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"This commentary addresses several unfounded criticisms about the design and results of the NTP study that have been promoted to minimize the utility of the experimental data on RFR for assessing human health risks. In contrast to those criticisms, an expert peer-review panel recently concluded that the NTP studies were well designed, and that the results demonstrated that both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR were carcinogenic to the heart (schwannomas) and brain (gliomas) of male rats."
"From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations."
"This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF."
"With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed."
"Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs."
"Several studies have reported that exposure to EMF results in oxidative stress in many tissues of the body. Exposure to EMF is known to increase free radical concentrations and traceability and can affect the radical couple recombination. The purpose of this review was to highlight the impact of oxidative stress on antioxidant systems."
"Alterations in harvested brain tissues were confirmed by histopathological analyses which showed vascular congestion and DNA damage in the brain was assayed using agarose gel electrophoresis. Histomorphometry analyses of their brain tissues showed perivascular congestion and tissue damage as well."
"Electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range emitted from mobile phone jammers may lead to decreased motility and increased DNA fragmentation in human semen. It can be concluded that mobile phone jamming might exert adverse reproductive health effects."
"Referring to a couple European review panels the authors stated 'found no evidence of health effects of mobile phones to humans at current EMF dosage levels', giving the impression that there is scientific consensus on this issue. They did not mention the opposite claims of a large number of scientists and clinicians in the International EMF Scientist Appeal 2015 urging reforms to protect public health due to substantial scientific evidence of
adverse effects under currently permitted EMR levels. Even more intriguing is that the authors did not mention the French CERENAT study that investigated epidemiological evidence of mobile phone use on brain tumours replicating the Interphone protocol. CERENAT also reported a significantly increased risk for brain cancer with prolonged use of mobile phones, in line with Interphone and Hardell studies. Based on the publications after the IARC classification in May 2011, there have been calls for the IARC classification to be upgraded to a class 1 carcinogen, as opposed to the dismissal of cancer association by this paper. Without acknowledging these, the authors cited the negative studies such as the Danish cohort study with serious flaws such as excluding corporate subscribers (heaviest early users) and leaving
them in the control group (non-subscribers) pushing the results towards a null effect."
"Responses to MF were observed in both cell lines, but the effects differed between the cell lines. Micronuclei were significantly increased in SH-SY5Y cells at 30 µT. This effect was largest at the highest MQ dose used. Increased cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide levels were observed in C6 cells. The effects on superoxide levels were independent of MQ, enabling further mechanistic studies without co-exposure to MQ. The micronucleus and mitochondrial superoxide data were consistent with a conventional rising exposure-response relationship. For cytosolic superoxide, the effect size was unexpectedly large at 10 µT. The results indicate that the threshold for biological effects of ELF MFs is 10 µT or less."
"Consistently with the previous study, the level of micronuclei was statistically significantly elevated 15 days after exposure. A similar effect was observed at 30 days, but not at 45 days after exposure. The level of LPO was statically significantly decreased 30 and 45 days after exposure. Consistently with our previous findings, the MF effect did not depend on co-exposure to MQ. Treatment with NAC effectively decreased cellular ROS level and suppressed the effect of MQ on ROS, but it did not block the MF effect, indicating that increase in ROS is not needed as a causal link between MF exposure and induction of delayed effects. The results presented here are consistent with genomic instability that persists in the progeny of MF-exposed cells up to at least 30 days after exposure. Changes in LPO observed at 30 and 45 days after exposure indicates that the MF-initiated process may continue up to at least 45 days after exposure."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"Scientists and safety advocates say Health Canada’s new rules do not take into account many new studies on the safety of cellphones and other wireless devices."
"Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases."
"This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role."
"Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different."
"Present manuscript reviews evidences of altered brain physiology and stem cell functioning due to mobile phone/cell tower radiations, its association with increased cancer risk and explores early diagnostic value of EPI imaging in detecting EMF induced changes on human BEM."
"It may be concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz MWR increases the DNA damage in both brain tissues and plasma of the rats whereas it increases protein oxidation only in plasma. It may also be argued that the use of garlic decreases these effects."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF."
"The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer."
"These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells."
