Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


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"This study analyzes the exposure of pregnant women and their fetuses in three different gestational stages to electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range in the near- and the far-field using numerical modeling. For far-field exposure, the power density at which the basic restriction for the whole body SAR is reached is calculated for both the mother and the fetus at whole body resonance and at frequencies between 450 MHz and 2,450 MHz. The near-field exposure is assessed at 450 MHz, 900 MHz, and 2,450 MHz using half wavelength dipoles as generic sources located at different locations around the abdomen of the mother. For the investigated cases, the exposure of the mother is always below or on the order of magnitude of the basic restriction for exposure at the reference level. When applying the reference levels for the general public, the fetus is sufficiently shielded by the mother. However, the basic restrictions for general public exposure can be exceeded in the fetus when the mother is exposed at reference levels for occupational conditions. For plane wave exposure at occupational levels, the whole body SAR in the fetus can exceed the basic restrictions for the general population by at least 1.8 dB, and in the near-field of professional devices, the 10 g SAR can be non-compliant with the product standard for the general public by > 3.5 dB."
"The modulation of the expression of Hsps in neuronal cells can be an early response to radiofrequency microwaves."
"This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones."
"The Risk Evaluation analyzes the potential human health risks of magnetic field exposure. Specifically, this document provides an evaluation of the animal, laboratory and human evidence that shows how exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields may or may not increase human health risks. The Risk Evaluation is based on the results of published research studies, with emphasis on new studies, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Working Group Report, and the results of the California EMF Program Studies."
"Given the greater sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields of children and following the precautionary principle, preventive measures are warranted to reduce their exposure."
"Childhood exposure to physical contamination, including non-ionizing radiation, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread and increasing sources of exposure to this type of radiation. The primary objective of this review was to analyze the current state of knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Scientific publications between 1979 and 2008 that include examination of this association have been reviewed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Studies to date have not convincingly confirmed or ruled out an association between non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Discrepancies among the conclusions of the studies may also be influenced by confounding factors, selection bias, and misclassification. Childhood defects can result from genetic or epigenetic damage and from effects on the embryo or fetus, which may both be related to environmental exposure of the parent before conception or during the pregnancy. It is therefore critical for researchers to define a priori the type and "window" of exposure to be assessed. Methodological problems to be solved include the proper diagnostic classification of individuals and the estimated exposure to non-ionizing radiation, which may act through various mechanisms of action. There appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research into the relationship between exposure to non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects."
"Extremely low-frequency (ELF) MFs up to several tens of uT were measured in the mentioned working environments. 25% of the measured MFs were found less than 0.3 uT, the background exposure level that staff receive at home, 75% were above 0.3 uT with the highest value of 6.8 uT. The mean and median personal exposures were calculated to be 1.19 uT and 0.56 uT, respectively. Most of the staff (83%) is under risk based on epidemiological studies that reported a statistically significant association between risk of leukemia and averaged magnetic fields of 0.2 uT or over. Results showed that risk evaluation should be considered to minimize the possibility of the workers being harmed due to exposure to work-related electromagnetic sources."
"A short-term exposure (15 and 30 minutes) to RFR (900-MHz) from a mobile phone caused a significant increase in DNA single-strand breaks in human hair root cells located around the ear which is used for the phone calls."
"Such ants having acquired a weaker olfactory or visual score and still undergoing olfactory or visual training were again submitted to electromagnetic waves. Not only did they lose all that they had memorized, but also they lost it in a few hours instead of in a few days (as under normal conditions when no longer trained). They kept no visual memory at all (instead of keeping 10% of it as they normally do). The impact of GSM 900 MHz radiation was greater on the visual memory than on the olfactory one. These communication waves may have such a disastrous impact on a wide range of insects using olfactory and/or visual memory, i.e., on bees."
Changes in Paramecium caudatum (protozoa) near a switched-on GSM telephone
Cammaerts MC et al, Electromagn Biol Med, marec 2011
"The protozoan Paramecium caudatum was examined under normal conditions versus aside a switched-on GSM telephone (900 MHz; 2 Watts). Exposed individuals moved more slowly and more sinuously than usual. Their physiology was affected: they became broader, their cytopharynx appeared broader, their pulse vesicles had difficult in expelling their content outside the cell, their cilia less efficiently moved, and trichocysts became more visible. All these effects might result from some bad functioning or damage of the cellular membrane. The first target of communication electromagnetic waves might thus be the cellular membrane."
