Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


W (28 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
The cancer epidemiology of radiation
Wakeford R, Oncogene, avgust 2004
"However, the evidence for a carcinogenic effect of other forms of nonionizing radiation, such as those associated with mobile telephones or electricity transmission lines, is not convincing, although the possibility of a link between childhood leukaemia and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cannot be dismissed entirely."
"This article begins with a short review of the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of nonthermal levels of ELF electromagnetic fields on the biochemistry and activity of immune cells and then closely examines new results that suggest a role for Ca2+ in the induction of these cellular field effects. Based on these findings it is proposed that membrane-mediated Ca2+ signaling processes are involved in the mediation of field effects on the immune system."
"Three groups of animals, microwave-exposed, sham-exposed, and cage control, were studied. Microwave-exposed rats were slower than sham-exposed and cage control rats in learning to locate the platform. However, there was no significant difference in swim speed among the three groups of animals, indicating that the difference in learning was not due to a change in motor functions or motivation. During the probe trial, microwave-exposed animals spent significantly less time in the quadrant that had contained the platform, and their swim patterns were different from those of the sham-exposed and cage control animals. The latter observation indicates that microwave-exposed rats used a different strategy in learning the location of the platform. These results show that acute exposure to pulsed microwaves caused a deficit in spatial "reference" memory in the rat."
"These findings suggest that microwave treatment at a SAR of 4 W/kg has undefined adverse effects on BM-MSCs. However, the reduced-expression of proteins related to osteogenic differentiation suggests that microwave can the influence at the mRNA expression genetic level."
"This study suggested that impairment of LTP induction and the damages of hippocampal structure, especially changes of synapses, might contribute to cognitive impairment after microwave exposure."
[Effects of different dose microwave radiation on protein components of cultured rabbit lens]
Wang KJ et al, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi, april 2007
"Microwave radiation higher than 1.00 mW/cm(2) can affect the proportion of WSP and USP in cultured rabbit lens, and cause changes of lens transparency and refractive power, which leads to lens opacity."
"A significant association with risk of glioma was found in long-term users (≥10 years) with odds ratio of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.05-1.67)."
"The microwaves play a role of accumulation in the effect on exposed neurons, the trends in dose response relationship were found between the exposure intensity and the effects, effect of the microwave on exposed neurons should be classified as athermal effects of EMF."
"The results of cytochemistry showed that compared to the sham-exposed, a significant decrease of cytochrome oxidase activity in neurons exposed for 2 hours per day and the neurons exposed for 12 hours to be immediately experimented (P < 0.001). Down-regulation of CCO should be classified as 'non-thermal effects'. Cumulated power effect were observed in neuronal response to the microwave. The influence on the CCO of the chosen microwave EMF could be recovered to some extent. The effects had no close relation between the first exposure and the cultured age of neurons."
"Significant changes had been observed in exposed neurons in the expression of GABA receptor. (P < 0.01). The expression of GABA receptor of neurons were significantly regulated by 900 MHz microwave, and a power "window" effect was observed in the exposed neurons."
"Through employing the alternate cut points, stratification by level of exposure or distance and the relation on different ways of exposure, there appeared consistent evidence of increased risk between acute myeloid leukemia in adults and the extremely low frequency-electromagnetic to field exposure."
"Finally, the results of the analyses using dichotomous and continuous exposure model are combined with national exposure data to estimate the population attributable risk of childhood leukemia among children in the US. If an association exists, as many as 175-240 cases of childhood leukemia in the US may be due to magnetic field exposure."
"Scientists and safety advocates say Health Canada’s new rules do not take into account many new studies on the safety of cellphones and other wireless devices."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"These data indicate that MF can increase the proliferation of human astrocytoma cells and strongly potentiate the effects of two agonists. These findings may provide a biological basis for the observed epidemiological associations between MF exposure and brain tumors."
"The associations of cancer with conductive plumbing and with this exposure metric both suggest that cancer risk is increased among persons with elevated magnetic field exposure from residential ground currents."
Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer
Wertheimer N, Leeper E, Am J Epidemiol, marec 1979
"An excess of electrical wiring configurations suggestive of high current-flow was noted in Colorado in 1976-1977 near the homes of children who developed cancer, as compared to the homes of control children. The finding was strongest for children who had spent their entire lives at the same address, and it appeared to be dose-related. It did not seem to be an artifact of neighborhood, street congestion, social class, or family structure. The reason for the correlation is uncertain; possible effects of current in the water pipes or of AC magnetic fields are suggested."
"Some of these observations are not consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that all health effects of RFR arise from thermal mechanisms. It is concluded that RFR from mobile phones can cause peripheral neurophysiological changes in some persons. The effects occur at exposure levels below the present safety levels for RFR. Possible non-thermal mechanisms are discussed and may point to future directions of research."
"The group of men with potential microwave exposures demonstrated lower sperm counts/mL (P = 0.009) and sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.027) than the comparison group."
"The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models."
Mobile phone exposure and spatial memory
Wiholm C et al, Bioelectromagnetics, september 2008
"The participants were daily mobile phone users, with and without symptoms attributed to regular mobile phone use. Results revealed a main effect of RF exposure and a significant RF exposure by group effect on distance traveled during the trials. The symptomatic group improved their performance during RF exposure while there was no such effect in the non-symptomatic group. Until this new finding is further investigated, we can only speculate about the cause."
"Two new exposure parameters Specific Absorption per Day (SAD) and Specific Absorption per Call (SAC) have been devised and are obtained as combinations of SAR, calling time per day, and number of calls per day, respectively. The results indicates that SAR values >0.5 W/kg may be an important factor for the prevalence of some of the symptoms, especially in combination with long calling times per day."
"E-field exposure (at 4.24 and 13.4 kV/m) results in rapid and sensitive responses to 100-ms pulses. H-field excitation elicits no measurable responses, even at 100-fold higher power input levels (equivalent to 183 A/m). The observed effects on bacterial light output partially correlate with measured E-field-induced temperature increases. In conclusion, the endogenous bioluminescence of V. fischeri provides a sensitive and noninvasive method to assess the biological effects of microwave fields."
"Rabbits were irradiated with 2450-MHz continuous microwave energy. Effects of the radiation on the ocular lens were assessed by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination of the eye. Two lenses were selected for electron microscopy, one that was severely damaged and one that appeared unaffected by the radiation. There were prominent ultrastructural changes in both lenses."
Chronic exposure to ELF fields may induce depression
Wilson BW, Bioelectromagnetics, februar 1988
"Chronic exposure to ELF electric or magnetic fields can disrupt normal circadian rhythms in rat pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase activity as well as in serotonin and melatonin concentrations. Such disruptions in the circadian rhythmicity of pineal melatonin secretion have been associated with certain depressive disorders in human beings. In the rat, ELF fields may interfere with tonic aspects of neuronal input to the pineal gland, giving rise to what may be termed "functional pinealectomy." If long-term exposure to ELF fields causes pineal dysfunction in human beings as it does in the rat, such dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression or may exacerbate existing depressive disorders."
"ELF-EMF radiation resulted in a time-dependent increase of micronuclei, which became significant after 10 h of intermittent exposure at a flux density of 1 mT. After approximately 15 h a constant level of micronuclei of about three times the basal level was reached. In addition, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 10-fold above basal levels. Our data strongly indicate a clastogenic potential of intermittent low-frequency electromagnetic fields, which may lead to considerable chromosomal damage in dividing cells."
Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station
Wolf R, Wolf D, International Journal of Cancer Prevention, april 2004
"A comparison of the relative risk revealed that there were 4.15 times more cases in area A than in the entire population. The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station."
"Children living within 200m of power lines presented an increased risk of ALL (OR 1.67; 95% CI 0.49-5.75), compared to children living at 600m or more of power lines. For those living within 50m of power lines the OR was 3.57 (95% CI 0.41-31.44)."

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