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"• Wireless systems increase radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in buildings.
• Scientific evidence identifies adverse effects from RFR below regulatory limits.
• Globally, some governments and public health agencies are reducing RFR exposures.
• Low RFR best practices include wired technology instead of Wi-Fi, and corded phones.
• Safer, sustainable strategies and solutions for “smart” buildings are feasible."
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"Although this study has some limitations, it leads us to this conclusion that higher-than-ever levels of maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields could be linked to offspring speech problems."
"High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF."
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
"Children's brains are more susceptible to hazardous exposures, and are thought to absorb higher doses of radiation from cell phones in some regions of the brain. Globally the numbers and applications of wireless devices are increasing rapidly, but since 1997 safety testing has relied on a large, homogenous, adult male head phantom to simulate exposures; the "Standard Anthropomorphic Mannequin" (SAM) is used to estimate only whether tissue temperature will be increased by more than 1 Celsius degree in the periphery. The present work employs anatomically based modeling currently used to set standards for surgical and medical devices, that incorporates heterogeneous characteristics of age and anatomy. Modeling of a cell phone held to the ear, or of virtual reality devices in front of the eyes, reveals that young eyes and brains absorb substantially higher local radiation doses than adults'. Age-specific simulations indicate the need to apply refined methods for regulatory compliance testing; and for public education regarding manufacturers' advice to keep phones off the body, and prudent use to limit exposures, particularly to protect the young."
"Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure."
"The purpose of this study is to investigate foetal impact of radiofrequencies (RFs) emitted from mobile phones in postnatal cord blood. The study carried on 149 pregnant women divided into four groups such as nonusers of mobile phone (n: 37; control group), 2-15 min/d (n: 39; group 1), 15-60 min/d (n: 37; group 2) and participants using mobile phone for more than 60 min/d (n: 36; group 3). Cord blood of the infants was taken in all groups for biochemical analyses immediately after birth. The results of the study showed that the biggest foetal impact was observed in the third study group which was pregnant exposed RFRs (RF radiation) more than 1 h/d (1 hour per day). AST (aspartat aminotransferaz), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase), CK-MB (creatine kinase-miyocardial band), CRP (c-reactive protein), PCT (procalcitonin), TnT (troponin T), uric acid and lactate levels of third group were found higher than the other groups (p < 0.001). However, Mean platelet volume values of third group were found lower than the other groups (p < 0.001). Finally, this is the first human study which was performed on pregnant and infants because there is no previous work in this area. However, the results of this study revealed that long-term RFR exposure of pregnant may result in some biochemical changes in the infants. Therefore, our suggestion to pregnant is to avoid from RFR exposure emitted from mobile phones at least during pregnancy."
"The average annual age-standardised incidence was 137·5 (95% CI 136·7-138·3) per million person-years and incidence increased significantly by 0·54% (0·44-0·65) per year in children (age 0-14 years) with no change in trend. In adolescents, the combined European incidence was 176·2 (174·4-178·0) per million person-years based on all 35 138 eligible cases and increased significantly by 0·96% (0·73-1·19) per year, although recent changes in rates among adolescents suggest a deceleration in this increasing trend. We observed temporal variations in trends by age group, geographical region, and diagnostic group. The combined age-standardised incidence of leukaemia based on 48 458 cases in children was 46·9 (46·5-47·3) per million person-years and increased significantly by 0·66% (0·48-0·84) per year. The average overall incidence of leukaemia in adolescents was 23·6 (22·9-24·3) per million person-years, based on 4702 cases, and the average annual change was 0·93% (0·49-1·37). We also observed increasing incidence of lymphoma in adolescents (average annual change 1·04% [0·65-1·44], malignant CNS tumours in children (average annual change 0·49% [0·20-0·77]), and other tumours in both children (average annual change 0·56 [0·40-0·72]) and adolescents (average annual change 1·17 [0·82-1·53])."