"We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology."
"In order to be efficient and effective, we designed and validated a fast and easy test on ants - these insects being used as a biological model - for revealing the effect of wireless equipments like mobile phones, smartphones, digital enhanced cordless telephone (DECT) phones, WiFi routers and so on. This test includes quantification of ants' locomotion under natural conditions, then in the vicinity of such wireless equipments. Observations, numerical results and statistical results allow detecting any effect of a radiating source on these living organisms."
"Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that even acute exposure to low intensity EMF induces ROS production and DNA fragmentation in astrocytes in primary cultures, which also represent the principal target of modulated EMF. Our findings also suggest the hypothesis that the effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF and neocortical astrocytes."
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and occupation in Sweden
Cano MI, Pollan M, Int Arch Occup Environ Health, avgust 2001
"The risk excess observed in telecommunication and transport workers could be explained by electromagnetic radiation exposure. We did not find a risk excess in agricultural occupations, that has been largely documented by other study groups."
"The overall results indicate that there may be adverse effects of RF exposure on antioxidant function, in terms of both the daily antioxidative levels, as well as the circadian rhythmicity."
"The combination of EMF and gamma-ray exposure resulted in a synergistic effect by triggering stress response, which increased reactive oxygen species, but the expression of hsp70 at both mRNA and protein levels remained unaltered. Data indicate that the adverse effects of gamma-rays on cellular functions are strengthened by EMF."
"Exposure to ELF EMFs during pregnancy period can cause adverse effects on pregnancy of female mice and development of offsprings."
"The results showed that the average reaction time in user's group was longer than that in control group (P < 0.01). The time of using handset was negatively associated with corrected reaction number (P < 0.01). The fast reaction time and the slowest reaction time were positively associated with the length of handset using (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The results suggested that the handset using could cause adverse health effects in neurobehavioral function."
"There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma in long-term mobile phone users with high RF exposure and of similar, but apparently much smaller, increases in meningioma risk. The uncertainty of these results requires that they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made."
"While amount and duration of use are important determinants of RF dose in the brain, their impact can be substantially modified by communication system, frequency band and location in the brain. It is important to take these into account in analyses of risk of brain tumours from RF exposure from mobile phones."
"There was no increase in risk of acoustic neuroma with ever regular use of a mobile phone or for users who began regular use 10 years or more before the reference date. Elevated odds ratios observed at the highest level of cumulative call time could be due to chance, reporting bias or a causal effect. As acoustic neuroma is usually a slowly growing tumour, the interval between introduction of mobile phones and occurrence of the tumour might have been too short to observe an effect, if there is one."
"Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation."
"The average relative SAR is highest in the temporal lobe (6-15%, depending on frequency, of the spatial peak SAR in the most exposed region of the brain) and the cerebellum (2-10%) and decreases very rapidly with increasing depth, particularly at higher frequencies. The SAR distribution appears to be fairly similar across phone models, between older and newer phones and between phones with different antenna types and positions. Analyses of risk by location of tumour are therefore important for the interpretation of results of studies of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use."
High ambient radiofrequency radiation in Stockholm city, Sweden
Carlberg M et al, Oncol Lett, februar 2019
"The total mean level was 5,494 µW/m2 (median 3,346; range 36.6-205,155). The major contributions were down links from LTE 800 (4G), GSM + UMTS 900 (3G), GSM 1800 (2G), UMTS 2100 (3G) and LTE 2600 (4G). Regarding different places, the highest RF radiation was measured at the Hay Market with a mean level of 10,728 µW/m2 (median 8,578; range 335-68,815). This is a square used for shopping, and both retailers and visitors may spend considerable time at this place. Also, the Sergel Plaza had high radiation with a mean of 7,768 µW/m2. All measurements exceeded the target level of 30-60 µW/m2 based on non-thermal (no heating) effects, according to the BioInitiative Report. Based on short-term thermal effects, The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection established guideline 2 of 10 W/m2 (2,000,000-10,000,000 µW/m2) depending on frequency in 1998, and has not changed it despite solid evidence of non-thermal biological effects at substantially lower exposure levels. These environmental RF radiation levels are expected to increase with the introduction of 5G for wireless communication."
