obtained for recent exposure to RF electric and magnetic fields are suggestive of a potential role in brain tumor promotion/progression and should be further investigated."
Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect
Hinrikus H et al, Int J Radiat Biol, oktober 2018
"The described mechanism of MW field-induced effect confirms that the nature of the effect differs from the thermal effect and that the exposure by MW radiation can create the specific consequences in biology and materials not characteristic for conventional heating."
A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation
Leach V et al, Rev Environ Health , september 2018
A significant amount of electromagnetic field/ electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges. It is regularly added to, freely accessible online and designed to allow data to be easily retrieved, sorted and analyzed.
"The largest contributors to total personal environmental RF-EMF exposure were downlink and broadcast, and these exposures showed high repeatability. Urbanicity was the most important determinant of total exposure and mobile phone use was the most important determinant of uplink exposure. It is important to continue evaluating RF-EMF exposure in children as device use habits, exposure levels, and main contributing sources may change."
"Mean total RF-EMF exposure in various outdoor microenvironments varied between 0.23 V/m (non-central residential area in Switzerland) and 1.85 V/m (university area in Australia), and across modes of public transport between 0.32 V/m (bus in rural area in Switzerland) and 0.86 V/m (Auto rickshaw in urban area in Nepal). For most outdoor areas the major exposure contribution was from mobile phone base stations. Otherwise broadcasting was dominant. Uplink from mobile phone handsets was generally very small, except in Swiss trains and some Swiss buses. This study demonstrates high RF-EMF variability between the 94 selected microenvironments from all over the world. Exposure levels tended to increase with increasing urbanity. In most microenvironments downlink from mobile phone base stations is the most relevant contributor."
"The consistent association of RFR and highly elevated HL cancer risk in the four groups spread over three countries, operating different RFR equipment types and analyzed by different research protocols, suggests a cause-effect relationship between RFR and HL cancers in military/occupational settings. While complete measurements of RFR exposures were not available and rough exposure assessments from patients interviews and from partial exposure data were used instead, we have demonstrated increased HL cancers in occupational groups with relatively high RFR exposures. Our findings, combined with other studies, indicate that exposures incurred in the military settings evaluated here significantly increased the risk of HL cancers. Accordingly, the RFR military exposures in these occupations should be substantially reduced and further efforts should be undertaken to monitor and measure those exposures and to follow cohorts exposed to RFR for cancers and other health effects. Overall, the epidemiological studies on excess risk for HL and other cancers together with brain tumors in cellphone users and experimental studies on RFR and carcinogenicity make a coherent case for a cause-effect relationship and classifying RFR exposure as a human carcinogen (IARC group 1)."
Cancers of the Brain and CNS: Global Patterns and Trends in Incidence
Mortazavi SMJ et al, J Biomed Phys Eng, marec 2018
"Miranda-Filho et al. in their recently published paper entitled “Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence” provided a global status report of the geographic and temporal variations in the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in different countries across continents worldwide. While the authors confirm the role of genetic risk factors and ionizing radiation exposures, they claimed that no firm conclusion could be drawn about the role of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The paper authored by Miranda-Filho et al. not only addresses a challenging issue, it can be considered as a good contribution in the field of brain and CNS cancers. However, our correspondence addresses a basic shortcoming of this paper about the role of electromagnetic fields and cancers and provides evidence showing that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), at least at high levels and long durations, can increases the risk of cancer."
"Several studies have reported that exposure to EMF results in oxidative stress in many tissues of the body. Exposure to EMF is known to increase free radical concentrations and traceability and can affect the radical couple recombination. The purpose of this review was to highlight the impact of oxidative stress on antioxidant systems."
"Results from the present study concludes that the brain of 2 weeks aged mice was very sensitive to microwave exposure as observed immediately after exposure and during follow-up study at 6 weeks of age."
