genotoksičnost (60 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF."
"Results showed that 2.45 GHz microwave radiation resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease (p < 0.001) in the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), testosterone and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05). Flow cytometer analysis of blood showed the formation of micronuclei in microwave-exposed group. Histopathological changes were also seen in seminiferous tubules of microwave-exposed group as compared to the sham-exposed group. It is concluded that 2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposure causes oxidative stress in testes and it may lead to detrimental and injurious effects on fertility potential of the male reproductive system of Swiss albino mice."
"Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health."
"Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF."
"RESULTS: The study of scanning electron microscopic revealed shrinkage of the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Apoptotic bodies were found in exposed group. A flow cytometry examination showed formation of micronuclei body in lymphocytes of exposed group. Comet assay confirmed DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand break. Testosterone level was found significantly decreased with the shrinkage of testicular size. CONCLUSIONS: 10 GHz field has an injurious effect on fertility potential of male-exposed animals."
"Our findings led us to conclude that a low level of MW irradiation-induced oxidative stress not only suppresses implantation, but it may also lead to deformity of the embryo in case pregnancy continues. We also suggest that MW radiation-induced oxidative stress by increasing ROS production in the body may lead to DNA strand breakage in the brain cells and implantation failure/resorption or abnormal pregnancy in mice."
"This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases."
"In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain."
"Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields."
"By varying duration of exposure, the embryos were exposed to different doses of radiation, sacrificed at different periods of incubation and subjected to histological processing. On light microscopic study it was observed that developing neurons of dorsal root ganglion suffered a damage which was dose dependent and persisted in spite of giving the exposure-free period between two exposures."
"Testicular infertility or testicular cancer due to mobile phone or microwave radiations suggests an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though generation of ROS in testis has been responsible for possible toxic effects on physiology of reproduction, the reviews of last few decades have well established that these radiations are very harmful and cause mutagenic changes in reproductive pattern and leads to infertility. The debate will be focused on bio-interaction mechanism between mobile phone and testicular cancer due to ROS formation. This causes the biological damage and leads to several changes like decreased sperm count, enzymatic and hormonal changes, DNA damage, and apoptosis formation."
"In conclusion, our findings suggest that EMFs possess genotoxic capability, as measured by CA and MN assays; CA analysis appeared more sensitive than other cytogenetic end-points. It can be concluded that chronic occupational exposure to EMFs may lead to an increased risk of genetic damage among electrical workers."
"Collectively, these data indicate that 900 MHz MW-EMF acts as DNA damage signal at short time of exposure thus leading to an early activation of genes involved either in double- or single-strand DNA repair process as well as in the cell cycle arrest. Although this activation, the acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells are unable to achieve growth arrest since the downstream effectors of both DNA repair and G1 phase genes are down-expressed either at early and late high-frequency EMF exposure times. Furthermore, in tumor cells the 900 MHz MW-EMF acts as negative regulator of genes involved in the control of chromosomal organization and in the inhibition of angiogenesis thus leading to tumor progression and metastatic transformation."
"The results of this study suggest that, under the experimental conditions applied, repeated 915 MHz irradiation could be a cause of DNA breaks in renal and liver cells, but not affect the cell genome at the higher extent compared to the basal damage."
"The hypothesis of a correlation between genotoxic assays and ELF-MF exposure value was partially supported, especially as regards MN assay. Since these results are derived from a small-scale pilot study, a larger scale study should be undertaken."
"The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment."
"It was found that MNi rate increased 11-fold and STAT3 expression decreased 7-fold in the cell cultures which were exposed to RF. Cell phones which spread RF may damage DNA and change gene expression in brain cells."
"These effects depended on frequency within the frequency range of 7-11Hz. While NAL induced SOS response, ELF exposure did not induce the recA-lacZ fusion. Exposure to ELF did not modify the genotoxic effects of NAL either. All together, the data show that ELF, under specific conditions of exposure, acted as nontoxic but cell growth stimulating agent."
"The results confirm our previous findings showing that pre-exposure to MFs as low as 100 uT alters cellular responses to menadione, and show that increased genotoxicity results from such interaction. The present findings also indicate that complementary data at several chronological points may be critical for understanding the MF effects on DNA damage, repair, and post-repair integrity of the genome."
"In this paper we review the data on alleged RFR-induced genetic effects from in vitro and in vivo investigations as well as from human cytogenetic biomonitoring surveys. Attention is also paid to combined exposures of RFR with chemical or physical agents. Again, however, no entirely consistent picture emerges. Many of the positive studies may well be due to thermal exposures, but a few studies suggest that biological effects can be seen at low levels of exposure. Overall, however, the evidence for low-level genotoxic effects is very weak."