"We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied. The design of our study does not permit conclusions regarding causality."
"An increased risk in late stage (promotion/progression) of astrocytoma grade IV for occupational ELF-EMF exposure was found."
"RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma."
"The present study showed a somewhat increased risk among heavy users of mobile and cordless phones. Since meningioma is generally a slow-growing tumor, longer latency period is necessary for definitive conclusions."
"Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04-11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007-1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999-1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines."
"Clearly, much more work needs to be done to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for this syndrome. However, this report adds to the developing evidence that EHS is a real disease, that a significant number of people suffer from EHS, and that—beyond taking steps to reduce EMF exposure—we have very limited knowledge of how to prevent and treat the disease."
Electromagnetic fields and cancer: the cost of doing nothing
Carpenter DO et al, Rev Environ Health, januar 2010
"Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies, and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF). Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of cell phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of society, especially among children. While there has been strong evidence for an association between leukemia and residential or occupational exposure to ELF EMFs for many years, the standards in existence are not sufficiently stringent to protect from an increased risk of cancer. For RF EMFs, standards are set at levels designed to avoid tissue heating, in spite of convincing evidence of adverse biological effects at intensities too low to cause significant heating. Recent studies demonstrate elevations in rates of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma only on the side of the head where individuals used their cell phone. Individuals who begin exposure at younger ages are more vulnerable. These data indicate that the existing standards for radiofrequency exposure are not adequate. While there are many unanswered questions, the cost of doing nothing will result in an increasing number of people, many of them young, developing cancer."
Ocular Effects of Microwave Radiation
Carpenter RL, Bull NY Acad Med, december 1979
"In 1948 two groups of investigators reported independently and almost coincidentally that when the eyes of rabbits or dogs were exposed to sufficient microwave radiation, opacities subsequently developed in the crystalline lens. Both groups employed continuous wave radiation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. with a wave length of 12.3 cm. In the 30 years since that initial discovery, this phenomenon has been extensively investigated in numerous laboratories and we now have a substantial body of information concerning it. However, we have yet to identify the site and the manner of interaction between microwaves and ocular tissues which provide the mechanism for cataractogenesis."
Mobile-phone pulse triggers evoked potentials
Carrubba S et al, Neurosci Lett, januar 2010
"If mobile-phone electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are hazardous, as suggested in the literature, processes or mechanisms must exist that allow the body to detect the fields. We hypothesized that the low-frequency pulses produced by mobile phones (217 Hz) were detected by sensory transduction, as evidenced by the ability of the pulses to trigger evoked potentials (EPs). Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from six standard locations in 20 volunteers and analyzed to detect brain potentials triggered by a pulse of the type produced by mobile phones. Evoked potentials having the expected latency were found in 90% of the volunteers, as assessed using a nonlinear method of EEG analysis. Evoked potentials were not detected when the EEG was analyzed using time averaging. The possibility of systematic error was excluded by sham-exposure analyses. The results implied that mobile-phones trigger EP at the rate of 217 Hz during ordinary phone use. Chronic production of the changes in brain activity might be pertinent to the reports of health hazards among mobile-phone users."
"The follicles with failed antrum formation showed lower oestradiol release and granulosa cell DNA synthesis, but these effects were not related to granulosa cell apoptosis. Furthermore, a high percentage of the in-vitro grown oocytes obtained from exposed follicles had a reduced ability to resume meiotic maturation when compared with controls. These results suggest that ELF-EMF exposure might impair mammalian female reproductive potentiality by reducing the capacity of the follicles to reach a developmental stage that is an essential pre-requisite for reproductive success."
Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields
Cech R et al, Phys Med Biol, februar 2007
"It could be shown that the basic restriction (ICNIRP) is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary."
"In conclusion, Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. Moreover, the brain seemed to be more sensitive to oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns."
"The results of this study demonstrated that a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged to occupational exposure to ELMF in electric transformer and distribution stations."
