Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

2002 (35 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"The potential for ELFMF to act as an effect modifier of the association of chemical agents and glioma is an interesting new finding. It would be worthwhile to evaluate this hypothesis for other tumors. Also, it is necessary to confirm these results in epidemiological studies with individual exposure assessments, and in experimental studies that may elucidate whether there is a true causal mechanism for the results we observed."
"Low power densities microwave radiation (5 mW/cm(2) and 10 mW/cm(2)) induces damage to connexin 43 and inhibits the GJIC of rabbits LECs. These changes result in an osmotic imbalance within the lens and induce early cataract. 5 mW/cm(2) or 10 mW/cm(2) microwave radiation is cataractogenic."
"The low-intensity 2450-MHz microwave radiation can not induce DNA and chromosome damage, but can increase DNA damage effect induced by MMC in comet assay."
"The present results show for the first time that (1) pm-EMF alters waking rCBF and (2) pulse modulation of EMF is necessary to induce waking and sleep EEG changes. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure may provide a new, non-invasive method for modifying brain function for experimental, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes."
"The purpose of this study is to suggest that published thermal arguments may not make a full accounting of all membrane force fields of thermal origin, and that when such an accounting is made, the net thermal noise fields may be smaller in the power frequency range than previously thought. If this analysis is correct, there may be no thermal noise barrier that precludes the possibility of cellular membranes of human cells responding to environmental levels of power frequency electric or magnetic fields."
"The results for the time-course of PCEs indicated significant differences (P<0.05) for the 2nd, the 8th and the 15th day between control and treated subgroups of animals. Increased influx of immature erythrocytes into the peripheral circulation at the beginning of the experiment revealed that the proliferation and maturation of nucleated erythropoietic cells were affected by exposure to the 2,450 MHz radiofrequency radiation. Such findings are indicators of radiation effects on bone-marrow erythropoiesis and their subsequent effects in circulating red cells. The incidence of micronuclei/1,000 PCEs in peripheral blood was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the subgroup exposed to rf/MW radiation after eight irradiation treatments of 2 h each in comparison with the sham-exposed control group. It is likely that an adaptive mechanism, both in erythrocytopoiesis and genotoxicity appeared in the rat experimental model during the subchronic irradiation treatment."
Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus
Beason R, Semm P, Neurosci Lett, november 2002
"In this study we investigated the effects of a pulsed radio frequency signal similar to the signal produced by global system for mobile communication telephones (900 MHz carrier, modulated at 217 Hz) on neurons of the avian brain. We found that such stimulation resulted in changes in the amount of neural activity by more than half of the brain cells. Most (76%) of the responding cells increased their rates of firing by an average 3.5-fold. The other responding cells exhibited a decrease in their rates of spontaneous activity. Such responses indicate potential effects on humans using hand-held cellular phones."
Melatonin metabolite excretion among cellular telephone users
Burch JB et al, Int J Radiat Biol, november 2002
"Exposure-related reductions in 6-OHMS excretion were observed in Study 2, where daily cellular telephone use of >25 min was more prevalent. Prolonged use of cellular telephones may lead to reduced melatonin production, and elevated 60-Hz MF exposures may potentiate the effect."
Neurological changes induced by a mobile phone
Hocking B, Westerman R, Occup Med (Lond), oktober 2002
"Current perception threshold testing before and after exposure showed marked changes in the C-fibre nerves of the affected area compared with the opposite side. The case is supportive of a neurological basis for some cases of dysaesthesiae associated with mobile phone use."
"Patients with hypersensitivity to electricity, particularly women, have extensive medical problems and a considerable number of them stop working. Many patients with skin symptoms related to VDT use have a favorable prognosis. Both groups need early and consistent management."
"This correlation, combined with both frequent exposure opportunity for bathing children and substantial dose to bone marrow resulting from contact, lead us to suggest that contact current due to V(W-E) could explain the association between high residential magnetic fields and childhood leukemia."
The effect of low level continuous 2.45 GHz waves on enzymes of developing rat brain
Paulraj R, Behari J, Electromag Biol Med, september 2002
"A significant increase in calcium ion efflux and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was observed in the exposed group as compared to the control. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the calcium-dependent protein kinase activity was observed. These results indicate that this type of radiation affects the membrane bound enzymes, which are associated with cell proliferation and differentiation, thereby pointing out its possible role as a tumor promoter."
"Microwave could induce up-regulating in multiple stress and apoptosis related genes transcription in cultured human retina pigment epithelial cells, hTERT-RPE1 cells. Microwave radiation has unique effect itself in addition to its heat effect."
Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours
Hardell L et al, Eur J Cancer Prev, avgust 2002
"With regard to the anatomical area of the tumour and exposure to microwaves, the risk was increased for tumours located in the temporal area on the same side of the brain that was used during phone calls; for analogue cellular telephones the OR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9). Use of a telephone on the opposite side of the brain was not associated with an increased risk for brain tumours. With regard to different tumour types, the highest risk was for acoustic neurinoma (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.8-6.8) among analogue cellular telephone users."
"ELF EMF might alter the metabolism of free radicals, decrease anti-oxidant capability and enhance lipid peroxidation. The combination of EMF with lead showed synergic effects on lipid peroxidation."
Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California
Levallois P et al, Environ Health Perspect, avgust 2002
"We report the results of a telephone survey among a sample of 2,072 Californians. Being "allergic or very sensitive" to being near electrical devices was reported by 68 subjects, resulting in an adjusted prevalence of 3.2% (95% confidence interval = 2.8, 3.7). The perception of risk of exposure to EMFs through the use of hair dryers (vs. exposure to power and distribution lines) was the factor the most associated with self-reporting about hypersensitivity to EMFs. However, risk perception was not sufficient to explain the characteristics of people reporting this disorder."