"These radiations induce micronuclei formation and significant increase in ROS production. Significant changes in the level of serum glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were observed in exposed group as compared with control group. It is concluded that microwave exposure can be affective at genetic level. This may be an indication of tumor promotion, which comes through the overproduction of reactive oxygen species."
"Because of the increased use of modern radiofrequency devices, public concern about the possible health effects of exposure to microwave radiation has arisen in many countries. It is well established that high-power microwave radiation can induce cataracts via its thermal effects. It remains unclear whether low-power microwave radiation, especially at levels below the current exposure limits, is cataractogenic. This review summarizes studies on the biological effects of low-power microwave radiation on lens and lens epithelial cells (LECs). It has been reported that exposure affects lens transparency, alters cell proliferation and apoptosis, inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication, and induces genetic instability and stress responses in LECs. These results raise the question of whether the ambient microwave environment can induce non-thermal effects in the lens and whether such effects have potential health consequences. Further in vivo studies on the effects on the lens of exposure to low-power microwave radiation are needed."
"Although cumulative frequency of use showed no significant changes in the DNA integrity of the classified sub-groups, the long-term users (> 10 years) showed higher induction of DNA damage and increased frequency of micronuclei and micro nucleated cells."
"The results of this study demonstrated that a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged to occupational exposure to ELMF in electric transformer and distribution stations."
"In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain."
"In relation to these data it seems that MF could act as a co-inductor of DNA damage rather than as a genotoxic agent per se. Nevertheless, the published results, in some cases conflicting with negative findings, do not facilitate to obtain a common consensus about MF effects and biophysical interaction mechanisms."
"101 publications are exploited which have studied genotoxicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in vivo and in vitro. Of these 49 report a genotoxic effect and 42 do not. In addition, 8 studies failed to detect an influence on the genetic material, but showed that RF-EMF enhanced the genotoxic action of other chemical or physical agents. The controversial results may in part be explained by the different cellular systems. Moreover, inconsistencies may depend from the variety of analytical methods being used, which differ considerably with respect to sensitivity and specificity. Taking altogether there is ample evidence that RF-EMF can alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way. This genotoxic action may be mediated by microthermal effects in cellular structures, formation of free radicals, or an interaction with DNA-repair mechanisms."
"In this paper the cytogenetic biomonitoring studies of RF-exposed humans are reviewed. A majority of these studies do show that RF-exposed individuals have increased frequencies of genetic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations) in their lymphocytes or exfoliated buccal cells. However, most of the studies, if not all, have a number of shortcomings that actually prevents any firm conclusion. Radiation dosimetry was lacking in all papers, but some of the investigations were flawed by much more severe imperfections. Large well-coordinated multidisciplinary investigations are needed in order to reach any robust conclusion."
"Our results show that non-thermal exposure to the radiofrequency fields investigated here can induce mitotic aberrations in root meristematic cells of A. cepa. The observed effects were markedly dependent on the field frequencies applied as well as on field strength and modulation. Our findings also indicate that mitotic effects of RF-EMF could be due to impairment of the mitotic spindle."
"This is the first study to report that ELF-MF exposure generates oxidatively induced DNA base modifications which are mutagenic in mammalian cells, such as FapyGua, FapyAde and 8-OH-Gua, in vivo. This may explain previous studies showing DNA damage and genomic instability. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to 50-Hz MF may be potentially genotoxic. However, the intensity of ELF-MF has an important influence on the extent of DNA damage."
"ELF MFs have been reported to enhance the effects of known carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in a few animal studies and in several in vitro studies. This paper discusses the findings of studies on such combined effects. The majority of in vitro studies have reported positive findings, which supports the conclusion that MFs of 100 microT or higher interact with other chemical and physical agents. Further studies should address biophysical mechanisms and dose-response relationship below 100 microT."
"UMTS exposure may cause genetic alterations in some but not in all human cells in vitro."
"A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6W/Kg and 2W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at www.bioinitiative.org."
"Almost three times higher number of bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in comparison with control group. The difference in break per cell (b/c) values recorded between smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant in the exposed group. Regression analyses showed significant positive correlation between the results obtained with two different methods. Considering the correlation coefficients, the number of metaphase with breaks was a better predictor of the comet assay parameters compared to b/c ratio. The best correlation was found between tail moment and number of chromatid with breaks. Our results indicate that MW radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard using the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive biomarkers of individual cancer susceptibility."
