Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

2006 (52 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism."
GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats
Yurekli A et al, Electromagn Biol Med, december 2006
"When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure."
Integration of differences in EEG Analysis Reveals Changes in Human EEG Caused by Microwave
Bachmann M et al, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, december 2006
"The EEG analysis performed for individuals with three different methods showed that statistically significant changes occur in the EEG rhythms energy and dynamics between 12% and 30% of subjects."
"We found a prevalence of 5% (95% CI 4-6%) for electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in our study sample. The most common health complaints among EHS individuals were sleep disorders (43%) and headaches (34%), which were mostly attributed to power lines and mobile phone handsets. In addition, 53 percent (95% CI 51-55%) were worried about adverse health effects from EMF, without attributing their own health symptoms to them."
"Several disorders, including asthma, ADD/ADHD, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, are increasing at an alarming rate, as is electromagnetic pollution in the form of dirty electricity, ground current, and radio frequency radiation from wireless devices. The connection between electromagnetic pollution and these disorders needs to be investigated and the percentage of people sensitive to this form of energy needs to be determined."
"In this study, increased malondialdehyde levels in endometrial tissue and apoptosis illustrated the role of the oxidative mechanism induced by exposure to a 900-MHz mobile phone-like device and vitamins E and C; via free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, oxidative tissue injury and apoptosis were ameliorated in rat endometrium. In conclusion, exposure to 900-MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones may cause endometrial apoptosis and oxidative stress, but treatment with vitamins E and C can diminish these changes and may have a beneficial effect in preventing endometrial changes in rats."
Electrohypersensitivity: state-of-the-art of a functional impairment
Johansson O, Electromagn Biol Med, november 2006
"In summary, it is evident from our preliminary data that various alterations are present in the electrohypersensitive person' skin. In view of recent epidemiological studies, pointing to a correlation between long-term exposure from power-frequent magnetic fields or microwaves and cancer, our data ought to be taken seriously and further analyzed."
"These data suggest that EMR emitted by cellular phone influences human sperm motility. In addition to these acute adverse effects of EMR on sperm motility, long-term EMR exposure may lead to behavioral or structural changes of the male germ cell. These effects may be observed later in life, and they are to be investigated more seriously."
Childhood leukemia, electric and magnetic fields, and temporal trends
Kheifets L et al, Bioelectromagnetics, oktober 2006
"We first examine separately the evidence on trends in exposure to EMFs and on trends in leukemia rates, and then compare the two. Both incidence rates and exposures have increased, but there are so many approximations and assumptions involved in connecting the two trends that we cannot regard the ecologic evidence as providing any meaningful evidence for or against a causal link."
Public Health Impact of Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
Kheifets L et al, Environ Health Perspect, oktober 2006
"The fraction of childhood leukemia cases possibly attributable to ELF exposure across the globe appears to be small. There remain, however, a number of uncertainties in these AF estimates, particularly in the exposure distributions."
"We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer."
"In our survey, GPs often judged the association between the health problems and the suspected exposure to be plausible. This plausibility assessment seems to be based on grounds of preventive positions in a situation of scientific uncertainty. More research effort is needed to obtain more insight on a potential association between long term EMF exposure and unspecific symptoms."
"Analysis of the affected gene families does not point towards a stress response. However, following microwave exposure, some but not all human cells might react with an increase in expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and therefore up-regulating the cellular metabolism."
"The same genes and proteins were differently affected by the exposure in each of the cell lines. This suggests that the cell response to mobile phone radiation might be genome- and proteome-dependent. Therefore, it is likely that different types of cells and from different species might respond differently to mobile phone radiation or might have different sensitivity to this weak stimulus. Our findings might also explain, at least in part, the origin of discrepancies in replication studies between different laboratories."
"Alterations in lysosomes, granular endoplasmic reticulum and cell nuclei compared to the control group were also observed. Taken together, the results of this study show the stimulative effect of power-frequency EMF on thyroid gland at both the light microscope and the ultrastructural level."
Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields in the light of Draper et al
Swanson J et al, Ann N Y Acad Sci, september 2006
"A new study, Draper et al., looks at residence close to high-voltage power lines, one source of exposure to such fields, and its design avoids any obvious bias. It finds elevated childhood leukemia rates, but extending too far from the power lines to be straightforwardly compatible with the existing literature. This leads to an examination of alternative explanations: magnetic fields, other physical factors, such as corona ions, the characteristics of the areas power lines pass through, bias, and chance. The conclusion is that there is currently no single preferred explanation, but that this is a serious body of science that needs further work until an explanation is found."