"Most of these symptoms are allegedly triggered by exposure to different sources of EMFs, but there have been no valid etiological studies published on this more general syndrome. It appears that the so-called hypersensitivity to environmental electric and magnetic fields is an unclear health problem whose nature has yet to be determined."
"The conditions of intermittence showed an impact on the induction of DNA strand breaks, producing the highest levels at 5min field-on/10min field-off. We also found individual differences in response to ELF-EMF as well as an evident exposure-response relationship between magnetic flux density and DNA migration in the comet assay. Our data strongly indicate a genotoxic potential of intermittent EMF. This points to the need of further studies in vivo and consideration about environmental threshold values for ELF exposure."
"Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m."
"For selected illnesses, this paper estimates the annual number of excess cases that might occur near high-voltage powerlines in the UK. Within 150m of powerlines, magnetic field exposures above 0.1 microT are postulated to result in 9000 excess cases of depression in adults and 60 cases of suicide. Electric field effects can mediate increased exposure to air pollution. Within 400m of powerlines, this may result annually in 200-400 excess cases of lung cancer, 2000-3000 cases of other illnesses associated with air population and 2-6 cases of childhood leukaemia. Seventeen cases of non-melanoma skin cancer might occur by exposure directly under powerlines."
"The Risk Evaluation analyzes the potential human health risks of magnetic field exposure. Specifically, this document provides an evaluation of the animal, laboratory and human evidence that shows how exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields may or may not increase human health risks. The Risk Evaluation is based on the results of published research studies, with emphasis on new studies, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Working Group Report, and the results of the California EMF Program Studies."
"Although the study adds evidence of an excess of leukemia in a population living near high-power radio transmitters, no causal implication can be drawn. There is still insufficient scientific knowledge, and new epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify a possible leukemogenic effect of residential exposure to radio frequency radiation."
"In this paper, we study the effects of low-power microwaves (2.45 GHz) on the membrane fluidity of rod photoreceptor cells. The retina is expected to be very sensitive to microwave irradiation due to the polar character of the photoreceptor cells [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1273 (1995) 217] as well as to its high water content [Stud. Biophys. 81 (1981) 39]."
"This work indicates that neurochemical modification of the hippocampal cholinergic system can be observed during and after an exposure to low intensity RF."
"Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects."
"The most pronounced effect on proliferation was seen in the cranial thoracic (or cervical) mammary complexes, in which we previously had seen the most marked effects of MF exposure on mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast to the melatonin hypothesis, melatonin levels in pineal or mammary glands were not affected by MF exposure. Topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate increased BrdUrd and Ki-67 labeling in epithelial cells of the skin, particularly in hair follicles, but not in the mammary tissue. The data demonstrate that MF exposure results in an increased proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium, which is a likely explanation for the cocarcinogenic or tumor promoting effects of MF exposure observed previously by us in the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene model of breast cancer."
"Our findings support the hypothesis that occupational magnetic field exposure increases the risk of glioblastoma multiforme."
"One and a half percent of the respondents reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields. Prevalence was highest among women and in the 60- to 69-year age group. The hypersensitive group reported all symptoms, allergies, and other types of hypersensitivities included in the survey (as well as being disturbed by various factors in the home) to a significantly greater extent than the rest of the respondents. No specific symptom profile set off the hypersensitive group from the rest of the respondents."
"This study provides some support for an association between occupational magnetic-field exposure and Parkinson's disease, but the findings are novel and require replication. Associations with the other neurodegenerative diseases were inconsistent and dependent on the method of exposure assessment."
"In this review, we describe the interaction of MF and biological systems, showing that preceding exposures to MF of 100 µT for 3, 5, and 7 days blocked the melatonin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner, while the functions of three components, such as melatonin receptor, G protein, and adenylyl cyclase that consist of the signal transduction pathway were not affected. It still remains to be developed which theoretical chemistry explains our findings."
"The experimental group were exposed to an electromagnetic field emitted by a 900 MHz mobile phone for 30 min. Cognitive performance was assessed at three points (prior to mobile phone exposure, at 15 and 30 min post-exposure) using six cognitive neuropsychological tests (digit span and spatial span forwards and backwards, serial subtraction and verbal fluency). Significant differences between the two groups were evident after 5 min on two tests of attentional capacity (digit span forwards and spatial span backwards) and one of processing speed (serial subtraction). In all three instances, performance was facilitated following mobile phone exposure."
"As far as genotoxicity is concerned, the micronucleus frequency result was not affected by CW exposure; however, a statistically significant micronucleus effect was found following exposure to phase modulated field. These results would suggest a genotoxic power of the phase modulation per se."
"Our findings provide strong prospective evidence that prenatal maximum magnetic field exposure above a certain level (possibly around 16 mG) may be associated with miscarriage risk. This observed association is unlikely to be due to uncontrolled biases or unmeasured confounders."
"The odds ratio conveyed by being above a 24-hour time-weighted average of 2 milligauss was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.5-2.1). Exposure assessment measurements at 12 weeks were poorly correlated with those taken at 30 weeks. Nonetheless, the prospective substudy results regarding miscarriage risk were consistent with the nested study results."
Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting
Hallberg O, Johansson O, Arch Environ Health, januar 2002
"Geographic differences in melanoma incidence were compared with the magnitude of this environmental stress. The exposure-time-specific incidence from all 4 countries became almost identical, and they were approximately equal to the reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. A correlation between melanoma incidence and the number of locally receivable FM transmitters was found. The authors concluded that melanoma is associated with exposure to FM broadcasting."

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