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"The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases."
"Fifteen minutes of RF-EMF exposure exerts quantifiable effects on subtle energy levels of endocrine glands, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen of healthy teenagers. "
"The twenty-first century is marked with aggressive development of the wireless communications (satellite, mobile phones, Internet, Wi-Fi). In addition to thousand of satellites that deliver radio and TV signals, large satellite and base station networks secure intensive instant delivery of audio and video information. It is fair to say that that the entire civilization, both biosphere and mankind are exposed to continuous exposure of multitude of radiofrequency (RF) signals. It should be taken into account that the entire world population is exposed to exponentially increasing RF radiation from base stations and satellite antennas. While several years ago the potential hazard was connected with placement of mobile phones close to human head, today "smart phones" represent small, but powerful computers continuously receiving audio and video data. The largest group of users is the children and teenagers who "need" to communicate nearly 24 h a day. This is even more important because cell phones and tablets may be seen in the hands of children as little as two years in age. There is no way to assess and predict the potential damages of children brain, vision and hearing under exposure to RF radiation. The WHO precautionary principle and IARC classification must be applied in discussing the potential hazard of the use of today's and tomorrow's communication devices."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"Positive results might encourage further study of the cryptochrome hypothesis itself. However, they would indicate the need for performing a similar study, this time comparing the effects of only slight intensity changes (low field range) in order to explore the possible role of the proximity of metal structures and furniture as a confounder under the cryptochrome hypothesis."
A young engineer developed bilateral cataract few days after exposure to high microwave energy while working on a radar platform. The cataract progressed rapidly and this was documented by anterior segment photos. The primary damage mechanism of microwave radiation is thermal, by dielectric heating. Non-thermal effects are less understood. Cataract formation after microwave exposure has been proven in experimental animal eyes and reported in isolate not well documented cases. The timeframe of cataract onset after exposure to the radar high microwave energy and the very unusual rapid progression of this cataract raise the odds of a causative relationship.
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"There was a decrease in tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 mRNA levels between treated and control cells only at the 1.0 mT intensity level. Transforming growth factor beta-2 mRNA increased in exposed cells, and, simultaneously, fibroblast growth factor-2 mRNA levels decreased. The protein expressions of COL1A1 and MMP-2 were also significantly altered subsequent to exposure (p less than 0.05). This study shows that ELF-EMFs had biological effects on HFSFs and could cause abnormality in scleral collagen."
"There are poor oxidative toxic effects of one hour of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens in the animals. However, melatonin supplementation in the lens seems to have protective effects on the oxidant system by modulation of GSH-Px activity."
"Exposure to ELF-EMFs increased the expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein in HFSF cells. Puerarin reversed the action to some extent in a specific concentration range. Our results implied that the puerarin might protect scleral tissue from increased expression induced by exposure to ELF-EMFs."
"Results of this preliminary study show that exposure to MW radiation might cause alterations in the rat cornea."
"We examined and monitored a dairy farm in which a large number of calves were born with nuclear cataracts after a mobile phone base station had been erected in the vicinity of the barn. Calves showed a 3.5 times higher risk for heavy cataract if born there compared to Swiss average. All usual causes such as infection or poisoning, common in Switzerland, could be excluded. The real cause of the increased incidence of cataracts remains unknown."
"293 patients with uveal melanoma and 3198 control subjects were interviewed. Women exposed to electrical transmission installations showed elevated risks (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.72 to 19.66). Positive associations with exposure to control rooms were seen among men and women, but most risk increases were restricted to subjects with dark iris colour. Application of published EMF measurements revealed stronger risk increases among women compared to men. Again, elevated risks were restricted to subjects with dark eye colour."
"Because of the increased use of modern radiofrequency devices, public concern about the possible health effects of exposure to microwave radiation has arisen in many countries. It is well established that high-power microwave radiation can induce cataracts via its thermal effects. It remains unclear whether low-power microwave radiation, especially at levels below the current exposure limits, is cataractogenic. This review summarizes studies on the biological effects of low-power microwave radiation on lens and lens epithelial cells (LECs). It has been reported that exposure affects lens transparency, alters cell proliferation and apoptosis, inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication, and induces genetic instability and stress responses in LECs. These results raise the question of whether the ambient microwave environment can induce non-thermal effects in the lens and whether such effects have potential health consequences. Further in vivo studies on the effects on the lens of exposure to low-power microwave radiation are needed."