"The largest contributors to total personal environmental RF-EMF exposure were downlink and broadcast, and these exposures showed high repeatability. Urbanicity was the most important determinant of total exposure and mobile phone use was the most important determinant of uplink exposure. It is important to continue evaluating RF-EMF exposure in children as device use habits, exposure levels, and main contributing sources may change."
"Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs."
"Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof."
"In this review, we discuss the possibility that carcinogenic effects are based on the radical pair mechanism (RPM), which seems to be involved in magnetoreception in birds and certain other animals, allowing navigation in the geomagnetic field. We review the current understanding of the RPM in magnetoreception, and discuss cryptochromes as the putative magnetosensitive molecules and their possible links to cancer-relevant biological processes. We then propose a hypothesis for explaining the link between ELF fields and childhood leukaemia, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence, and make proposals for further research."
"The observed average (geometric mean) magnetic field values were; bed 0.85, bedroom 1.39 mG, baby cot 0.39 mG, children’s play area 0.47 mG, and family room 0.30 mG. Our results show considerable variation in the fields to which residents are typically exposed, particularly in beds (21.83%) and bedrooms (33.33%) where the percentage of measurements greater than 4 mG was considerable. Some emissions exceeded the general public exposure levels of the ICNIRP Guidelines, with the potential for residents to be exposed above these levels. However, away from electrical appliances, the average field in all rooms was 0.30–1.39 mG. We show that simple precautions can be applied to reduce exposure to ELF-MFs in residences and thereby minimize potential risks to health and wellbeing."
"The authors have ignored the reports indicating Wi-Fi users at least should avoid long-term exposures. It has been shown that long-term exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation can lead to neurodegenerative diseases or adverse alterations in reproductive parameters."
"The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a "possible" human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies."
"All values were far below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's reference values, but most mean levels measured were above the precautionary target level of 3-6 µW/m2 as proposed by the Bioinitiative Report. The length of time wireless devices are used is an essential determinant in overall exposure. Measures to minimize children's exposure to RF radiation in school would include preferring wired connections, allowing laptops, tablets and mobile phones only in flight mode and deactivating Wi-Fi access points, when not used for learning purposes."
"Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk for behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention problems, in the offspring. The interpretation of these results is unclear as uncontrolled confounding may influence both maternal cell phone use and child behavioral problems."
"This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones."
"Children without emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 7 years, but who had cellphone exposures, had increased odds of emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 11 years, with an OR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.86) for children with both prenatal and age-7 cellphone exposures, 1.41 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.66) for prenatal exposure only, and 1.36 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.63) for age-7 use only. These results did not materially change when early adopters were excluded, or when children with emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 7 years were included in the analysis."
"Almost all of the total measured levels were above the precautionary target level of 3-6 µW/m2 as proposed by the BioInitiative Working Group in 2012. That target level was one-tenth of the scientific benchmark providing a safety margin either for children, or chronic exposure conditions. We compare the levels of RF radiation exposures identified in the present study to published scientific results reporting adverse biological effects and health harm at levels equivalent to, or below those measured in this Stockholm Central Railway Station project. It should be noted that these RF radiation levels give transient exposure, since people are generally passing through the areas tested, except for subsets of people who are there for hours each day of work."
"Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children."
"Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney."
"Over the past decades, the use of common sources of electromagnetic fields such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phones has been increased enormously all over the world. There is ongoing concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields can lead to adverse health effects. It has recently been shown that even low doses of mercury are capable of causing toxicity."
"The twenty-first century is marked with aggressive development of the wireless communications (satellite, mobile phones, Internet, Wi-Fi). In addition to thousand of satellites that deliver radio and TV signals, large satellite and base station networks secure intensive instant delivery of audio and video information. It is fair to say that that the entire civilization, both biosphere and mankind are exposed to continuous exposure of multitude of radiofrequency (RF) signals. It should be taken into account that the entire world population is exposed to exponentially increasing RF radiation from base stations and satellite antennas. While several years ago the potential hazard was connected with placement of mobile phones close to human head, today "smart phones" represent small, but powerful computers continuously receiving audio and video data. The largest group of users is the children and teenagers who "need" to communicate nearly 24 h a day. This is even more important because cell phones and tablets may be seen in the hands of children as little as two years in age. There is no way to assess and predict the potential damages of children brain, vision and hearing under exposure to RF radiation. The WHO precautionary principle and IARC classification must be applied in discussing the potential hazard of the use of today's and tomorrow's communication devices."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"Scientists and safety advocates say Health Canada’s new rules do not take into account many new studies on the safety of cellphones and other wireless devices."
