Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

F (43 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"The following factors were independently and significantly related to NHL as a result of the multivariate analysis: a previous hematopoietic malignancy (ORa = 11.5, 95% CI 2.4-55.4), a history of hives (ORa = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), benzene exposure > 810 days (ORa = 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-19.2), daily welding (ORa = 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.0), and activity of radio operator (ORa = 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.6)."
"In the exposed group the weight was significantly decreased only at birth, while the circumferences of the head and chest as well as the height were significantly reduced at all studied ages. The radiological study revealed a significant delay in carpal bone ossification of the exposed children. In conclusion: Exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields emerged from high voltage electric power lines increases the incidence of growth retardation of children. Isolating these power lines in a scientific way in order to shield both the magnetic and electric fields or removing them far away from the inhabitant areas is recommended."
"The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors."
"Our results indicated that ELF-MF exposure significantly affects anti-oxidative capability, both in young and aged animals, although in opposite ways. Indeed, exposed young individuals enhanced their neurotrophic signalling and anti-oxidative enzymatic defence against a possible ELF-MF-mediated increase in oxygen radical species. In contrast, aged subjects were not capable of increasing their defences in response to ELF-MF treatment but, on the contrary, they underwent a significant decrease in the major antioxidant enzymatic activities. In conclusion, our data seem to suggest that the exposure to ELF-MFs may act as a risk factor for the occurrence of oxidative stress-based nervous system pathologies associated with ageing."
"The mean number of zona-bound sperm of the test hemizona and controls was 22.8 +/- 12.4 and 31.8 +/- 12.8 (p < 0.05), respectively. This study concludes that although RF-EMF exposure did not adversely affect the acrosome reaction, it had a significant effect on sperm morphometry. In addition, a significant decrease in sperm binding to the hemizona was observed. These results could indicate a significant effect of RF-EMF on sperm fertilization potential."
"The accuracy of the models is confirmed, with small relative errors: less than 5-10%. Moreover, we confirm that the greatest power is emitted when the network is saturated with traffic. Using this, we give a simple technique to quickly estimate power output based on traffic levels and give examples showing how this might be used in practice to predict current or future power output from a Wi-Fi network."
"Non statistically significant increases were observed for all and primary cancers; primary cancers were significantly increased among subjects with > 30 years' residence and latency. A significant increase for all, primary, and secondary cancers, and a two-fold increase for ischaemic diseases, was observed in subjects in the sub-area with the highest exposure. No increase was seen in neoplastic haematological diseases."
"MF exposure significantly increased mammary tumor development and growth in SD1 but not SD2 rats. These data indicate that the genetic background plays a pivotal role in effects of MF exposure. Different strains or substrains of rats may serve to evaluate the genetic factors underlying sensitivity to cocarcinogenic or tumor-promoting effects of MF exposure."
"The most pronounced effect on proliferation was seen in the cranial thoracic (or cervical) mammary complexes, in which we previously had seen the most marked effects of MF exposure on mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast to the melatonin hypothesis, melatonin levels in pineal or mammary glands were not affected by MF exposure. Topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate increased BrdUrd and Ki-67 labeling in epithelial cells of the skin, particularly in hair follicles, but not in the mammary tissue. The data demonstrate that MF exposure results in an increased proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium, which is a likely explanation for the cocarcinogenic or tumor promoting effects of MF exposure observed previously by us in the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene model of breast cancer."
"The most pronounced MF effect on tumor incidence was seen in the cranial inguinal complexes (L/R5). These data indicate that Fischer 344 rats are a suitable inbred strain to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of MF exposure on mammary tumorigenesis."
"The MF-exposed F344 breast tissue showed alterations in gene expression, which were absent in Lewis and may therefore be involved in the MF-susceptibility of F344. Notably alpha-amylase might serve as a promising target to study MF effects, because first experiments indicate that MF exposure alters the functionality of this enzyme in breast tissue."
"More children in developing countries like Iran live close to very high voltage lines, and they experience relatively more harmful effects from the Magnetic Fields, in comparison with children in developed countries. Residence near very high voltage overhead power lines, in distances < or = 500 meters, and Magnetic Fields >0.45 microT, should be considered a risk factor for the pathogenesis of acute leukaemias in children."
"The duration of possession and the daily transmission time correlated negatively with the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (r = -0.12 and r = -0.19, respectively), and positively with the proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (r = 0.12 and r = 0.28, respectively). The low and high transmitter groups also differed in the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (48.7% vs. 40.6%). The prolonged use of cell phones may have negative effects on the sperm motility characteristics."