"Our results indicate that the applications of 900- and 1,800-MHz (2 W/kg) RFR cause to decrease in the proliferation of the Hep G2 cells after 4 h of exposure. Further studies will be conducted on other frequency bands of RFR and longer duration of exposure."
"The number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group, influenced by electromagnetic radiation, is statistically lower than the number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group under no effect of the mobile phone. The number of non-progressive movement spermatozoa was significantly higher in the group, which was influenced by cell phone radiation. The DNA fragmentation was also significantly higher in this group."
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders."
"Although cell proliferation and the percentages of neurons and astrocytes differentiated from eNSCs were not affected by 50 Hz ELF-EMF, the expression of genes regulating neuronal differentiation was altered. In conclusion, our results support that 50 Hz ELF-EMF induce molecular changes during eNSCs differentiation, which might be compensated by post-transcriptional mechanisms to support cellular homeostasis."
"The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects."
"These findings raise questions about the safety of radiofrequency exposure from Wi-Fi Internet access devices for growing organisms of reproductive age, with a potential effect on both fertility and the integrity of germ cells."
"RESULTS: The study of scanning electron microscopic revealed shrinkage of the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Apoptotic bodies were found in exposed group. A flow cytometry examination showed formation of micronuclei body in lymphocytes of exposed group. Comet assay confirmed DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand break. Testosterone level was found significantly decreased with the shrinkage of testicular size. CONCLUSIONS: 10 GHz field has an injurious effect on fertility potential of male-exposed animals."
"Our findings led us to conclude that a low level of MW irradiation-induced oxidative stress not only suppresses implantation, but it may also lead to deformity of the embryo in case pregnancy continues. We also suggest that MW radiation-induced oxidative stress by increasing ROS production in the body may lead to DNA strand breakage in the brain cells and implantation failure/resorption or abnormal pregnancy in mice."
"This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases."
"In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain."
"Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields."
"Exposure to ELF-EMF alone resulted in an increase in DNA damage compared to control cells. ELF-EMF lessened the effects of oxidative stress and DNA damage that were induced by cisplatin; however, ELF-EMF alone was a mild oxidative stressor and DNA damage inducer. We speculate that ELF-EMF exerts differential effects depending on the exogenous conditions. This information may be of value for appraising the pathophysiologic consequences of exposure to ELF-EMF."
"The results show that PMF-exposed cells had a lower number of both retrotransposition events and DNA DSB compared with sham-exposed samples. These results suggest that exposure to PMF can interfere with retrotransposition activity by inducing a decrease of retrotransposition events."
"Testicular infertility or testicular cancer due to mobile phone or microwave radiations suggests an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though generation of ROS in testis has been responsible for possible toxic effects on physiology of reproduction, the reviews of last few decades have well established that these radiations are very harmful and cause mutagenic changes in reproductive pattern and leads to infertility. The debate will be focused on bio-interaction mechanism between mobile phone and testicular cancer due to ROS formation. This causes the biological damage and leads to several changes like decreased sperm count, enzymatic and hormonal changes, DNA damage, and apoptosis formation."
"Because ionizing radiation also causes DNA damage, a biologically based standard related to stimulation of DNA could apply over a much wider range of the electromagnetic spectrum. A safety standard for exposure to a wide range of non ionizing frequencies can be based on the documented changes in DNA biochemistry that arise from interactions with EMF."
"The activation of ROS is triggered by the conformation disturbance of lipids, protein, and DNA induced by the exposure of GSM RFEMF. Although human PBMC was found to have a self-protection mechanism of releasing carotenoid in response to oxidative stress to lessen the further increase of ROS, the imbalance between the antioxidant defenses and ROS formation still results in an increase of cell death with the exposure time and can cause about 37% human PBMC death in eight hours."
"Using model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate the effects of ELF-MF and RF-EMF exposure on global gene expression."
"The results indicated that the extent of damage in mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 1 day and then subjected to y-radiation was similar and not significantly different from those exposed to y-radiation alone. However, mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days showed progressively decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to y-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-exposure is capable of inducing AR and suggested that the pre-exposure for more than 4 hours for 1 day is necessary to elicit such AR."