Bacterial response to the exposure of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields
Cellini L et al, Bioelectromagnetics, maj 2008
"Atypical lengthened bacterial forms were also observed suggesting a probable alteration during cell division. No changes among DNA fingerprintings and some differences in RNA-AFLP analysis were observed for each 50 Hz EMF intensities evaluated. Our results indicate that an exposure to 50 Hz EMF acts as a stressing factor on bacteria which can represent a suitable model to investigate acute and chronic effects related to ELF-EMF exposure."
"A total of thirty-two (n = 32) male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups as control (C, n = 8), sham (Sh, n = 8), mobile phone speech (Sp, n = 8) and mobile phone standby (ST by). Morphometric measurements were made with the help of a computer-assisted stereological analysis system. The testis weight and volume were significantly lower in the EMF exposed groups. The mean volume fraction of interstitial tissue was higher, but the volume fraction of tubular tissue was lower in the EMF-exposed groups. The mean tubular and germinal tissue volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and germinal epithelium height were also lower in EMF exposed groups. The cortisol levels in the EMF-exposed groups were significantly higher. In conclusion, the EMF created by mobile phones caused morphologic and histological changes by the affecting germinal epithelium tissue negatively."
"The present study demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanisms in EMR-induced skin tissue damages and that β-glucan could ameliorate oxidative skin injury via its antioxidant properties."
"The study concluded that 2100 MHz cell phone EMF-r incite oxidative damage in onion roots by altering the oxidative metabolism."
"Our results infer that continuous exposures of radiofrequency EMF-r (2350 MHz) for long durations have a potential of inciting cyto- and genotoxic effects in onion root meristems."
"The study concluded that 2100 MHz cell phone EMF-r incite oxidative damage in onion roots by altering the oxidative metabolism."
"Our data, thus, suggest the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic nature of 2100 MHz EMF-r. Our study bears great significance in view of the swiftly emergent EMF-r in the surrounding environment and their potential for inciting aberrations at the chromosomal level, thus posing a genetic hazard."
"Workers categorized in the highest 10 percent of EMF exposure were twice as likely to die from prostate cancer as those exposed to EMFs at lower levels, after adjustment for PCB exposure, race, and active work status within the past 2 years (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 3.04). The odds ratio for PCB exposure and prostate cancer mortality was 1.47 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.24) after adjustment for suspected confounding factors."
"These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm2). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p < 0.001), brain (p < 0.004) and spleen (p < 0.006) in samples from rats exposed to microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health."
"These results together suggested that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure impairs neurite outgrowth of eNSCs. More attention should be given to the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF exposure on brain development."
"Using model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate the effects of ELF-MF and RF-EMF exposure on global gene expression."
[Long-term microwave radiation affects male reproduction in rats]
Chen HY et al, Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, marec 2011
"Long-term microwave radiation may cause injury to male reproduction, which is positively correlated with the radiation dose, and has an obvious late effect."
"Prevalence of headache was reduced by more than 20% among those who used hand-free equipment for their cellular telephones as compared to those who never use the equipment. The use of HPs is not associated with a significant increase of CNS symptoms other than headache."
Mobile phone use and health symptoms in children
Chiu CT et al, J Formos Med Assoc, avgust 2014
"Mobile phone use was associated with a significantly increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for headaches and migraine (1.42, 95% CI = 1.12-1.81) and skin itches (1.84, 95% CI = 1.47-2.29). Children who regularly used mobile phones were also considered to have a health status worse than it was 1 year ago."
Electric fields in bone marrow substructures at power-line frequencies
Chiu RS, Stuchly MA, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, junij 2005
"A maximum electric field enhancement of 50% is observed. Another model of bone marrow stroma cells is implemented only in FEM using thin film approximation. The transmembrane potential (TMP) change across the gap junctions is found to range from several to over 200 microV. The two results suggest that imperceptible contact currents can produce biologically significant TMP change at least in a limited number of bone marrow stroma cells."
"In immunofluorescence study, we confirmed the expression of each protein of neural cells. And also both oligodendrocyte and astrocyte related proteins like O4 and GFAP were expressed by ELF-EMFs. We suggest that EMFs can induce neural differentiation in BM-MSCs without any chemicals or differentiation factors."