"The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head."
"This is the first study that documents immediate and dramatic changes in both Heart Rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) associated with MW exposure at levels well below (0.5%) federal guidelines in Canada and the United States (1000 microW/cm2)."
"The results of this study suggest that computer-monitor radiation leads to oxidative stress in the corneal and lens tissues, and that vitamin C may prevent oxidative effects in the lens."
"Taken together, these results support the view that NOS-dependent NO production is an important factor that contributes to EMP-induced BRB dysfunction, and suggests that NOS induction may play an important role in BRB breakdown."
"Contrasting effects of EMF on the retinal histomorphology were noticed, depending on the duration of exposure. The embryos exposed for 10 post-incubation days exhibited decreased retinal growth and mild pigmentation of the epithelium. Growth retardation reallocated to growth enhancement on increasing EMF exposure for 15 post-incubation days, with a shift of pigmentation grade from mild to intense. We conclude that EMF emitted by a mobile phone cause derangement of chicken embryo retinal differentiation."
"Regarding brain tumors the meta-analysis yielded for glioma odds ratio (OR)=1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9-1.1. OR increased to 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 with 10 year latency period, with highest risk for ipsilateral exposure (same side as the tumor localisation), OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, lower for contralateral exposure (opposite side) OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.7. Regarding acoustic neuroma OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.8-1.1 was calculated increasing to OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.97-1.9 with 10 year latency period. For ipsilateral exposure OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.4, and for contralateral exposure OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.8-1.9 were found. Regarding meningioma no consistent pattern of an increased risk was found. Concerning age, highest risk was found in the age group <20 years at time of first use of wireless phones in the studies from the Hardell group. For salivary gland tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer no consistent pattern of an association with use of wireless phones was found. One study on uveal melanoma yielded for probable/certain mobile phone use OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2-14.5. One study on intratemporal facial nerve tumor was not possible to evaluate due to methodological shortcomings. In summary our review yielded a consistent pattern of an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma after >10 year mobile phone use. We conclude that current standard for exposure to microwaves during mobile phone use is not safe for long-term exposure and needs to be revised."
"Our results suggest that exposure to RF of wireless communications can induce expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 and the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in human LECs. The induction of Hsp27 and Hsp70, by a non-thermal stress, together with the activation of signal transduction pathways, provides reliable and sensitive biomarkers that could serve as the basis for improved mobile phone safety guidelines."
"This study suggests that ELF MF exposure leads to morphological alterations of the conjunctiva and reductions in the number of goblet cells. We believe that ELF MF may cause dry eye symptoms."
"Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat."
"DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage."
"Microwave radiation induced hLEC DNA damage after G(0)/G(1) arrest does not lead to cell apoptosis. The increased ROS observed may be associated with DNA damage. Superposed electromagnetic noise blocks microwave radiation-induced DNA damage, ROS formation, and cell cycle arrest."
"Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for screening potential electromagnetic-reaction protein markers. HSP70 and hnRNP K are involved in the stress reaction of HLECs exposed to microwaves. These cell responses are nonthermal effects of the electromagnetic field."
"Microwave radiation higher than 1.00 mW/cm(2) can affect the proportion of WSP and USP in cultured rabbit lens, and cause changes of lens transparency and refractive power, which leads to lens opacity."
"The results of this study suggest that mobile telephone radiation leads to oxidative stress in corneal and lens tissues and that antioxidants such as vitamin C can help to prevent these effects."
"No or repairable DNA damage was observed after 2 hour irradiation of 1.8 GHz microwave on LECs when SAR < or = 3 W/kg. The DNA damages caused by 4 W/kg irradiation were irreversible."
"Exposure to ELF EMFs during pregnancy period can cause adverse effects on pregnancy of female mice and development of offsprings."
In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE reduce retinal oxidative stress after long-term exposure to 900 MHz emitting mobile phone. Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the efficacies of these two antioxidants against to EMR induced oxidative stress in rat retina. The difference was in only GSH-Px activity in rat retina. Melatonin stimulated the retinal GSH-Px activity more efficiently than CAPE did.