"Collectively, these data indicate that 900 MHz MW-EMF acts as DNA damage signal at short time of exposure thus leading to an early activation of genes involved either in double- or single-strand DNA repair process as well as in the cell cycle arrest. Although this activation, the acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells are unable to achieve growth arrest since the downstream effectors of both DNA repair and G1 phase genes are down-expressed either at early and late high-frequency EMF exposure times. Furthermore, in tumor cells the 900 MHz MW-EMF acts as negative regulator of genes involved in the control of chromosomal organization and in the inhibition of angiogenesis thus leading to tumor progression and metastatic transformation."
"The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks."
"A short-term exposure (15 and 30 minutes) to RFR (900-MHz) from a mobile phone caused a significant increase in DNA single-strand breaks in human hair root cells located around the ear which is used for the phone calls."
"To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the direct impact of laptop use on human spermatozoa. Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect. We speculate that keeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to prove this contention."
"The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment."
"ELF-MF parameters of 7 mT, 40 Hz, 30 min/day for 10 days caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and insignificant increase in H(2)O(2) and free -SH groups. The same ELF-MF parameters but applied for 60 min/day caused a significant increase in free -SH groups and protein concentration in the brain homogenates indicating the adaptive mechanism. The study has shown that ELF-MF applied for 30 min/day for 10 days can affect free radical generation in the brain. Prolongation of the exposure to ELF-MF (60/min/day) caused adaptation to this field. The effect of ELF-MF irradiation on oxidative stress parameters depends on the time of animal exposure to magnetic field."
"Our findings indicate that the EMF exposure in preimplantation stage could have detrimental effects on female mouse fertility and embryo development by decreasing the number of blastocysts and increasing the blastocysts DNA fragmentation."
"The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure."
"The results of this study suggest that, under the experimental conditions applied, repeated 915 MHz irradiation could be a cause of DNA breaks in renal and liver cells, but not affect the cell genome at the higher extent compared to the basal damage."
"Consequently, it can be concluded that GSM-like RF radiation may induce biochemical changes by increasing free radical attacks to structural biomolecules in the rabbit as an experimental animal model."
"Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress."
"CRIP2, PLXND1, PTX3, SERPINF1, and TRPV2, were confirmed as differentially expressed after 6 h of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study reporting on potential gene expression modification associated with MMW radiation used in wireless communication applications."
"It was found that MNi rate increased 11-fold and STAT3 expression decreased 7-fold in the cell cultures which were exposed to RF. Cell phones which spread RF may damage DNA and change gene expression in brain cells."
"ELF-MF exposure affects transposition activity and the effects critically depend on the wave shape of the field, but not on the frequency and the exposure time, at least in the range observed."
"The wide frequency range of interaction with EMF is the functional characteristic of a fractal antenna, and DNA appears to possess the two structural characteristics of fractal antennas, electronic conduction and self symmetry. These properties contribute to greater reactivity of DNA with EMF in the environment, and the DNA damage could account for increases in cancer epidemiology, as well as variations in the rate of chemical evolution in early geologic history."
"The results confirm our previous findings showing that pre-exposure to MFs as low as 100 uT alters cellular responses to menadione, and show that increased genotoxicity results from such interaction. The present findings also indicate that complementary data at several chronological points may be critical for understanding the MF effects on DNA damage, repair, and post-repair integrity of the genome."
"Long-term microwave radiation may cause injury to male reproduction, which is positively correlated with the radiation dose, and has an obvious late effect."
"Semen quality in the adult male can be affected by a number of environmental and lifestyle factors. However, most studies to date have only considered how sperm concentration, motility and morphology are affected by such exposures. More recent studies, outlined in this review, have begun to examine the effect of environmental and lifestyle factors on sperm DNA integrity. Important factors appear to include: (i) Physical agents such as radiation and heat; (ii) Chemical agents such as cigarette smoke, airborne pollutants, and chemotherapeutic drugs; and (iii) Biological factors including sexually transmitted infections, increasing male age, elevated body mass index and medical conditions such as insulin dependent diabetes. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to account for how sperm DNA might be damaged by these factors. There is, however, uncertainty about the most appropriate laboratory test(s) to identify and quantify such DNA damage and no convincing evidence on possible therapeutic measures."
"In this paper we review the data on alleged RFR-induced genetic effects from in vitro and in vivo investigations as well as from human cytogenetic biomonitoring surveys. Attention is also paid to combined exposures of RFR with chemical or physical agents. Again, however, no entirely consistent picture emerges. Many of the positive studies may well be due to thermal exposures, but a few studies suggest that biological effects can be seen at low levels of exposure. Overall, however, the evidence for low-level genotoxic effects is very weak."