"The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low."
"Since, varying the parameters of EMFs different effects may be observed, we have studied MCP-1 expression in HaCaT, SH-SY5Y, THP-1 and K562 exposed to a sinusoidal EMF at 50 Hz frequency with a flux density of 1 mT (rms). Our preliminary results showed that EMF-exposure differently modifies the expression of MCP-1 in different cell types. Thus, the MCP-1 expression needs to be better determined, with additional studies, with different parameters and times of exposure to ELF-EMF."
"Dosimetric comparison with various adult and child anatomical models was conducted. Significant differences in the physical and anatomical features between adult and child models demonstrated the importance of creating realistic infant models. Current safety guidelines for infant exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may not be conservative."
"We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy."
"The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents."
"Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed."
"Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people."
"Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals."
"Given the greater sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields of children and following the precautionary principle, preventive measures are warranted to reduce their exposure."
"These results indicate that although the effect size was about half of the effect previously reported, close maternal residential proximity to sources of ELF-EMF remained associated with suboptimal fetal growth."
"Mobile phone use was associated with a significantly increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for headaches and migraine (1.42, 95% CI = 1.12-1.81) and skin itches (1.84, 95% CI = 1.47-2.29). Children who regularly used mobile phones were also considered to have a health status worse than it was 1 year ago."
"In 2011, the World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) advised that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone and other wireless devices constitutes a "possible human carcinogen," 2B. Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review that take into account these methodological shortcomings from a number of authors find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma."
"This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases."
"On the basis of two decades of epidemiological studies, an increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with Extremely Low Frequency fields has been consistently assessed, inducing the International Agency for Research on Cancer to insert them in the 2B section of carcinogens in 2001. EMFs interaction with biological systems may cause oxidative stress under certain circumstances. Since free radicals are essential for brain physiological processes and pathological degeneration, research focusing on the possible influence of the EMFs-driven oxidative stress is still in progress, especially in the light of recent studies suggesting that EMFs may contribute to the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders."
"Mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. We present the first experimental evidence of neuropathology due to in-utero cellular telephone radiation. Further experiments are needed in humans or non-human primates to determine the risk of exposure during pregnancy."
"The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data."
"The potential impact of EMF exposure on public health is probably limited, although in some countries exposure might be relatively high and thus might have a more substantial impact. We recommend nationwide surveys in order to gain more insight into the contemporary exposure levels among children. Reducing exposure from power lines near densely populated areas and schools is advised. Future epidemiological studies should focus on limiting bias."
"Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended."
"Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary."
"The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure."
"Overall, the assessment that ELF-MF are a possible carcinogen and may cause childhood leukaemia remains valid. Ongoing research activities, mainly experimental and few new epidemiological studies, hopefully provide additional insight to bring clarity to a research area that has remained inconclusive."
"When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups."
"This study submits the results of a four-year monitoring of a complex diagnostics of the psychophysiological indicators for 196 children aged 7 to 12 years old: 147 of them are child users of mobile communication (test group) and 49 are in the control group. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, an increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found."
"In a subset of study participants for whom operator recorded data were available, brain tumor risk was related to the time elapsed since the mobile phone subscription was started but not to amount of use. No increased risk of brain tumors was observed for brain areas receiving the highest amount of exposure."
"Our findings provide new epidemiological evidence that high maternal MF levels in pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma in offspring."