"The co-exposure of cells to BP and 0.8 mT ELF-EMF for 24 h, followed by BP exposure for 48 h led to significant increases in the frequencies of MN and SCE compared to BP treatment for 72 h alone (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between field exposed and sham exposed control cells. The obtained results suggest that low density ELF-EMF could act as an enhancer of the initiation process of BP rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in human lymphocytes."
"This study suggests that increased call duration is a greater risk factor for increases in headache than any other type of adverse health effect, and that this effect can be chronic."
"Mobile phone call duration was not significantly associated with stress, sleep, cognitive function, or depression, but was associated with the severity of headaches."
Long-Term, Low-Level Microwave Irradiation of Rats
Chou CK et al, Bioelectromagnetics, januar 1992
"The finding of a near fourfold increase of primary malignancies in the exposed animals is provocative. These data cannot be considered as an artifact because different statistical analyses led to similar results."
Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users
Christ A et al, Phys Med Biol, april 2010
"The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head."
"ELF-MF significantly induced concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase without alteration in glutathione peroxidase activity. While glutathione contents were not altered, ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased by ELF-MF exposure. These results indicate that ELF-MF may induce oxidative stress in mouse cerebellum. However, the mechanism remains further to be characterized."
Extremely low frequency magnetic field modulates the level of neurotransmitters
Chung YH et al, Korean J Physiol Pharmacol, januar 2015
"The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized."
"The current state of biological research is reviewed, and a summary of the known effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation exposure on animals and humans provided. These known effects appear to be principally thermal, similar to conventional electrical burn injuries, but with some unique systemic expression. Derangements of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematological, ophthalmological, and behavioral functions are well described in animal experimentation."
"ELF-MF parameters of 7 mT, 40 Hz, 30 min/day for 10 days caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and insignificant increase in H(2)O(2) and free -SH groups. The same ELF-MF parameters but applied for 60 min/day caused a significant increase in free -SH groups and protein concentration in the brain homogenates indicating the adaptive mechanism. The study has shown that ELF-MF applied for 30 min/day for 10 days can affect free radical generation in the brain. Prolongation of the exposure to ELF-MF (60/min/day) caused adaptation to this field. The effect of ELF-MF irradiation on oxidative stress parameters depends on the time of animal exposure to magnetic field."
"Histological and immunohistochemical examinations between the experimental and control groups showed that exposure to 2.45 GHz EMR for 2 h per day does not interfere with the development of teeth and surrounding tissues. However, there were alterations in the elemental composition of the teeth, especially affecting such oxidative stress-related elements as copper, zinc, and iron, suggesting that short-term exposure to Wi-Fi-induced EMR may cause an imbalance in the oxidative stress condition in the teeth of growing rats."
"Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10 cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. Using cell phones and Wi-Fi sources which are farther away than 10 cm may provide useful protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis and overload of intracellular Ca2+."
"The research literature related to environmental and occupational causes of cancer is constantly growing, and future updates will be carried out in light of new biological understanding of the mechanisms and new methods for studying exposures in human populations. The current state of knowledge is sufficient to compel us to act on what we know. We repeat the call of ecologist Sandra Steingraber: "From the right to know and the duty to inquire flows the obligation to act."
"RF and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were associated with increased E1G excretion among postmenopausal women. Women with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion may represent a sensitive subgroup."
"Exposure to 2450 MHz RIF radiation at specific absorption rates (SARs) of greater than 25 W/kg (induced E-field strength 98.4 V/m) induced a consistent, statistically significant reduction in CTLL-2 proliferation, especially at low IL-2 concentrations. At lower SARs, 2450 MHz exposure increased CTLL-2 proliferation immediately after exposure but educed 24 h postexposure proliferation. RF radiation effects depended on the mitotic state of the cells at the time of exposure. Comparison of the effects of temperature elevation and RF radiation indicated significant qualitative and quantitative differences."