"A novel experimental system was used to investigate the localized effects of microwave radiation on bovine eye lenses in culture for over 2 weeks. Using this setup, we found clear evidence that this radiation has a significant impact on the eye lens. At the macroscopic level, it is demonstrated that exposure to a few mW at 1 GHz for over 36 h affects the optical function of the lens. Most importantly, self-recovery occurs if the exposure is interrupted. At the microscopic level, close examination of the lens indicates that the interaction mechanism is completely different from the mechanism-causing cataract via temperature increase. Contrary to the latter's effect, that is particularly pronounced in the vicinity of the sutures and it is assumed to be a result of local friction between the edges of the fibers consisting the lens. Even if macroscopically the lens has recovered from the irradiation, microscopically the indicators of radiation impact remain."
"It is concluded that the use of mobile phone is a health risk factor, and thus it is suggested that excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided and social awareness increased through health promotion activities, such as group discussions or public presentations and via electronic and printed media sources."
"There is no effect on redness on the eyes and vision disturbance, but some statistical evidences are found that MP may cause blurring of vision, secretion of the eyes, inflammation in the eyes and lacrimation of the eyes. These results suggest an awareness of the symptoms and sensations."
"A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints."
"The exposed eyes showed miosis, conjunctival congestion, corneal edema, and an increase in the light scattering of the anterior shallow cortex in the pupillary area of the lens. The group under systemic anesthesia showed much stronger symptoms than those treated without anesthesia. All of the anterior ocular changes disappeared within a week. The highest temperature during exposure was in the vitreous, followed by the anterior chamber, and the retrobulbar cavity of the orbit. The ocular temperatures of the rabbits under systemic anesthesia were 2-9 degrees C higher than those without anesthesia. Body temperature showed an increase of 1 degrees C during the exposure. Acute high intensity microwave exposure temporarily induced anterior segments inflammation and lens changes. The more pronounced ocular effects in the anesthetized rabbits were associated with the significantly higher ocular temperatures in the anesthetized animals. The influence of systemic anesthesia on ocular changes should be considered."
"This study suggests that low power microwave radiation higher than 0.50 mW/cm2 can inhibit lens epithelial cell proliferation, and increase the expression of P27Kip1. These effects may account for the decline of lens epithelial proliferation after exposure to microwave radiation."
"These slow waves lasting for about one second repeated every 15-20 s at the same recording electrodes. After turning off the mobile phone, slow-wave activity progressively disappeared; local changes such as increased median frequency decreased and disappeared after 15-20 min. We observed similar changes in children, but the slow-waves with higher amplitude appeared earlier in children (10-20 s) than adults, and their frequency was lower (1.0-2.5 Hz) with longer duration and shorter intervals. The results suggested that cellular phones may reversibly influence the human brain, inducing abnormal slow waves in EEG of awake persons."
"Low power densities microwave radiation (5 mW/cm(2) and 10 mW/cm(2)) induces damage to connexin 43 and inhibits the GJIC of rabbits LECs. These changes result in an osmotic imbalance within the lens and induce early cataract. 5 mW/cm(2) or 10 mW/cm(2) microwave radiation is cataractogenic."
"Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m."
"In this paper, we study the effects of low-power microwaves (2.45 GHz) on the membrane fluidity of rod photoreceptor cells. The retina is expected to be very sensitive to microwave irradiation due to the polar character of the photoreceptor cells [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1273 (1995) 217] as well as to its high water content [Stud. Biophys. 81 (1981) 39]."
"Low power densities of microwave radiation (5 mW/cm2 and 10 mW/cm2) can induce irreversible damage to rabbit lens epithelial cells. This may be the non-thermal effect of microwave radiation."
"We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed."
"The low power level microwave (10 mW/cm(2)) can induce the ultrastructural changes of rabbit lens epithelial cells, this may be the appearance of early irreversible microwave radiation injury. In regard to the pathogenic mechanism, it is necessary to perform further investigations."
"The results showed that microwave induced the morphological damage in primary cultured retinal ganglion cells, VE could reduced the damage of retina ganglion cells by microwave in some extent."
"We found an elevated risk for exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices (exposure to radio sets, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.3; probable/certain exposure to mobile phones, OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2-14.5). Other sources of electromagnetic radiation such as high-voltage lines, electrical machines, complex electrical environments, visual display terminals, or radar units were not associated with uveal melanoma. This is the first study describing an association between radiofrequency radiation exposure and uveal melanoma. Several methodologic limitations prevent our results from providing clear evidence on the hypothesized association."