"Children living within 200m of power lines presented an increased risk of ALL (OR 1.67; 95% CI 0.49-5.75), compared to children living at 600m or more of power lines. For those living within 50m of power lines the OR was 3.57 (95% CI 0.41-31.44)."
"The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently published a new research agenda for radiofrequency fields. The document lists high priority and other research needs for health effects research, subdivided into epidemiology, human studies, animal studies, cellular studies and mechanisms, and for social science research."
"Similarly, most of the recent observational studies did not show associations between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms. However, the exposure gradients were small and possible exposure misclassification is a limitation of these studies. Longitudinal studies as well as studies in children and adolescents are scarce. In summary, recent research did not indicate health-related quality of life to be affected by RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. Furthermore, none of the studies showed that individuals with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) were more susceptible to RF-EMF than the rest of the population. Nevertheless, the rapid technological development and anticipated increase in exposure levels warrant the conduct of further longitudinal studies. Due to the widespread use of wireless communication technologies potential adverse health effects would have major public health consequences."
"Therefore, actions to minimize exposure to mobile phones, e.g. by using a headset, have a larger potential than shielding against emissions from base stations. Both base stations and mobile phones apply power control mechanisms, capable to significantly reducing the transmit power and the associated exposure depending on the communication traffic. Present research investigates, whether children are more exposed to mobile telecommunication systems than adults."
"The findings of the previous publication were replicated in this separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at age 7 years in children, and this association was not limited to early users of the technology. Although weaker in the new dataset, even with further control for an extended set of potential confounders, the associations remained."
"The debate shows how the EC risk management framework can be used to apply the Precautionary Principle to small and uncertain public health risks. However, despite the need for evidence-based policy making, many of the decisions remain value driven and therefore subjective."
"Although not statistically significant, the estimate for childhood leukaemia resembles results of comparable studies. Assuming causality, the estimated attributable risk is below one case per year. Magnetic-field exposure during the year of birth is unlikely to be the whole cause of the association with distance from overhead power lines that we previously reported."
"Our results are in line with previous pooled analyses showing an association between magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Overall, the association is weaker in the most recently conducted studies, but these studies are small and lack methodological improvements needed to resolve the apparent association. We conclude that recent studies on magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia do not alter the previous assessment that magnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic."
"We obtained five exposure data sets, applied several candidate dose-response relationships to each one, and performed a regression analysis to see how well they fit each of the three epidemiological data sets. Threshold dose-response relationships performed only moderately. Linear relationships were generally even poorer. The fit was improved by adding quadratic terms or performing non-linear regression. There are limitations in our analysis, stemming from the available data, but addressing this issue in a data-based, quantitative manner should improve understanding, allow better calculations to be made of attributable numbers, and hence ultimately inform public policy making."
"This ratio estimated as 9.93 (95%CI: 3.47 to 28.5) for 123 KV, 10.78 (95%CI: 3.75 to 31) for 230 KV and 2.98 (95%CI: 0.93 to 9.54) for 400 KV lines. Odds of ALL decreased 0.61 for every 600 meters from the nearest power line. This study emphasizes that living close to high voltage power lines is a risk for ALL."
"In this article, personal electromagnetic field measurements are converted into whole-body specific absorption rates for exposure of the general public. Whole-body SAR values calculated from personal exposure meter data are compared for different human spheroid phantoms: the highest SAR values (at 950 MHz) are obtained for the 1-year-old child (99th percentile of 17.9 microW/kg for electric field strength of 0.36 V/m), followed by the 5-year-old child, 10-year-old child, average woman, and average man. For the 1-year-old child, whole-body SAR values due to 9 different radiofrequency sources (FM, DAB, TETRA, TV, GSM900 DL, GSM1800 DL, DECT, UMTS DL, WiFi) are determined for 15 different scenarios. An SAR matrix for 15 different exposure scenarios and 9 sources is provided with the personal field exposure matrix. Highest 95th percentiles of the whole-body SAR are equal to 7.9 microW/kg (0.36 V/m, GSM900 DL), 5.8 microW/kg (0.26 V/m, DAB/TV), and 7.1 microW/kg (0.41 V/m, DECT) for the 1-year-old child, with a maximal total whole-body SAR of 11.5 microW/kg (0.48 V/m) due to all 9 sources. All values are below the basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. 95th percentiles of whole-body SAR per V/m are equal to 60.1, 87.9, and 42.7 microW/kg for GSM900, DAB/TV, and DECT sources, respectively. Functions of the SAR versus measured electric fields are provided for the different phantoms and frequencies, enabling epidemiological and dosimetric studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR."