"Increased risk was obtained for both cellular and cordless phones, highest in the group with >10 years latency period."
"Exposure to ELF EMFs during pregnancy period can cause adverse effects on pregnancy of female mice and development of offsprings."
"Most of the leukemia cases in the highest exposure category had MF levels far above 0.4 microT. Our results provided additional evidence that high MF exposure was associated with a higher risk of childhood leukemia, particularly of ALL."
"No or repairable DNA damage was observed after 2 hour irradiation of 1.8 GHz microwave on LECs when SAR < or = 3 W/kg. The DNA damages caused by 4 W/kg irradiation were irreversible."
"The resonance solution also suggests that mitochondrial proton gradients may be critical to the process. The model offers an alternative explanation to the variations of Faraday's Law and the Boltzmann constant that have been employed to explain and to dismiss biological effects from weak magnetic fields."
"Magnetic field exposure was associated with decreased 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, but no changes in reproductive hormone levels were observed. Participants using prescription medications and anovulatory participants had more pronounced decreases in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels with magnetic field exposure. This study provides further evidence that exposure to magnetic fields is associated with decreased nocturnal melatonin levels, but does not support the hypothesis that such exposure results in increased urinary levels of estrogens, LH, or FSH."
"Our results tend to show a direct relationship between HF‐EMF exposure of tomato plants and responses at the level of gene expression. Although not identical, the kinetics and amplitudes (three‐ to seven‐fold increases) of the targeted transcripts showed striking similarities with the previously described physiologic responses following injurious treatments such as leaf flaming or electrical stimulation (Stankovic and Davies 1997, Vian et al. 1999). Accordingly, we propose here that HF‐EMF exposure may constitute an environmental stimulus for the tomato plants."
Occupational magnetic field exposure and melatonin: interaction with light-at-night
Juutilainen J, Kumlin T, Bioelectromagnetics, julij 2006
"Based on questionnaire data on exposure to light-at-night (LAN), and measurement-based MF data, the 60 women were classified to four groups: no MF, no LAN; MF, no LAN; no MF, LAN; MF, LAN. The lowest excretion of 6-OHMS was observed in the group of women who were exposed to both MF and LAN, and the differences between the four groups were significant (P < .0001). The result is based on low numbers, but supports the hypothesis that daytime occupational exposure to MF enhances the effects of nighttime light exposure on melatonin production."
Can EMF exposure during development leave an imprint later in life?
Blackman CF, Electromagn Biol Med, julij 2006
"Initial reports indicated that exposure of chicken eggs during embryonic development to power-line electric fields of 50 and 60 Hz, at 10 V/m in air (which is frequently in locations inhabited by humans), could cause the brain tissues of the hatched chickens to respond differently in a particular test. More recently, an anecdotal report of human sensitivity to EMF has appeared that shows a health-related influence of prior exposure history to particular power-line frequencies in chemically sensitized individuals. These reports open the question of whether the ambient electromagnetic environment can leave an imprint on developing organisms and if such imprint changes have the potential for health consequences."
Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans
Aalto S et al, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, julij 2006
"Our results provide the first evidence, suggesting that the EMF emitted by a commercial mobile phone affects rCBF in humans. These results are consistent with the postulation that EMF induces changes in neuronal activity."
"This paper compares a number of typical exposures to wireless devices, such as mobile phones, DECT phones, wireless access points, wireless laptop and bluetooth devices, and wireless baby monitors. It confirms that typical exposures to mobile phone base stations are very similar to typical exposures whilst using a wirelessly networked laptop."
"The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained."
"In this paper, we confirm the significance of microwave reflection reported in our previous Letter by experimental and numerical studies. Furthermore, we show that "hot spots" often emerge in reflective areas, where the local exposure level is much higher than average. Such places include elevators, and we discuss other possible environments including trains, buses, cars, and airplanes."