"Twenty-eight consecutive patients with symptoms allegedly caused by electricity or visual display units were odontologically investigated according to a specially designed registration form including an anamnestic interview and a clinical protocol."
"The risk of adult leukemia within 2 km was 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.74), and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter (p = 0.001). These findings appeared to be consistent over the periods 1974-1980, 1981-1986, and were probably largely independent of the initially reported cluster, which appeared to concern mainly a later period."
"The sensitivity of the brain to this type of visual stimulation was tested by means of objective electrophysiological methods such as electroretinography and visual evoked potential. A higher amplitude of brain cortical responses at all frequencies of stimulation was found when comparing patients with the control subjects, whereas no differences in retinal responses were revealed."
"For that group a cross-sectional study of the differences in general health status also showed the highest rate of changes. The results indicate that long-term occupational exposure to microwaves and radiofrequencies may damage sensitive organic systems."
"Our data indicate that pulsed microwaves at an average SAR of 0.26 W/kg, if administered after pretreatment with ophthalmic drugs, can produce significant ocular effects in the anesthetized primate."
"Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanism of microwaves and ionizing cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts."
"Differences were found between the control group and the groups of animals exposed to microwaves in which the glutathione concentration in the cortex and core of the lens was decreasing with time in proportion to the number of exposures. Parallelly to the number of days of exposure to microwaves the enzymatic activity of carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase increased in the cortex of the lens. The observed changes demonstrate cumulation of the absorbed microwave energy leading to changes in the permeability of the capsule and membranes of lenticular fibres which lead to secondary metabolic disturbances in the lens of the eye."
"Both eyes of anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were irradiated with 2.45-GHz microwaves, either pulsed or continuous wave. In vivo corneal endothelial abnormalities were observed by specular microscopy and confirmed through histologic techniques after a 16- to 48-hour postexposure period. Pulsed microwaves with an average power density of 10 mW/cm2 (equivalent to a specific absorption rate (SAR) = 2.6 W/kg) produced these effects, while levels of 20-30 mW/cm2 (equivalent to a SAR = 5.3 to 7.8 W/kg) with continuous wave irradiation were required to produce similar changes."
"A parametric study of heat and pulsed microwave energy was performed on murine ocular lens in vitro. Adult rat lenses were placed in a specially designed chamber with thermostat in which temperature was maintained by the circulation of thermostatically regulated phosphate-buffered saline, during irradiation with 915 MHz microwaves. Irradiation in pulsed (Pu) mode was used. Lenses exposed at 37°C to pulsed irradiation at specific absorption rates (SAR) equal to or greater than 400 mW/g, and immediately fixed, showed numerous small holes (not previously reported for other in vitro cataracts) in the equatorial cell surfaces, when examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At 39°C with SAR equal to or greater than 120 mW/g similar holes appeared. On continued incubation for two days the holes could not be seen as easily because globular degeneration appeared to advance into the equatorial areas where holes had originally been seen. In lenses exposed to 120 mW/g at 37°C globular degeneration and equatorial subcapsular foam were observed. At SAR values equal to or above 400 mW/g at 39°C and 1·2 W/g at 37°C, large globules characteristic of temperature elevation to 47 or 50°C were observed, indicating that the effect of the electromagnetic field itself in the absence of any comparable temperature elevation, was equivalent to a 10°C rise in temperature. An unexpected finding was the apparent fragmentational stretching of the capsule observed by SEM, in lenses fixed immediately after irradiation at 37°C at an SAR value of 1·2 W/g. These effects: holes, foam, large globules and capsular damage are apparent examples of physical damage to the lens. Modern radars using directional antennas can deliver pulse power densities many times higher than those employed in these experiments. This work indicates that additional effects of microwave irradiation dependent on modulation should also be considered as potential hazards in setting safety standards."
"The current state of biological research is reviewed, and a summary of the known effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation exposure on animals and humans provided. These known effects appear to be principally thermal, similar to conventional electrical burn injuries, but with some unique systemic expression. Derangements of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematological, ophthalmological, and behavioral functions are well described in animal experimentation."
"The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard."