"The IARC has classified EMF as a "possible carcinogen" which refers to the circumstances where there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate evidence in experimental animals. The IARC review indicated limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in relation to childhood leukemia at high level exposure in the residential environment (average residential magnetic field strength greater than 0.4 uT). Even higher levels of exposure in the occupational environment may increase the risk of leukemia in adults."
"The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head."
"RESULTS: Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure > or = 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies.
CONCLUSIONS: Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation."
"Seven percent of the children and 5% of the adolescents showed an abnormal mental behaviour. In the multiple logistic regression analyses measured exposure to RF fields in the highest quartile was associated to overall behavioural problems for adolescents (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5) but not for children (1.3; 0.7-2.6). These results are mainly driven by one subscale, as the results showed an association between exposure and conduct problems for adolescents (3.7; 1.6-8.4) and children (2.9; 1.4-5.9). As this is one of the first studies that investigated an association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and mental health behaviour more studies using personal dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings."
"RESULTS: The odds ratios (95% CI) for exposure categories of 0.1 to 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, and above 0.4 microT, against a reference category of <0.1 microT, were 0.74 (0.17-3.18), 1.58 (0.25-9.83), and 10.9 (1.05-113), respectively, after adjusting for maternal education. This dose-response pattern was stable when other variables were included in the model as possible confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association was found between high-level exposure-above 0.4 microT-and the risk of brain tumors. This association could not be explained solely by confounding factors or selection bias."
"Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies, and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF). Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of cell phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of society, especially among children. While there has been strong evidence for an association between leukemia and residential or occupational exposure to ELF EMFs for many years, the standards in existence are not sufficiently stringent to protect from an increased risk of cancer. For RF EMFs, standards are set at levels designed to avoid tissue heating, in spite of convincing evidence of adverse biological effects at intensities too low to cause significant heating. Recent studies demonstrate elevations in rates of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma only on the side of the head where individuals used their cell phone. Individuals who begin exposure at younger ages are more vulnerable. These data indicate that the existing standards for radiofrequency exposure are not adequate. While there are many unanswered questions, the cost of doing nothing will result in an increasing number of people, many of them young, developing cancer."
"RESULTS: Agreement between HMP and self-reported laterality was modest, kappa (95% confidence interval) = 0.3 (0.0, 0.6). Concordance between HMP and self-reported number of calls was fair, intraclass correlation coefficient ICC = 0.38 (0.07, 0.69) but poor for duration, ICC = 0.01 (0.00, 0.37) with wide limits of agreement for both. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that adolescent self-reported laterality was of limited validity. Adolescent self-reported phone use by number and duration of calls was generally inaccurate but comparable to recent adult studies. Epidemiological studies of mobile phone use based on self-reported information may underestimate true associations with health effects."
"In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful."
"In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful."
"Results are suggestive of a possible association between maternal occupational ELF-MF exposure and certain brain tumors in their offspring."
"Wireless networking is being increasingly used in schools and it is important to quantify the exposure of children to the radiofrequency fields. This paper presents a series of laboratory measurements with selected items of Wi-Fi equipment known to be popular in UK schools. Unlike most of the previous similar studies, a signal analyzer has been used in this work with a bandwidth of 25 MHz allowing the detection of the whole WLAN signal. The results revealed the effect of having multiple transmitting antennas, as currently used in most of the wireless enabled laptops."