"Exposure to radiation at either frequency at specific absorption rates (SARs) below 50 W/kg resulted in a dose-dependent, statistically significant increase of 3H-TdR uptake in PHA-activated or unstimulated lymphocytes. Exposure at 50 W/kg or higher suppressed 3H-TdR uptake relative to that of sham-exposed cells. There were no detectable effects of RF radiation on lymphocyte morphology or viability. Notwithstanding the characteristic temperature dependence of lymphocyte activation in vitro, the isothermal exposure conditions of this study warrant the conclusion that the biphasic, dose-dependent effects of the radiation on lymphocyte proliferation were not dependent on heating."
"Mouse spermatozoa were exposed in vitro for 1 h to 27- or 2,450-MHz CW RF radiation at SARs of 0 to 90 W/kg under isothermal (37 +/- 0.2 degrees C) conditions. Exposure at either frequency to RF radiation at SARs of 50 W/kg or greater resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the ability of irradiated sperm to fertilize mouse ova in vitro (P less than .05). Over the range of SARs there was no apparent difference in the effects of 27- vs. 2,450-MHz RF radiation. There were no readily detectable exposure effects on spermatozoan morphology, ultrastructure, or capacitation. The reduction of in vitro fertilization is attributed to a direct effect of RF radiation on spermatozoa rather than to heating."
"• Wireless systems increase radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in buildings. • Scientific evidence identifies adverse effects from RFR below regulatory limits. • Globally, some governments and public health agencies are reducing RFR exposures. • Low RFR best practices include wired technology instead of Wi-Fi, and corded phones. • Safer, sustainable strategies and solutions for “smart” buildings are feasible."
Social and economic patterning in the Interphone study
Clouston SA, Int J Epidemiol, januar 2011
"The recent Interphone study left me a bit concerned about its lack of consideration for the social world. In his letter to the editor, Milham argues that there is some selection bias in the sample. I think that there is sufficient evidence to suggest that any selection bias may exist related to social inequality."
"Behavioral, functional, and morphological effects of UWB exposure were unremarkable with these exceptions: (i) The UWB-exposed pups emitted significantly more stress vocalizations than the sham-exposed pups; (ii) the medial-to-lateral length of the hippocampus was significantly longer in the UWB-exposed pups than in the sham-exposed animals; (iii) male offspring exposed in utero to UWB mated significantly less frequently than sham-exposed males, but when they did mate there was no difference in fertilization and offspring numbers from the sham group."
"Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth."
"Only 0.6% of subjects lived within 100 m of an overhead power-line, and the risk of leukaemia relative to cancer controls for residence within 100 m was 1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-3.88); within 50 m the relative risk was 2.0 but with a wider confidence interval (95% CI 0.4-9.0). Over 40% of subjects lived within 100 m of a substation, for which the relative risk of leukaemia was 0.99. Residence within 25 m carried a risk of 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-2.0). Weighted exposure indices incorporating measures of the current load carried by the substations did not materially alter these risks estimates. For persons aged less than 18 the relative risk of leukaemia from residence within 50 m of a substation was higher than in adults (PR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.4)."
"Thirty years ago, Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper published the first report on the association between childhood cancer and "electrical current configuration" of houses in Denver, Colorado. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined 50-60 Hz magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" because of the "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity of residential exposure relatively to childhood leukemia. With respect to health effects other than cancer, namely neurodegenerative disorders, miscarriage, subtle differences in the timing of melatonin release, altered autonomic control of the heart, and changes in the number of natural killer cells, some open questions still remain. Several authors recommended further investigation of the possible long-term effects of magnetic fields, focussing on populations experiencing high exposure levels. In this frame a research team of ISS searched for a suitable location to implement an epidemiological study aimed at a wide range of outcomes for which a priori hypotheses could be formulated. The recently published findings of this project showed an increase of primary and secondary malignant neoplasms, ischaemic disease and haematological diseases. Future studies should thus address the most exposed sectors of the population, take into account different outcomes (all neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, immunological disorders, specific cardiovascular effects) and follow research protocols that enable subsequent pooled analyses. A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision making where the available resources for environmental remediation be prioritatively allocated to worst-off situations."