"In this review, a general overview is given about oxidative stress, as well as experimental studies are reviewed as they are related to changes in oxidant and antioxidant content after ELF-EMF exposure inducing different biological effects. Finally, we conclude from our review that modulations on the oxidant and antioxidant level through ELF-EMF exposure can play a causal role in cancer development."
"Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism."
"No or repairable DNA damage was observed after 2 hour irradiation of 1.8 GHz microwave on LECs when SAR < or = 3 W/kg. The DNA damages caused by 4 W/kg irradiation were irreversible."
"We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects."
"Among the 63 peer reviewed scientific reports, the conclusions from 29 studies (46%) did not indicate increased damage to the genetic material, as assessed from DNA strand breaks, incidence of chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), in EMF exposed cells as compared with sham exposed and/or unexposed cells, while those from 14 investigations (22%) have suggested an increase in such damage in EMF exposed cells. The observations from 20 other studies (32%) were inconclusive. This study reviews the investigations published in peer reviewed scientific journals during 1990-2003 and attempts to identify probable reason(s) for the conflicting results. Recommendations are made for future research to address some of the controversial observations."
"To test whether this controversy might reflect differences between the cellular targets examined we exposed cultured cells derived from different tissues to an intermittent ELF-EMF (50 Hz sinusoidal, 1 mT) for 1-24h. The alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess ELF-EMF-induced DNA strand breaks. We could identify three responder (human fibroblasts, human melanocytes, rat granulosa cells) and three non-responder cell types (human lymphocytes, human monocytes, human skeletal muscle cells), which points to the significance of the cell system used when investigating genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF."
"It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects."
"In comparison to the sham exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes revealed significant differences for the 8th and 15th experimental day. Bone marrow erythrocyte maturation and/or proliferation initiated by subthermogenic RF/MW irradiation showed temporary disturbance. Thereafter, the
frequency of micronucleated bone marrow red cells was significantly increased after 15 irradiation treatments. Comparison of micronucleus frequency data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions, RF/MWirradiation initiates transitory cytogenetic effect manifested with micronucleus
formation in erythropoietic cells."
"Long-term exposure to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) greater than 0.4 microT has been linked, by epidemiological studies, to a small elevated risk of childhood leukaemia. Laboratory-based experiments have been claimed to show that ELF EMFs induce a variety of biological responses, although these claims are controversial. Recent experiments by Ivancsits et al. [Mutat. Res. 519 (2002) 1; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 76 (2003) 431; Mech. Age. Dev. 124 (2003) 847; H.W. Rüdiger, S. Ivancsits, E. Diem, O. Jahn, Genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF on human cells in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics Society 25th Annual Meeting, Maui, USA, 2003] suggest that ELF EMFs are genotoxic, on the basis of observations that intermittent exposures induce single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) in the DNA of cultured human fibroblasts. The implications of these findings are discussed."
"Taken together, these EMF induced reactions could lead to a higher incidence of DNA damage and therefore, to an increased risk of tumour development. While the effects on melatonin and the extension of the lifetime of radicals can explain the link between EMF exposure and the incidence of for example leukaemia, the two additional mechanisms described here specifically for mouse macrophages, can explain the possible correlation between immune cell system stimulation and EMF exposure."
"In comparison with the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) for experimental days 8 and 15. The frequency of micronucleated PCEs was also significantly increased on experimental day 15 (P < 0.05). Pair-wise comparison of data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham-exposed and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions the findings revealed a transient effect on proliferation and maturation of erythropoietic cells in the rat bone marrow and the sporadic appearance of micronucleated immature bone marrow red cells."
"The findings have shown that microwaves from GSM mobile phone affected chromatin conformation in human normal and transformed lymphocytes. Because of the very low SAR value in the exposed samples, the microwave effects could not be attributed to heating induced by the exposure system. The exposure level in this study was far below the ICNIRP value. GSM microwaves under specific conditions of exposure affected human lymphocytes similar to stress response. The findings indicated that the microwave effects differ at various GSM frequencies and vary between donors."
"The low-intensity 2450-MHz microwave radiation can not induce DNA and chromosome damage, but can increase DNA damage effect induced by MMC in comet assay."
"The results for the time-course of PCEs indicated significant differences (P<0.05) for the 2nd, the 8th and the 15th day between control and treated subgroups of animals. Increased influx of immature erythrocytes into the peripheral circulation at the beginning of the experiment revealed that the proliferation and maturation of nucleated erythropoietic cells were affected by exposure to the 2,450 MHz radiofrequency radiation. Such findings are indicators of radiation effects on bone-marrow erythropoiesis and their subsequent effects in circulating red cells. The incidence of micronuclei/1,000 PCEs in peripheral blood was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the subgroup exposed to rf/MW radiation after eight irradiation treatments of 2 h each in comparison with the sham-exposed control group. It is likely that an adaptive mechanism, both in erythrocytopoiesis and genotoxicity appeared in the rat experimental model during the subchronic irradiation treatment."