"We investigated the effects of extremely low frequency time-varying magnetic fields (MFs) on human normal and cancer cells. Whereas a single exposure to a 60-Hz time-varying MF of 6mT for 30min showed no effect, repetitive exposure decreased cell viability. This decrease was accompanied by phosphorylation of y-H2AX, a common DNA double-strand break (DSB) marker, and checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), which is critical to the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. In addition, repetitive exposure to a time-varying MF of 6mT for 30min every 24h for 3days led to p38 activation and induction of apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. Therefore, these results demonstrate that repetitive exposure to MF with extremely low frequency can induce DNA DSBs and apoptosis through p38 activation. These results also suggest the need for further evaluation of the effects of repetitive exposure to environmental time-varying MFs on human health."
"We investigated the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) with pulse trains exposure on lipid peroxidation, and, hence, oxidative stress in the rat liver tissue. The parameters that we measured were the levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase as well as plasma albumin, bilirubin, and total protein levels in 30 adult male Wistar rats exposed to ELF. We also determined the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells of the kidney extracts from the animals by flow cytometry method. Apoptotic cell death was further characterized by monitoring DNA degradation using gel electrophoresis. The results showed an increase in the levels of oxidative stress indicators, and the flow cytometric data suggested a possible relationship between the exposure to magnetic field and the cell death. We showed significantly lower necrotic cell percentages in experimental animals compared to either unexposed or sham control groups. However, DNA ladder analyses did not differentiate between the groups. Our results were discussed in relation to the response of biological systems to EMF."
"We conclude that these radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility."
"RESULTS: An increase in primary DNA damage was detected in all cerebral areas of the exposed mice sacrificed at the end of exposure, as compared to controls. DNA damage, as can be evaluated by the comet assay, appeared to be repaired in mice sacrificed 24 h after a 7-day exposure. Neither a short (15 h) nor long (7 days) MF-exposure induced hsp70 expression, metabolic and behavioural changes.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in vivo ELF-MF induce reversible brain DNA damage while they do not elicit the stress response."
"For today the limits were based solely on the conception of thermal mechanism of biological effects of RF/MW radiation. Meantime the latest experimental data indicate the significant metabolic changes in living cell under the low-intensive (non-thermal) EMR exposure. Among reproducible biological effects of low-intensive MWs are reactive oxygen species overproduction, heat shock proteins expression, DNA damages, apoptosis. The lack of generally accepted mechanism of biological effects of low-intensive non-ionizing radiation doesn't permit to disregard the obvious epidemiological and experimental data of its biological activity. Practical steps must be done for reasonable limitation of excessive EMR exposure, along with the implementation of new safety limits of mobile telephony devices radiation, and new technological decisions, which would take out the source of radiation from human brain."
"These radiations induce micronuclei formation and significant increase in ROS production. Significant changes in the level of serum glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were observed in exposed group as compared with control group. It is concluded that microwave exposure can be affective at genetic level. This may be an indication of tumor promotion, which comes through the overproduction of reactive oxygen species."
"The study concludes that the chronic exposure to these radiations may cause significant damage to brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion (Behari and Paulraj 2007)."
"Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that even acute exposure to low intensity EMF induces ROS production and DNA fragmentation in astrocytes in primary cultures, which also represent the principal target of modulated EMF. Our findings also suggest the hypothesis that the effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF and neocortical astrocytes."
"They were exposed to RFR (1800 MHz GSM; 14 V/m as reference level) for 15 min/day during 7 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were analyzed. MDA and 8-OHdG levels of non-pregnant and pregnant-RFR exposed animals significantly increased with respect to controls (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). No difference was found in the newborns (p > 0.05, Mann-Whitney). There exist very few experimental studies on the effects of RFR during pregnancy. It would be beneficial to increase the number of these studies in order to establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from RFR."
"Although cumulative frequency of use showed no significant changes in the DNA integrity of the classified sub-groups, the long-term users (> 10 years) showed higher induction of DNA damage and increased frequency of micronuclei and micro nucleated cells."