"Modeling of the receptor-ligand-G protein interactions using the extended ternary complex model yielded good fits for all our data and that of Massot et al., showing that the AC field may act by decreasing the ability of the G-protein to alter the ligand-receptor affinity. The hypothesis is that the bipolar nature of the AC field explains the different nature of the effects observed with AC and DC exposures. These findings constitute one of the few documented pieces of evidence for cell-free effects of DC and extremely low frequency (ELF) AC MFs in the mT range."
Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function
Oktay MF, Dasdag S, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2006
"However, detection thresholds in those who talked approximately 2 h per day were found to be higher than those in either moderate users or control subjects. Differences at 4000 Hz for both bone and air conduction for right ears, and 500 Hz, and 4000 Hz bone and air conduction for left ears were significant for mean hearing threshold. This study shows that a higher degree of hearing loss is associated with long-term exposure to electromagnetic (EM) field generated by cellular phones."
"We conclude that melatonin may prevent MW-induced oxidative changes in the hippocampus by strengthening the anti-oxidant defense system, by reducing oxidative stress products from MW radiation exposure."
"The current findings suggest that EMF emitted by mobile phones has effects on brain oscillatory responses during cognitive processing in children."
"In the exposed group the weight was significantly decreased only at birth, while the circumferences of the head and chest as well as the height were significantly reduced at all studied ages. The radiological study revealed a significant delay in carpal bone ossification of the exposed children. In conclusion: Exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields emerged from high voltage electric power lines increases the incidence of growth retardation of children. Isolating these power lines in a scientific way in order to shield both the magnetic and electric fields or removing them far away from the inhabitant areas is recommended."
"Despite the influence of confounding variables, including fear of adverse effects from exposure to HF-EMF from the base station, there was a significant relation of some symptoms to measured power density; this was highest for headaches. Perceptual speed increased, while accuracy decreased insignificantly with increasing exposure levels. There was no significant effect on sleep quality."
"The induced genes encode proteins with diverse functions including neurotransmitter regulation, blood-brain barrier (BBB), and melatonin production. The data shows that GSM MWs at 915 MHz did not induce PFGE-detectable DNA double stranded breaks or changes in chromatin conformation, but affected expression of genes in rat brain cells."
"Volunteer subjects recalled their recent phone use with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists."
"This study shows that the chronic exposure to these radiations cause statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in DNA single strand breaks in brain cells of rat."
Acute mobile phone effects on pre-attentive operation
Papageorgiou CC et al, Neurosci Lett, april 2006
"In contrast the exposure to MP-EMFs revealed statistically significant decrease of the amplitude of P50 evoked by the high frequency stimuli, at Fp1 electrode lead as compared to themselves without MP-EMF exposure. These findings provide evidence that the MP-EMF emitted by mobile phone affect pre-attentive information processing as it is reflected in P50 evoked potential. The basis of such an effect is unclear, although several possibilities exist and call for potential directions of future research."
"Because the CNS regions including EDA-2 are also involved in tasks of motor timing and time estimation, delayed response in this neuronal network due to CPEMFs exposure may increase the response time of mobile phone users. Therefore, the findings point to the potential risks of mobile phones on the function of CNS and consequently, possible increase in the risk of phone-related driving hazards."
Microwave Irradiation Affects Gene Expression in Plants
Vian A et al, Plant Signal Behav, marec 2006
"The physiological impact of nonionizing radiation has long been considered negligible. However, here we use a carefully calibrated stimulation system that mimics the characteristics (isotropy and homogeneity) of electromagnetic fields present in the environment to measure changes in a molecular marker (mRNA encoding the stress-related bZIP transcription factor), and show that low amplitude, short duration, 900 MHz EMF evokes the accumulation of this mRNA. Accumulation is rapid (peaking 5–15 min after stimulation) and strong (3.5-fold), and is similar to that evoked by mechanical stimulations."
"Before shut down, self-rated sleep quality was reduced by 3.9 units (95% CI: 1.7-6.0) per mA/m increase in magnetic field exposure. The corresponding decrease in melatonin excretion was 10% (95% CI: -32 to 20%). After shutdown, sleep quality improved by 1.7 units (95% CI: 0.1-3.4) per mA/m decrease in magnetic field exposure. Melatonin excretion increased by 15% (95% CI: -3 to 36%) compared to baseline values suggesting a rebound effect. Stratified analyses showed an exposure effect on melatonin excretion in poor sleepers (26% increase; 95% CI: 8-47%) but not in good sleepers. Change in sleep quality and melatonin excretion was related to the extent of magnetic field reduction after the transmitter's shut down in poor but not good sleepers. However, blinding of exposure was not possible in this observational study and this may have affected the outcome measurements in a direct or indirect (psychological) way."