"Thirty years ago, Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper published the first report on the association between childhood cancer and "electrical current configuration" of houses in Denver, Colorado. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined 50-60 Hz magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" because of the "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity of residential exposure relatively to childhood leukemia. With respect to health effects other than cancer, namely neurodegenerative disorders, miscarriage, subtle differences in the timing of melatonin release, altered autonomic control of the heart, and changes in the number of natural killer cells, some open questions still remain. Several authors recommended further investigation of the possible long-term effects of magnetic fields, focussing on populations experiencing high exposure levels. In this frame a research team of ISS searched for a suitable location to implement an epidemiological study aimed at a wide range of outcomes for which a priori hypotheses could be formulated. The recently published findings of this project showed an increase of primary and secondary malignant neoplasms, ischaemic disease and haematological diseases. Future studies should thus address the most exposed sectors of the population, take into account different outcomes (all neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, immunological disorders, specific cardiovascular effects) and follow research protocols that enable subsequent pooled analyses. A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision making where the available resources for environmental remediation be prioritatively allocated to worst-off situations."
"Prolonged exposure and hyperthermia related to the power density of applied RF, increasing the temperature in the ear canal, may affect DPOAE amplitudes. Harmful effects of RF are mainly observed as a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes at 4.0-6.0 kHz during extrauterine exposure in infancy. During the intrauterine period, the water content of the middle and inner ear and amnion fluid may play a protective role. Therefore, children must be protected from RF exposure. The use of mobile phones at short distances from the ear of the infants should be avoided because of the lower thickness of the anatomical structure in infancy."
"Results showed that postnatal EMF exposure caused a significant decrease of the pyramidal cell number in the CA of the EMF group (P<0.05). Additionally, cell loss can be seen in the CA region of EMF group even at qualitative observation. These results may encourage researchers to evaluate the chronic effects of 900 MHz EMF on teenagers' brains."
"Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised."
"Our results suggest a possible association between electric transformers and power lines and the XRCC1 Ex9+16A allele in patients with childhood AL."
"The postulated presence of magnetic nanoparticles located in hematopoietic stem cells could constitute a cancer risk factor. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can possibly mediate increased level of leukaemia caused by background exposure to low-frequency weak EMF."
"The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models."
"ELF MFs have been reported to enhance the effects of known carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in a few animal studies and in several in vitro studies. This paper discusses the findings of studies on such combined effects. The majority of in vitro studies have reported positive findings, which supports the conclusion that MFs of 100 microT or higher interact with other chemical and physical agents. Further studies should address biophysical mechanisms and dose-response relationship below 100 microT."
"Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology."
"With the exception of high cut-point analyses (0.3/0.4 microT), where the possibility of a moderate risk increase cannot be excluded, no increase in childhood brain cancer risk was evident for any of the exposure metrics."
"A review of electric field studies provides evidence that (i) diurnal variation in the natural atmospheric electric field may itself act as a weak Zeitgeber; (ii) melatonin disruption by electric fields occurs in rats; (iii) in humans, disturbances in circadian rhythms have been observed with artificial fields as low at 2.5 V/m. Specific suggestions are made to test the aspects of the hypothesis."
"A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6W/Kg and 2W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at www.bioinitiative.org."
"This large case-control study identified a significantly increased risk of leukemia among the offspring of men likely to have been occupationally exposed to EMF, with differing associations between males and females. Increased risks of chondrosarcoma and renal carcinoma were also seen, although based on smaller numbers. Further detailed investigations in this area are required to understand this association."
"Although recognizing that this study has limitations, the results raise the possibility that prolonged residence close to high-voltage power lines, especially early in life, may increase the risk of the development of MPD and LPD later."
"The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 4.67) among children who resided within 2 km of the nearest AM radio transmitter as compared with those resided more than 20 km from it. For total RFR exposure from all transmitters, odds ratios for lymphocytic leukemia were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR."