"The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals."
"Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage."
"The results of this study demonstrated that a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged to occupational exposure to ELMF in electric transformer and distribution stations."
"In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain."
"The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals."
"Despite the existence of national and international RF-radiation exposure guidelines, there are increasing public demands for precaution with respect to human exposure to RF radiation. Since current epidemiological evidence is insufficient to make a definitive judgment on the health risks of low-level RF radiation exposure, laboratory evidence assessing biological plausibility and theoretical mechanisms of interaction are important. A number of studies have reported that RF radiation may induce alterations in gene/protein expression in a variety of cells/tissues that may be associated with potentially harmful health outcomes, while other studies have shown no clear effects related to RF radiation. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence related to changes in protein and gene expression induced by low-level RF radiation."
"Results show that brain cells of microwave-exposed rats had significantly higher levels of DNA single- and double-strand breaks when compared with sham-exposed animals. Exposure to noise alone did not significantly affect the levels (i.e., they were similar to those of the sham-exposed rats). However, simultaneous noise exposure blocked microwave-induced increases in DNA strand breaks. These data indicate that simultaneous exposure to a temporally incoherent magnetic field could block microwave-induced DNA damage in brain cells of the rat."
"RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring."
"Result shows that the chronic exposure to these radiations causes DNA double-strand break (head and tail length, intensity and tail migration) and a significant decrease in GPx and SOD activity (p = or<0.05) in brain cells, whereas catalase activity shows significant increase in the exposed group of brain samples as compared with control (p = or<0.001). In addition to these, PKC decreased significantly in whole brain and hippocampus (p < 0.05). All data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. We conclude that these radiations can have a significant effect on the whole brain."
"All systems in an organism from the molecular to the organ level are more or less in motion. Thus, in living tissue we mostly find alternating fields as well as combination of EF and MF normally in the range of extremely low-frequency EMF. Because a bewildering array of model systems and clinical devices exits in the EMF field we concentrate on cell biological findings and look for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action. As an outlook for future research topics, this review tries to link areas of EF, MF and EMF research to thermodynamics and quantum physics, approaches that will produce novel insights into cell biology."
"In relation to these data it seems that MF could act as a co-inductor of DNA damage rather than as a genotoxic agent per se. Nevertheless, the published results, in some cases conflicting with negative findings, do not facilitate to obtain a common consensus about MF effects and biophysical interaction mechanisms."
"The expression of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator was only marginally increased in 1 of the 2 tested cell lines and expression of the tissue plasminogen activator was at least slightly down-regulated in BC cells exposed to EMFs. EMFs may be able to increase the metastatic potential of breast tumors. The use of our newly established exposure system for EMFs may allow us to study the signaling processes involved in the induction of a metastatic phenotype of breast cancer cells."
"(1) The difference between ELF-EMF-exposed and control cells as well as the 'effect size' due to ELF-EMF exposure were biologically small (although statistically significant) with very few exceptions. (2) At certain ELF-EMF exposure conditions there was a statistically significant increase in genetic damage assessed from some end-points. (3) The mean indices for chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei end-points in ELF-EMF-exposed and control cells were within the spontaneous levels reported in historical database. (4) Considerable evidence for publication bias was found in the meta-analysis."
"A major concern of the adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) is cancer induction. Since the majority of cancers are initiated by damage to a cell's genome, studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on DNA and chromosomal structure. Additionally, DNA damage can lead to changes in cellular functions and cell death. Single cell gel electrophoresis, also known as the 'comet assay', has been widely used in EMF research to determine DNA damage, reflected as single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks. Studies have also been carried out to investigate chromosomal conformational changes and micronucleus formation in cells after exposure to EMF. This review describes the comet assay and its utility to qualitatively and quantitatively assess DNA damage, reviews studies that have investigated DNA strand breaks and other changes in DNA structure, and then discusses important lessons learned from our work in this area."
"Bee venom shows a decrease in DNA damage compared with irradiated samples. Parameters of Fpg-modified comet assay are statistically different from controls, making this assay more sensitive and suggesting that oxidative stress is a possible mechanism of DNA damage induction. Bee venom is demonstrated to have a radioprotective effect against basal and oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, bee venom is not genotoxic and does not produce oxidative damage in the low concentrations used in this study."