"The conditions of intermittence showed an impact on the induction of DNA strand breaks, producing the highest levels at 5min field-on/10min field-off. We also found individual differences in response to ELF-EMF as well as an evident exposure-response relationship between magnetic flux density and DNA migration in the comet assay. Our data strongly indicate a genotoxic potential of intermittent EMF. This points to the need of further studies in vivo and consideration about environmental threshold values for ELF exposure."
"As far as genotoxicity is concerned, the micronucleus frequency result was not affected by CW exposure; however, a statistically significant micronucleus effect was found following exposure to phase modulated field. These results would suggest a genotoxic power of the phase modulation per se."
"Combined experiment with BP, TPA and MF did not cause further MN formation. Since initiation during MF exposure caused a significant increased MN formation, our findings suggest that MFs enhance the initiation process of BP. We think that this MF-enhanced co-carcinogenic effect is caused by an indirect "cell activation" process. The resulting genomic instability is proposed to be due to free radicals and/or to the unscheduled "switching-on" of signal transduction pathways."
"The results showed for both radiation frequencies an induction of micronuclei as compared to the control cultures at a power density of 30mW/cm(2) and after an exposure of 30 and 60min. Our study would indicate that microwaves are able to cause cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes mainly for both high power density and long exposure time."
A correction was published in a subsequent issue of the
journal, stating that there was actually a significant increase in micronucleus formation
in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells after chronic exposure to the
"The potential mutagenic effect of low power microwave at the DNA sequence level in the mouse genome was evaluated by direct DNA analysis. Animals were exposed to microwave at a power density of 1 mW/cm2 for 2 h/day at a frequency of 2.45 GHz over a period of 120, 150 and 200 days. HinfI digested DNA samples from testis and brain of control and exposed animals were hybridized with a synthetic oligo probe (OAT 36) comprising nine repeats of 5'-GACA-3'. As compared to control animals, band patterns in exposed animals were found to be distinctly altered in the range of 7-8 kb which was also substantiated by densitometric analysis. Though the mechanism of this rearrangement is not yet clear, the results obtained at the present dose are of significance. This dose, which has been set as the safe limit for general public exposure by the Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of the International Radiation Protection Association, may imply a need for (re)evaluation of the mutagenic potential of microwaves at the prescribed safe limit for the personnel and people who are being exposed."
"In all experimental conditions, the frequency of all types of chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher than in the control samples. In the irradiated samples the presence of dicentric and ring chromosomes was established. The incidence of micronuclei was also higher in the exposed samples. The results of the structural chromosome aberration test and of the micronucleus test were comparatively analyzed. The values obtained showed a positive correlation between micronuclei and specific chromosomal aberrations (acentric fragments and dicentric chromosomes). The results of the study indicate that microwave radiation causes changes in the genome of somatic human cells and that the applied tests are equally sensitive for the detection of the genotoxicity of microwaves."
"These results suggest that microwave radiation can induce damage in the structure of chromosomal DNA."
"Results discussed in this study suggest that microwave radiation causes changes in the synthesis as well as in the structure of DNA molecules."
"A 2450 MHz microwave oven was converted into a microwave incubator. Rat kangaroo RH5 and RH16 cells were incubated in the incubator and were subcultured every 5 to 7 days. The temperature of the cell cultures in the incubator was maintained at 37 degrees C. The cells were incubated with direct microwave irradiation continuously for 50 passages and then returned to a conventional incubator and allowed to grow for another 30 passages. Cell growth rate was significantly reduced after 7 or 15 subculture passages under irradiation. Chromosome aberrations emerged after the cells had been microwave-incubated for about 20 passages. The long-term irradiation caused 0.84 chromosome breaks per cell in RH5 cell cultures and 0.10 breaks per cell in RH16 cell cultures. After the cell cultures had been returned to the conventional incubator and maintained for 30 passages, the number of chromosomes breaks was greatly reduced in both cell cultures. The number of polyploid cells was increased to 35 percent and 31 percent during the irradiation, and was significantly reduced in the conventional incubator. Many RH5 cells lost one chromosome and became 10-chromosome cells. The number of 10-chromosome cells increased during irradiation and continued to increase after being returned to the conventional incubator."