Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


O (28 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
"The results revealed that WiFi exposure caused a significant increase in anxiety level and affect locomotor function. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in AChE activity with a concomitant increase in AChE mRNA expression level in WiFi exposed rats when compared with control. In conclusions, these data showed that long term exposure to WiFi may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases as observed by a significant alteration on AChE gene expression and some neurobehavioral parameters associated with brain damage."
The Microwave Syndrome - Further Aspects of a Spanish Study
Oberfeld G et al, Conference Proceedings, oktober 2004
"The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. The inclusion of the distance, which might be a proxy for the sometimes raised "concerns explanation", did not alter the model substantially."
"Cytologic investigations designed to study bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of albino rats irradiated by an electromagnetic field, 2375, 2450, and 3000 MEGS, revealed structural and functional changes in populations of megakaryocytes, immunocompetent cells as well as of undifferentiated cells, and of other types of cells that are dependent on the intensity of irradiation and permit establishing the probability-threshold levels of exposure taking account of reactions of perception and physiologic adaptation together with compensatory and regenerative processes and the injury sustained. It is shown that changes in bone marrow cells differentiation and reproduction rather than integral shifts in the peripheral blood that acquire the utmost significance. Subjected to a particular scrutiny in the paper are blast cells, which cells' repopulation was noted to be getting increased in low-intensity exposure as were disturbances in their mitosis pattern."
"The numbers of granule cells in the dentate gyrus were analyzed using the optical fractionator technique. The results showed that prenatal EMF exposure caused a decrease in the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rats (P<0.01). This suggests that prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz EMF affects the development of the dentate gyrus granule cells in the rat hippocampus. Cell loss might be caused by an inhibition of granule cell neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus."
"We found that mobile phone radiation had significantly reduced the hatching ratio but not the mating success. If treated queens had successfully mated, colony development was not adversely affected. We provide evidence that mobile phone radiation may alter pupal development, once succeeded this point, no further impairment has manifested in adulthood. Our results are discussed against the background of long-lasting consequences for colony performance and the possible implication on periodic colony losses."
Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use
Oftedal G et al, Occup Med (Lond), maj 2000
"Most symptoms usually began during or within half an hour after the call and lasted for up to 2 h. Relatively few had consulted a physician or been on sick leave because of the symptoms, but about 45% among those with an MP attributed symptom had taken steps to reduce the symptom. These results suggest an awareness of the symptoms, but not necessarily a serious health problem."
"Objective: To investigate the effect of long duration exposure to electromagnetic field from mobile phones on spermatogenesis in rats using 4G-LTE. Methods: Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats were placed into 4 groups according to the intensity and exposure duration: Group 1 (sham procedure), Group 2 (3 cm distance + 6 h exposure daily), Group 3 (10 cm distance + 18 h exposure daily), and Group 4 (3 cm distance + 18 h exposure daily). After 1 month, we compared sperm parameters and histopathological findings of the testis. Results: The mean spermatid count (×106/ml) was 398.6 in Group 1, 365.40 in Group 2, 354.60 in Group 3, and 298.60 in Group 4 (p = 0.041). In the second review, the mean count of spermatogonia in Group 4 (43.00) was significantly lower than in Group 1 (57.00) and Group 2 (53.40) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, resp.). The sum of the germ cell counts was decreased in Group 4 compared to Groups 1, 2, and 3 (p = 0.032). The mean Leydig cell count was significantly decreased in Group 4 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The longer exposure duration of electromagnetic field decreased the spermatogenesis. Our findings warrant further investigations on the potential effects of EMF from mobile phones on male fertility."
"These data indicate no adverse effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure on immune-like T cell populations, T cell activation, or Th1/Th2 balance in developing rats, although significant transcriptional effects were observed."