Electromagnetic Fields, Oxidative Stress, and Neurodegeneration
Consales C et al, Int J Cell Biol, september 2012
"On the basis of two decades of epidemiological studies, an increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with Extremely Low Frequency fields has been consistently assessed, inducing the International Agency for Research on Cancer to insert them in the 2B section of carcinogens in 2001. EMFs interaction with biological systems may cause oxidative stress under certain circumstances. Since free radicals are essential for brain physiological processes and pathological degeneration, research focusing on the possible influence of the EMFs-driven oxidative stress is still in progress, especially in the light of recent studies suggesting that EMFs may contribute to the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders."
"RESULTS: Different effects of electromagnetic fields on circadian rhythms of both male and female rats were observed. Different changes occurred in some haematochemical parameters for glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exposure to different electromagnetic fields is responsible for the variations of some haematochemical parameters in rats."
"This study supports our previous observation of EEG changes after 5 min pulsed ELF MF exposure. The results of this study are also consistent with existing EEG experiments of ELF MF and mobile phone effects upon the brain."
"In this case, a decrease in the water membrane permeability of the irradiated samples was observed. We advance the hypothesis that both the above effects may be explained in terms of a change of the polarization states of water induced by the radiation, which causes a partial dehydration of the membrane and consequently a greater packing density (increased membrane rigidity)."
Effect of ELF electric field on some on biochemistry characters in the rat serum
Coskun O, Comlekci S, Toxicol Ind Health, november 2010
"Also, plasma triglyceride showed similar changes (control: 84.44 +/- 16.79 mg/dL, 67.33 +/- 15.63 and 51.53 +/- 14.17 mg/dL in group 1 and 2, respectively). Fifty Hz electric field may decrease plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rodents significantly, especially with long-term exposure."
"While intermittent magnetic field was effective on plasma lipid peroxidation, continuous magnetic field was found to be effective on plasma MPO activity and NO levels. Augmentation of lipid peroxidation was also observed in liver tissue both intermittent and continuous magnetic field exposures. These results indicate that both the intermittent and continuous magnetic field exposures affect various tissues in a distinct manner because of having different tissue antioxidant status and responses."
Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study
Coureau G et al, Occup Environ Med, julij 2014
"These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours."
Mobile phones and brain tumours: a review of epidemiological research
Croft RJ et al, Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, december 2008
"There are reports of small associations between MP-use ipsilateral to the tumour for greater than 10 years, for both acoustic neuroma and glioma, but the present paper argues that these are especially prone to confounding by recall bias. The reported associations are in need of replication with methods designed to minimise such bias before they can be treated as more than suggestive."
Are environmental electromagnetic fields genotoxic?
Crumpton MJ, Collins AR, DNA Repair (Amst), oktober 2004
"Long-term exposure to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) greater than 0.4 microT has been linked, by epidemiological studies, to a small elevated risk of childhood leukaemia. Laboratory-based experiments have been claimed to show that ELF EMFs induce a variety of biological responses, although these claims are controversial. Recent experiments by Ivancsits et al. [Mutat. Res. 519 (2002) 1; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 76 (2003) 431; Mech. Age. Dev. 124 (2003) 847; H.W. Rüdiger, S. Ivancsits, E. Diem, O. Jahn, Genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF on human cells in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics Society 25th Annual Meeting, Maui, USA, 2003] suggest that ELF EMFs are genotoxic, on the basis of observations that intermittent exposures induce single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) in the DNA of cultured human fibroblasts. The implications of these findings are discussed."
"At non-heating levels, CW exposure did not affect transformation. At heating levels both conventional and CW heating enhanced transformation to the same extent and correlate with the increases in incubation temperature. PW exposure enhanced transformation at non-heating levels. This finding is significant (P less than .002). At heating levels PW exposure enhanced transformation to a greater extent than did conventional or CW heating. This finding is significant at the .02 level. We conclude that PW 2450-MHz radiation acts differently on the process of lymphoblastoid transformation in vitro compared with CW 2450-MHz radiation at the same average SARs."
"GSM-217 EMF induced a significant upregulation of mRNA levels of the heat shock protein, hsp70 of p53-deficient ES cells differentiating in vitro, paralleled by a low and transient increase of c-jun, c-myc, and p21 levels in p53-deficient, but not in wild-type cells. Our data indicate that the genetic background determines cellular responses to GSM modulated EMF."

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