"The results of this stakeholder investigation found convincing evidence that there was a small increase in risk of childhood leukaemia for those living in powerfrequency magnetic fields above 0.4 microTesla. It left open unresolved correlations between powerfrequency EMFs and other conditions, such as miscarriage, depression, breast cancer, adult leukaemia, ALS and brain cancer."
"High-voltage (HV) sources, including the HV overhead power lines that are the focus of public concern, accounted for 23% of the exposures above 0.2 microT, and 43% of those above 0.4 microT. Public health interest has focused on the consideration of precautionary measures that would reduce exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Our study provides a basis for considering the options for exposure mitigation in the UK. For instance, in elevated-exposure homes where net currents are higher than usual, if it is possible to reduce the net currents, then the exposure could be reduced for a sizeable proportion of these homes."
"An iteration equation is suggested that uses only a few model parameters and describes basic regularities observed in cancer onset. In the model context, relatively small chronic variations in the intracellular content of free radicals may markedly affect the probability of a cell to become a cancer cell. On the other hand, magnetic nanoparticles are shown to be an endogenous source of chronic magnetic exposure that increases the local concentration of free radicals. An enhanced level of leukaemia in early childhood is assumed to originate from magnetic nanoparticles located in hematopoietic stem cells."
"More children in developing countries like Iran live close to very high voltage lines, and they experience relatively more harmful effects from the Magnetic Fields, in comparison with children in developed countries. Residence near very high voltage overhead power lines, in distances < or = 500 meters, and Magnetic Fields >0.45 microT, should be considered a risk factor for the pathogenesis of acute leukaemias in children."
"We first examine separately the evidence on trends in exposure to EMFs and on trends in leukemia rates, and then compare the two. Both incidence rates and exposures have increased, but there are so many approximations and assumptions involved in connecting the two trends that we cannot regard the ecologic evidence as providing any meaningful evidence for or against a causal link."
"The fraction of childhood leukemia cases possibly attributable to ELF exposure across the globe appears to be small. There remain, however, a number of uncertainties in these AF estimates, particularly in the exposure distributions."
"A new study, Draper et al., looks at residence close to high-voltage power lines, one source of exposure to such fields, and its design avoids any obvious bias. It finds elevated childhood leukemia rates, but extending too far from the power lines to be straightforwardly compatible with the existing literature. This leads to an examination of alternative explanations: magnetic fields, other physical factors, such as corona ions, the characteristics of the areas power lines pass through, bias, and chance. The conclusion is that there is currently no single preferred explanation, but that this is a serious body of science that needs further work until an explanation is found."
"Most of the leukemia cases in the highest exposure category had MF levels far above 0.4 microT. Our results provided additional evidence that high MF exposure was associated with a higher risk of childhood leukemia, particularly of ALL."
"The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained."
"In the exposed group the weight was significantly decreased only at birth, while the circumferences of the head and chest as well as the height were significantly reduced at all studied ages. The radiological study revealed a significant delay in carpal bone ossification of the exposed children. In conclusion: Exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields emerged from high voltage electric power lines increases the incidence of growth retardation of children. Isolating these power lines in a scientific way in order to shield both the magnetic and electric fields or removing them far away from the inhabitant areas is recommended."
"The current findings suggest that EMF emitted by mobile phones has effects on brain oscillatory responses during cognitive processing in children."
"These recent studies, using the exposure methods and the cut-off levels set a priori, each concluded that there was little evidence of any association. The pooled analyses, using different exposure measures and different cut-offs, conclude that an association exists at high exposure levels. It is not clear if the results of the pooled analysis are more valid than those of the recent major studies, although this has been often assumed in influential reviews."
"Most of the studies reviewed used magnetic fields of 100 microT or higher, so the findings are not directly relevant for explaining the epidemiological findings suggesting increased risk of childhood leukemia above 0.4 microT. However, confirmed adverse effects even at 100 microT would have implications for risk assessment and management, including the need to reconsider the exposure limits for magnetic fields. There is an obvious need for further studies on combined effects with magnetic fields."
"There was a tendency for reaction time to be shorter