"Histopathological examination of EMF group ovarian tissue revealed thinning in the zona granulosa and theca layers, shrinking in granulosa cells, reduced mitotic activity and leukocyte infiltration in the follicles and stroma. Secondary follicle numbers in the EMF group were significantly lower than in the other groups. In terms of biochemistry, EMF and sham group superoxide dismutase, catalase and anti-Mullerian hormone levels and EMF group 3-nitrotyrosine values increased significantly compared to the control group. EMF and sham group serum catalase and 8-hydroxy-deoxiguanosine values increased significantly compared to the control group, and EMF group total oxidant status and oxidative stress index values were significantly higher compared to the sham and control groups."
"In conclusion, wireless (2.45 GHz) EMR caused oxidative damage in testis by increasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and decreasing in vitamin A and E levels. Melatonin supplementation prevented oxidative damage induced by EMR and also supported the antioxidant redox system in the testis."
Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function
Oktay MF, Dasdag S, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2006
"However, detection thresholds in those who talked approximately 2 h per day were found to be higher than those in either moderate users or control subjects. Differences at 4000 Hz for both bone and air conduction for right ears, and 500 Hz, and 4000 Hz bone and air conduction for left ears were significant for mean hearing threshold. This study shows that a higher degree of hearing loss is associated with long-term exposure to electromagnetic (EM) field generated by cellular phones."
"In the EMR-exposed group, while tissue MDA and urine NAG levels increased, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities were reduced. Melatonin treatment reversed these effects as well. In this study, the increase in MDA levels of renal tissue and in urine NAG and also the decrease in renal SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanism induced by 900-MHz mobile phone exposure, and melatonin, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorated oxidative tissue injury in rat kidney. These results show that melatonin may exhibit a protective effect on mobile phone-induced renal impairment in rats."
The interphone study: brain cancer and beyond
Olsen J, Bioelectromagnetics, februar 2011
"The Interphone Study on brain cancer rests upon a case-control design with recall of past exposures recorded with substantial inaccuracy and low participation rates. This commentary questions the wisdom in choosing this design and argues that funding could and should have been used better by setting up a large-scale cohort study that could address other potential endpoints besides cancer."
"A significant association was seen between all major types of childhood cancer combined and exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage installations of > or = 0.4 microT (odds ratio 5.6)."
"This is an in-vitro pilot study which established the effect of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from 2.4 GHz laptop antenna on human semen. Ten samples of the semen, collected from donors between the ages of 20 and 30 years were exposed when the source of the RFR was in active mode. Sequel to the exposure, both the exposed samples and another ten unexposed samples from same donors were analysed for sperm concentration, motility and morphology grading. A test of significance between results of these semen parameters using Mann-Whitney U-test at 0.05 level of significance showed a significant effect of RFR exposure on the semen parameters considered."
"In this study, increased malondialdehyde levels in endometrial tissue and apoptosis illustrated the role of the oxidative mechanism induced by exposure to a 900-MHz mobile phone-like device and vitamins E and C; via free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, oxidative tissue injury and apoptosis were ameliorated in rat endometrium. In conclusion, exposure to 900-MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones may cause endometrial apoptosis and oxidative stress, but treatment with vitamins E and C can diminish these changes and may have a beneficial effect in preventing endometrial changes in rats."
"It is well established that strong electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can give rise to acute health effects, such as burns, which can be effectively prevented by respecting exposure guidelines and regulations. Current concerns are instead directed toward the possibility that long-term exposure to weak EMF might have detrimental health effects due to some biological mechanism, to date unknown. (1) The possible risk due to pulsed EMF at frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) on rat postnatal neurogenesis was studied in relation to the animal's age, duration of the exposure dose, and post-irradiation survival. (2) Proliferating cells marker, BrdU, was used to map age- and dose-related immunohistochemical changes within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) after whole-body exposure of newborn (P7) and senescent (24 months) rats. (3) Two dose-related exposure patterns were performed to clarify the cumulative effect of EMF: short-term exposure dose, 2 days irradiation (4 h/day), versus long-term exposure dose, 3 days irradiation (8 h/day), both followed by acute (24 h) and chronic (1-4 weeks) post-irradiation survival. (4) We found that the EMF induces significant age- and dose-dependent changes in proliferating cell numbers within the RMS. Our results indicate that the concerns about the possible risk of EMF generated in connection with production, transmission, distribution, and the use of electrical equipment and communication sets are justified at least with regard to early postnatal neurogenesis."