"TBARS levels in the plasma and brain tissues were higher in EMF-exposed rats with or without zinc supplementation, than those in controls (p < 0.001). In addition, TBARS levels were significantly lower in the zinc-supplemented rats than those in the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.001). GSH levels were significantly decreased in the brain and erythrocytes of the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.01), and were highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). Plasma zinc was significantly lower in the EMF-exposed rats than those in controls (p < 0.001), while it was highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). The present study suggests that long-term exposure to low-frequency EMF increases lipid peroxidation in the brain, which may be ameliorated by zinc supplementation."
"These recent studies, using the exposure methods and the cut-off levels set a priori, each concluded that there was little evidence of any association. The pooled analyses, using different exposure measures and different cut-offs, conclude that an association exists at high exposure levels. It is not clear if the results of the pooled analysis are more valid than those of the recent major studies, although this has been often assumed in influential reviews."
"The OR increased with the cumulative number of hours of use and was highest for high-grade astrocytoma. A somewhat increased risk was also found for low-grade astrocytoma and other types of malignant brain tumors, although not significantly so. In multivariate analysis, all three phone types studied showed an increased risk."
"Most of the studies reviewed used magnetic fields of 100 microT or higher, so the findings are not directly relevant for explaining the epidemiological findings suggesting increased risk of childhood leukemia above 0.4 microT. However, confirmed adverse effects even at 100 microT would have implications for risk assessment and management, including the need to reconsider the exposure limits for magnetic fields. There is an obvious need for further studies on combined effects with magnetic fields."
Light alters nociceptive effects of magnetic field shielding
Koziak AM et al, Bioelectromagnetics, januar 2006
"Here, we report for the first time that if mice are exposed to magnetic shielding in the presence of visible light (0.6 W/m(2), 400-750 nm) that most of the effects of shielding are eliminated. This simple experimental protocol may be useful in investigating the role that light plays in the detection of ambient electromagnetic fields."
"Our study reveals a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in PKC activity in hippocampus as compared to the remaining portion of the whole brain and the control group. A similar experiment conducted on hippocampus and the whole brain gave a similar result. Electron microscopic study shows an increase in the glial cell population in the exposed group as compared to the control group. This present study is indicative of a significant change after exposure to the above-mentioned field intensity. This suggests that chronic exposures may affect brain growth and development."
"Such findings are considered to be indicators of radiation effects on BM erythropoiesis consequently reflected in the PB. Rehabilitated dynamic haemopoietc equilibrium in rats by the end of experiment indicates possibility of activation adaptation process in rats to the selected experimental conditions of subchronic RF/MW exposure."
Non-thermal effects of EMF upon the mammalian brain
Salford LG et al, The Precautionary EMF Approach: Rationale, Legislation and Implementation, januar 2006
"The world´s largest biological experiment ever, takes place since few years and now one third of the world´s population is included in the experiment as test persons, voluntarily exposing their brains to electromagnetic fields produced by their mobile phones. The other two thirds constitute a control group, however not ideal, as many of the non-users are exposed to “passive mobile phoning” and other types of radio frequency radiation. The question whether the type of electromagnetic fields used in mobile communication is harmful or not to the human body, is not clarified and the biological effects, which have hitherto been observed in laboratories around the world, deserve a serious evaluation by the community."
In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE reduce retinal oxidative stress after long-term exposure to 900 MHz emitting mobile phone. Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the efficacies of these two antioxidants against to EMR induced oxidative stress in rat retina. The difference was in only GSH-Px activity in rat retina. Melatonin stimulated the retinal GSH-Px activity more efficiently than CAPE did.
Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field in the brain of rats
Jelenković A et al, Brain Res Bull, januar 2006
"The results obtained indicate that a 7-day exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field can be harmful to the brain, especially to the basal forebrain and frontal cortex due to development of lipid peroxidation. Also, high production of superoxide anion in all regions may compromise nitric oxide signaling processes, due to nitric oxide consumption in the reaction with the superoxide radical."

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