Comparison of Electromagnetic Absorption Characteristics in the Head of Adult and a Children for 1800 MHz Mobile Phones
Fernandez C et al, Conference Proceeding from the 2005 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwave and Optoelectronics, julij 2005
"It is shown that in similar conditions, the SAR calculated for the children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10 years old child model, values around 80% higher than those for adults were obtained."
"This review focuses on research examining the effects of EMFs on birds; most studies indicate that EMF exposure of birds generally changes, but not always consistently in effect or in direction, their behavior, reproductive success, growth and development, physiology and endocrinology, and oxidative stress under EMF conditions."
"Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism."
"The observations demonstrate a mode of increased exposure to pollutant aerosols under high voltage power lines by increased deposition on the body. The total (indoor + outdoor) 218Po and 214Po dose to the basal layer of facial skin is estimated to be increased by between 1.2 and 2.0 for 10% of time spent outdoors under high voltage power lines."
"These results can be analysed in terms of the charge density present. This analysis suggests that typically 2000 excess negative charges per cm3 are required to match the measured DC fields. Such space charge will result in unipolar aerosol charging in excess of the normal bipolar steady state charge distribution of pollutant aerosols. This may lead to increased lung deposition on inhalation."
"Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended."
"For calculated magnetic field levels > or = 0.2 microtesla (microT) closest in times before diagnosis, we estimated the relative risk to be 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.5] for women and 2.1 (95% CI = 0.3-14.1) for men. Women younger than 50 years of age at diagnosis had a relative risk of 1.8 (95% CI = 0.7-4.3). For women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, the relative risk was estimated at 1.6 (95% CI = 0.6-4.1), using the exposure cutoff point > or = 0.1 microT. Among estrogen receptor-positive women younger than 50 years at diagnosis, the relative risk increased to 7.4 (95% CI = 1.0-178.1)."
"Our study gives some support to the hypothesis that EMF exposure increases the risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, and suggests that magnetic field exposure may represent a late-acting influence in the disease process. Electric shock is an unlikely explanation for the increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in "electrical and electronics work" in this study."
"For calculated magnetic field levels of 0.2 microT or more closest in time to diagnosis, we found an elevated relative risk (RR) for acute myeloid leukemia [RR = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-3.5] and chronic myeloid leukemia [RR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.7-3.8]. Using cumulative exposure for the 15 years preceding diagnosis, we found relative risk estimates for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia of 2.3 (95% CI = 1.0-4.6) and 2.1 (95% CI = 0.9-4.7), respectively, for the highest exposure category. For chronic lymphatic leukemia and for central nervous system tumors, relative risk estimates were close to or below unity."
"When historical calculations were used as exposure assessment for childhood leukemia with cutoff points at 0.1 and 0.2 microtesla (microT), the estimated relative risk increased over the two exposure levels and was estimated at 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-6.3) for 0.2 microT and over; p for trend = 0.02. When the upper cutoff point was shifted to 0.3 microT, the relative risk was 3.8 (95% CI 1.4-9.3); p for trend = 0.005. These results persisted when adjustment for potential confounding factors was made."
"Although the observed effects were less obvious than those reported in other studies, they represent evidence of a direct interaction between neurons and pulsed microwaves, in the absence of macroscopic temperature changes. The data do not suggest a single, specific mechanism for such interaction."
"The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low."
Microwave oven burn
Fleck H, Bull N Y Acad Med, april 1983
"Microwave oven burns have been reported, but never properly documented. This paper attempts to document all aspects of radiation burn in a patient who stuck both hands and forearms into an active oven cavity for a few seconds to retrieve a food dish. She was exposed to the full output (600W) of the oven's magnetron tube. Questions about the safety of microwave ovens are raised because of the lack of free-standing radiation detectors as integral components of all ovens on the market."
"Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage."
"The two cases we report, with comparable subjective symptoms and hypertension following a common exposure, provide further strong, circumstantial evidence of cause and effect. A greater knowledge of the mechanisms involved in bioeffects which may be induced by radiofrequency and microwave radiation is definitely needed."
"Significant (p < 0.05) decreases were determined among groups in memory function and results showed that exposure to an 8 mT, 50 Hz EMF for 4 h has devastating effects on memory consolidation in male and female mice."