"In May 2011 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated cancer risks from radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Human epidemiological studies gave evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. RF radiation was classified as Group 2B, a possible human carcinogen. Further epidemiological, animal and mechanistic studies have strengthened the association. In spite of this, in most countries little or nothing has been done to reduce exposure and educate people on health hazards from RF radiation. On the contrary ambient levels have increased. In 2014 the WHO launched a draft of a Monograph on RF fields and health for public comments. It turned out that five of the six members of the Core Group in charge of the draft are affiliated with International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), an industry loyal NGO, and thus have a serious conflict of interest. Just as by ICNIRP, evaluation of non-thermal biological effects from RF radiation are dismissed as scientific evidence of adverse health effects in the Monograph. This has provoked many comments sent to the WHO. However, at a meeting on March 3, 2017 at the WHO Geneva office it was stated that the WHO has no intention to change the Core Group."
Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system
Sepehrimanesh M, Davis D, Comp Clin Path, marec 2017
"This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility."
"Results showed an increased level of lipid peroxidation, decreased level of glutathione and protein after microwave exposure on both 0.25 and 11.25 day of gestation. Moreover, changes in cytoarchitechure of hippocampus and cerebellum of the brain and reduction in Purkinje cell number were observed statistically significant after microwave exposure from both 0.25 and 11.25 days of gestation. In conclusion, the degree of severity of damage in neonatal mice brain was much higher, when exposure started from 0.25 day of gestation compared to 11.25 days of gestation."
"Almost all of the total measured levels were above the precautionary target level of 3-6 µW/m2 as proposed by the BioInitiative Working Group in 2012. That target level was one-tenth of the scientific benchmark providing a safety margin either for children, or chronic exposure conditions. We compare the levels of RF radiation exposures identified in the present study to published scientific results reporting adverse biological effects and health harm at levels equivalent to, or below those measured in this Stockholm Central Railway Station project. It should be noted that these RF radiation levels give transient exposure, since people are generally passing through the areas tested, except for subsets of people who are there for hours each day of work."
Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease
Zhang X et al, Exp Ther Med, oktober 2016
"Since there are widespread concerns regarding the deleterious effects of the exposure to microwaves on human tissues and the subsequent potential threat of carcinogenesis, we can conclude that the current exposure to microwaves during the use of cell phones is not safe for long-term exposure, despite the current scientific opinion."
"Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose–response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness, dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects."
Electromagnetic field and brain development
Kaplan S et al, J Chem Neuroanat, september 2016
"Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system."
"We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied. The design of our study does not permit conclusions regarding causality."
"Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children."
"Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health."
"Over the past decades, the use of common sources of electromagnetic fields such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phones has been increased enormously all over the world. There is ongoing concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields can lead to adverse health effects. It has recently been shown that even low doses of mercury are capable of causing toxicity."
"In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects."
"These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions."
Protect children from EMF
Markov M, Grigoriev Y, Electromagn Biol Med, september 2015
"The twenty-first century is marked with aggressive development of the wireless communications (satellite, mobile phones, Internet, Wi-Fi). In addition to thousand of satellites that deliver radio and TV signals, large satellite and base station networks secure intensive instant delivery of audio and video information. It is fair to say that that the entire civilization, both biosphere and mankind are exposed to continuous exposure of multitude of radiofrequency (RF) signals. It should be taken into account that the entire world population is exposed to exponentially increasing RF radiation from base stations and satellite antennas. While several years ago the potential hazard was connected with placement of mobile phones close to human head, today "smart phones" represent small, but powerful computers continuously receiving audio and video data. The largest group of users is the children and teenagers who "need" to communicate nearly 24 h a day. This is even more important because cell phones and tablets may be seen in the hands of children as little as two years in age. There is no way to assess and predict the potential damages of children brain, vision and hearing under exposure to RF radiation. The WHO precautionary principle and IARC classification must be applied in discussing the potential hazard of the use of today's and tomorrow's communication devices."
"Dozens of reviews and thousands of primary literature studies have shown the existence of many different non-thermal health effects of microwave and lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs); however current safety guidelines and standards only recognize thermal effects. This leaves both individuals and companies unprotected, particularly with the very large increases in microwave frequency exposures that are occurring over time."