"In 1948 two groups of investigators reported independently and almost coincidentally that when the eyes of rabbits or dogs were exposed to sufficient microwave radiation, opacities subsequently developed in the crystalline lens. Both groups employed continuous wave radiation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. with a wave length of 12.3 cm. In the 30 years since that initial discovery, this phenomenon has been extensively investigated in numerous laboratories and we now have a substantial body of information concerning it. However, we have yet to identify the site and the manner of interaction between microwaves and ocular tissues which provide the mechanism for cataractogenesis."
"The widespread availability of radiant energy sources such as diathermy machines, microwave ovens, and electric ovens and ranges makes it imperative to examine carefully any possible hazards that may result from their use. With this in mind, radiant energy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cataractogenesis."
"The absorbed power distribtuion pattern in the eyes of rabbits exposed to near-zone 2450-MHz radiation has been derived from thermocouple measurements. The results indicated that the absorption increased steadily until a peak of 0.92 W/kgm for each millwatt/square centimeter incident was reached in the vitreous body (just behind the lens) and then fell off rapidly as the depth increased, thereby suggesting the lens may be the most susceptible or critical part of the eye to near-zone 2450-MHz radiation. This contention was strongly supported by our time and power-density threshold studies. Following irradiation, irreversible changes in the lens were seen in the posterior cortical area only. All other changes in the eye were transient and disappeared by the second postirradiation day."
"Rabbits were irradiated with 2450-MHz continuous microwave energy. Effects of the radiation on the ocular lens were assessed by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination of the eye. Two lenses were selected for electron microscopy, one that was severely damaged and one that appeared unaffected by the radiation. There were prominent ultrastructural changes in both lenses."
"In terms of lethal effectiveness, therefore, the ordering is, from most effective to least effective, 0.95 < 2.45 < 7.44 < 4.54 GHz. It is worth pointing out that American National Standard, C95.1, "Safety Level of Electromagnetic Radiation with Respect to Personnel," recommends an energy-density radiation protection guide of 1 mW-hr/cm2 averaged over any 0.1 hr period. For the most lethal frequency (0.95 GHz) the lethal energy constant was found to be 36,643 mW-sec/cm2 or 10.2 mW-hr/cm2 This is approximately a factor of ten greater than the radiation protection guide."
"The growing body of Russian and eastern European literature describing a wide variety of functional changes and clinical effects, leading to consideration of "radio-wave sickness" as a possible independent nosologic entity, cannot simply be ignored. With increasing uses and power, the stage is set for the appearance of late effects previously undetected possibly because of their infrequency, lack of distinctiveness or mild character. There may now be a better opportunity to resolve the uncertainties of present knowledge in the face of an increasing risk."
"An additional interesting feature of the data concerns the relatively severe effects of fairly "low powers. At the 1700 KHz frequency, a power of only 50 mw/cm2 produced a complete cessation of bar-press responding within a ten-minute exposure period. A level of 50 mw/cm2, of course, is relatively close to the safety level of 10 mw/cm established for humans exposed to microwave fields. The fact that microwave effects are found at power levels not far above the established safety level points to the necessity for additional, careful, and comprehensive examinations of the biological effects of microwaves, with a variety of species. It is possible that not only the rat, but other species as well, may exhibit enhanced sensitivity to certain microwave frequencies."
As early as in the 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the “microwave syndrome”. The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. The microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment, even though the EMF were below today’s reference value. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from EMF. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were offered.
"The development of cataract as a result of electromagnetic radiations is well established. Formerly it was supposed that this effect was unique to the action of infra-red, ultraviolet and roentgen radiations, although as early as 1926 in a survey of work in these fields Duke-Elder1 suggested that other portions of the spectrum, if of sufficient magnitude, might produce cataract. On the other hand, as late as 1944 it was the opinion of Bellows, basing his views on the work of Legge and of Hartridge and Hill, that electromagnetic waves longer than 20,000 angstrom units would be absorbed completely by the cornea. In 1948 it was demonstrated by Richardson, Duane and Hines5 that lenticular opacities could be produced by continuous microwave radiations of 12.25 cm. wavelength. These observations were confirmed by the contemporary work of Daily, Wakim, Herrick and Parkhill, which was completed later in 1948. The following year Salisbury, Clark and Hines in a technical article attributed the damage to a ready transmission through the cornea and a high absorption by the lens of microwaves 10 to 12 cm in wavelength."