"Generally, results obtained were found to be below the occupational reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, but at some locations, the field intensity was 4.3 times higher than the reference levels for the general public."
"The exposure of male mice to radiofrequency radiations from mobile phone (GSM) base stations at a workplace complex and residential quarters caused 39.78 and 46.03%, respectively, in sperm head abnormalities compared to 2.13% in control group. Statistical analysis of sperm head abnormality score showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in occurrence of sperm head abnormalities in test animals. The major abnormalities observed were knobbed hook, pin-head and banana-shaped sperm head. The occurrence of the sperm head abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent. The implications of the observed increase occurrence of sperm head abnormalities on the reproductive health of humans living in close proximity to GSM base stations were discussed."
"Pregnancies of mothers reporting microwave use 6 months prior to the pregnancy or during the first trimester were more likely to result in miscarriage (odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.59). The odds ratio increased with increasing level of exposure (chi 2 = 7.25, p < 0.005). The odds ratio in the highest exposure group (20 or more exposures/month) was 1.59. The overall odds ratio was slightly lower after it was controlled for prior fetal loss (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.59), but the exposure-response effect remained (chi 2 = 5.17, p < 0.01). The risk of miscarriage was not associated with reported use of shortwave diathermy equipment (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91-1.24). The odds ratio in the highest exposure group was 0.87."
"The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile."
"Melatonin caused a significant decrease in urinary NAG activity and MDA levels which were increased because of EMR exposure. CAPE also reduced elevated MDA levels in EMR exposed renal tissue, but the effect of melatonin was more potent than that of CAPE. Furthermore, treatment of EMR exposed rats with melatonin increased activities of SOD and GSH-Px to higher levels than those of control rats. In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE prevent renal tubular injury by reducing oxidative stress and protect the kidney from oxidative damage induced by 900 MHz mobile phone. Nevertheless, melatonin seems to be a more potent antioxidant compared with CAPE in kidney."
In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE reduce retinal oxidative stress after long-term exposure to 900 MHz emitting mobile phone. Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the efficacies of these two antioxidants against to EMR induced oxidative stress in rat retina. The difference was in only GSH-Px activity in rat retina. Melatonin stimulated the retinal GSH-Px activity more efficiently than CAPE did.
"Histopathologic changes in skin were analyzed. In the IR group, increased thickness of stratum corneum, atrophy of epidermis, papillamatosis, basal cell proliferation, increased granular cell layer (hypergranulosis) in epidermis and capillary proliferation, impairment in collagen tissue distribution and separation of collagen bundles in dermis were all observed compared to the control group. Most of these changes, except hypergranulosis, were prevented with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, exposure to 900 MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones caused mild skin changes. Furthermore, melatonin treatment can reduce these changes and may have a beneficial effect to prevent 900 MHz mobile phone-induced rat skin changes."
"The weight of testes, testicular biopsy score count and the percentage of interstitial tissue to the entire testicular tissue were not significantly different in EMF group compared to the control group. However, the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the mean height of the germinal epithelium were significantly decreased in EMF group (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in serum total testosterone level in EMF group (p<0.05). Therefore, there was an insignificant decrease in plasma LH and FSH levels in EMF group compared to the control group (p>0.05)."
"RESULTS: Significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitric oxide (NO(x)) levels and decreases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were observed in the liver of guinea pigs after RFR exposure. Only NAC treatment induces increase in hepatic GSH-Px activities, whereas EGCG treatment alone attenuated MDA level. Extent of oxidative damage was found to be proportional to the duration of exposure (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Mobile phone-like radiation induces oxidative damage and changes the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The adverse effect of RFR may be related to the duration of mobile phone use. NAC and EGCG protect the liver tissue against the RFR-induced oxidative damage and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities."
"Our results indicate that the applications of 900- and 1,800-MHz (2 W/kg) RFR cause to decrease in the proliferation of the Hep G2 cells after 4 h of exposure. Further studies will be conducted on other frequency bands of RFR and longer duration of exposure."
"In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats."

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