"The relative contributions from different sources to the total exposure in terms of exposure quotient were evaluated and found to be 46% from FM radio, 26% from GSM900, 15% from DECT phones, 9% from WLAN, 3% from unknown sources, and 1% from TV broadcasting. RF sources located outdoors contribute about 73% to the population exposure indoors."
"It seems necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS to get it accepted as EMF-related health problems. The increasing exposure to RF-EMF in schools is of great concern and needs better attention. Longer-term health effects are unknown. Parents, teachers, and school boards have the responsibility to protect children from unnecessary exposure."
"This review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation."
"For cumulative collective exposures within an occupation, Walkie-Talkie dominated with 96.3% of the total, reflecting both large population and high personal exposure. A brief exceedance of the TLV does not automatically translate to hazard as RF exposure limits (issued by various bodies, including ACGIH) include a 10-fold safety factor relative to thermal thresholds and are based on a 6 min averaging period."
"We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A probable human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France)."
"This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role."
"We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy."
"Electrohypersensitivity can be caused by successive assaults on human bioelectrochemical dynamics from exogenous electromagnetic fields (EMF) and RFR or a single acute exposure. Once sensitized, further exposures are widely reported to cause reactivity to lower and lower intensities of EMF/RFR, at which point thousand-fold lower levels can cause adverse health impacts to the electrosensitive person. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) based on reports of individuals who first develop one condition, then rapidly develop the other. Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects."
"The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal."
"Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed."
"All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals."
Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources
Margaritis LH et al, Electromagn Biol Med, september 2014
"All EMF sources used created statistically significant effects regarding fecundity and cell death-apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels (0.3 V/m blue tooth radiation), well below ICNIRP's guidelines, suggesting that Drosophila oogenesis system is suitable to be used as a biomarker for exploring potential EMF bioactivity. Also, there is no linear cumulative effect when increasing the duration of exposure or using one EMF source after the other (i.e. mobile phone and DECT handset) at the specific conditions used."
"A source-exposure matrix has been constructed for the most common sources of EMF in the workplace, based on the responses to the INTERPHONE-INTEROCC study questionnaire. This database currently represents the most comprehensive source of information on occupational EMF exposure and is available on request to researchers."
An Update on Neurological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields
Lai H, 2012 BioInitiative Working Groups, marec 2014
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
The significance of microwaves in the environment and its effect on plants
Jayasanka SMDH, Asaeda T, Environ Rev, december 2013
"In conclusion, this review has found that it is necessary to rethink EMR exposure guidelines, including those endorsed by FCC and ICNIRP, as most studies addressing the effects of microwave on animals and plants have documented effects and responses at exposures below the limits specified in these guidelines. The present EMR guidelines are based on heating effects, and it will be necessary to consider the nonthermal effects that have been confirmed in the published literature in the preparation of future guidelines."
"The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects."
"SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error."
Wi-Fi technology--an uncontrolled global experiment on the health of mankind
Markov M, Grigoriev YG, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2013
"This paper discusses the potential health hazard and lack of scientific assessment and regulatory actions in protection of the life on the planet."
"RESULTS: The study of scanning electron microscopic revealed shrinkage of the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Apoptotic bodies were found in exposed group. A flow cytometry examination showed formation of micronuclei body in lymphocytes of exposed group. Comet assay confirmed DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand break. Testosterone level was found significantly decreased with the shrinkage of testicular size. CONCLUSIONS: 10 GHz field has an injurious effect on fertility potential of male-exposed animals."
"We present experimental data showing that the endogenous electric currents and the corresponding functions they control can be easily varied by externally applied electric or magnetic fields of similar or even significantly smaller intensities than those generating the endogenous currents. We present two possible ways by which external EMFs like those produced by human technology can distort the physiological endogenous electric currents and the corresponding biological/physiological functions: a) By direct interference between the external and the endogenous fields and, b) By alteration of the intracellular ionic concentrations (i.e. by changing the number of electric current carriers within the cells) after irregular gating of electrosensitive ion-channels on the cell membranes. Finally, we discuss how maintenance of this delicate electromagnetic equilibrium between living organisms and their natural environment, determines health and well-being, and how its d