"101 publications are exploited which have studied genotoxicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in vivo and in vitro. Of these 49 report a genotoxic effect and 42 do not. In addition, 8 studies failed to detect an influence on the genetic material, but showed that RF-EMF enhanced the genotoxic action of other chemical or physical agents. The controversial results may in part be explained by the different cellular systems. Moreover, inconsistencies may depend from the variety of analytical methods being used, which differ considerably with respect to sensitivity and specificity. Taking altogether there is ample evidence that RF-EMF can alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way. This genotoxic action may be mediated by microthermal effects in cellular structures, formation of free radicals, or an interaction with DNA-repair mechanisms."
"It is clear that in order to protect living cells, EMF safety limits must be changed from the current thermal standard, based on energy, to one based on biological responses that occur long before the threshold for thermal changes."
"No significant differences in effects between groups of healthy and hypersensitive subjects were observed, except for the effects of UMTS MWs and GSM-915 MHz MWs on the formation of the DNA repair foci, which were different for hypersensitive (P < 0.02[53BP1]//0.01[gamma-H2AX]) but not for control subjects (P > 0.05). The non-parametric statistics used here did not indicate specificity of the differences revealed between the effects of GSM and UMTS MWs on cells from hypersensitive subjects and more data are needed to study the nature of these differences."
"Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p<0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60min after the end of exposure (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872MHz CW RF radiation at 5W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR."
"Our results suggest a possible association between electric transformers and power lines and the XRCC1 Ex9+16A allele in patients with childhood AL."
"In this paper the cytogenetic biomonitoring studies of RF-exposed humans are reviewed. A majority of these studies do show that RF-exposed individuals have increased frequencies of genetic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations) in their lymphocytes or exfoliated buccal cells. However, most of the studies, if not all, have a number of shortcomings that actually prevents any firm conclusion. Radiation dosimetry was lacking in all papers, but some of the investigations were flawed by much more severe imperfections. Large well-coordinated multidisciplinary investigations are needed in order to reach any robust conclusion."
"Our results show that non-thermal exposure to the radiofrequency fields investigated here can induce mitotic aberrations in root meristematic cells of A. cepa. The observed effects were markedly dependent on the field frequencies applied as well as on field strength and modulation. Our findings also indicate that mitotic effects of RF-EMF could be due to impairment of the mitotic spindle."
"This is the first study to report that ELF-MF exposure generates oxidatively induced DNA base modifications which are mutagenic in mammalian cells, such as FapyGua, FapyAde and 8-OH-Gua, in vivo. This may explain previous studies showing DNA damage and genomic instability. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to 50-Hz MF may be potentially genotoxic. However, the intensity of ELF-MF has an important influence on the extent of DNA damage."
"The changes of many genes transcription were involved in the effect of 1.8 GHz RF EMF on rat neurons; Down-regulation of Egr-1 and up-regulation of Mbp, Plp indicated the negative effects of RF EMF on neurons; The effect of RF intermittent exposure on gene expression was more obvious than that of continuous exposure; The effect of 24 h RF exposure (both intermittent and continuous) on gene expression was more obvious than that of 6 h (both intermittent and continuous)."
"The postulated presence of magnetic nanoparticles located in hematopoietic stem cells could constitute a cancer risk factor. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can possibly mediate increased level of leukaemia caused by background exposure to low-frequency weak EMF."
"In this article, we present the model of slow non uniform rotation of the charged DNA-domain/nucleoid for the combined effects of MW and static magnetic field. The solution of this model suggests that the combined action of MW and static magnetic field results in slow non uniform rotation of nucleoid with angular speed that depends on Larmor frequency. The model predicts that non thermal effects of MW are dependent on carrier frequency and also static magnetic field in the area of exposure."
"Conformational changes that arise from alterations in charge distribution play a key role in membrane transport proteins, including ion channels, and probably account for DNA stimulation to initiate protein synthesis. It appears likely that weak EMF can control and amplify biological processes through their effects on charge distribution."
"Microwave radiation induced hLEC DNA damage after G(0)/G(1) arrest does not lead to cell apoptosis. The increased ROS observed may be associated with DNA damage. Superposed electromagnetic noise blocks microwave radiation-induced DNA damage, ROS formation, and cell cycle arrest."