"For occupational exposure to magnetic fields over 0.25 microT closest in time before diagnosis, the estimated relative risk was 1.0 [96% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-1.7]. Women below age 50 years at diagnosis had a relative risk of 1.5 (95% CI = 0.6-3.5). For women below 50 years of age who had estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, there was a relative risk of 3.2 (95% CI = 0.5-18.9). The results for residential and occupational exposures combined showed similar results."
"The exposure to the user, particularly if the antenna of the client card were placed against his or her body, would require different measurement techniques beyond the scope of this study. In all cases, the measured Wi-Fi signal levels were very far below international exposure limits (IEEE C95.1-2005 and ICNIRP) and in nearly all cases far below other RF signals in the same environments. An discusses technical aspects of the IEEE 802.11 standard on which WLANs operate that are relevant to determining the levels of RF energy exposure from WLANs. Important limiting factors are the low operating power of client cards and access points, and the low duty cycle of transmission that normally characterizes their operation."
Whole body exposure with GSM 900MHz affects spatial memory in mice
Fragopoulou AF et al, Pathophysiology, junij 2010
"Statistical analysis revealed that during learning, exposed animals showed a deficit in transferring the acquired spatial information across training days (increased escape latency and distance swam, compared to the sham-exposed animals, on the first trial of training days 2-4). Moreover, during the memory probe-trial sham-exposed animals showed the expected preference for the target quadrant, while the exposed animals showed no preference, indicating that the exposed mice had deficits in consolidation and/or retrieval of the learned spatial information. Our results provide a basis for more thorough investigations considering reports on non-thermal effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs)."
"The observed protein expression changes may be related to brain plasticity alterations, indicative of oxidative stress in the nervous system or involved in apoptosis and might potentially explain human health hazards reported so far, such as headaches, sleep disturbance, fatigue, memory deficits, and brain tumor long-term induction under similar exposure conditions."
"As in other cell systems, in HTR-8/SVneo cells the response to high-frequency EMFs was detected at the mRNA level after exposure to amplitude-modulated GSM signals. The present results suggest that the expression analysis for multiple transcripts, though encoding the same or similar protein products, can be highly informative and may account for subtle changes not detected at the protein level."
"Exposure to RF-EMF varied considerably between persons and locations but was fairly consistent within persons. Mobile phone handsets, mobile phone base stations and cordless phones were important sources of exposure in urban Switzerland."
"At 40 mW cm-2 there were no effects seen on cell proliferation, but alteration in cell morphology included increased cell spreading and also the appearance of actin-containing blebs at localised sites on the membrane. It is hypothesised that 835 MHz radiation at low power density may be affecting a signal transduction pathway involved in cell proliferation."
"Whereas subjects' performance did not differ between the EMF exposure conditions, SP parameters were influenced by EMF in the VMT: EMF exposure effected a significant decrease of SPs at central and temporo-parieto-occipital brain regions, but not at the frontal one."
"In addition to the VMT, EMF effects on SP were analysed in two further, less demanding tasks: in a simple finger movement task to elicit a Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and in a two-stimulus task to elicit a contingent negative variation (CNV). In comparison to the VMT, no significant main EMF effects were found in BP and CNV tasks. The results accounted for a selective EMF effect on particular aspects of human information processing, but did not indicate any influence on human performance, well-being and health."
"Third, the dopamine-opiate systems of the brain appear to be involved in headaches, and low intensity electromagnetic energy exposure affects those systems. In all three lines of research, the microwave energy used was approximately the same--in frequencies, modulations, and incident energies--as those emitted by present day cellular telephones. Could the current reports of headaches be the canary in the coal mine, warning of biologically significant effects?"
"We found that the first step is mediated in the plasma membrane by NADH oxidase, which rapidly generates ROS (reactive oxygen species). These ROS then directly stimulate MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and allow them to cleave and release Hb-EGF [heparin-binding EGF (epidermal growth factor)]. This secreted factor activates the EGF receptor, which in turn further activates the ERK cascade. Thus this study demonstrates for the first time a detailed molecular mechanism by which electromagnetic irradiation from mobile phones induces the activation of the ERK cascade and thereby induces transcription and other cellular processes."
"The comparison of frequencies of size distribution of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of humans exposed to each of these three mutagens showed that X-rays and microwaves were preferentially clastogens while vinyl chloride monomer showed aneugenic activity as well. Microwaves possess some mutagenic characteristics typical of chemical mutagens."
"Microwave radiation for 20 min had an effect that was comparable to that of immersion in 42 degrees C hot water for 15 min. In addition, some animals were examined on day 18 of gestation, and some of their offspring were examined at 6 weeks of age in an examination of long-term effects. Brain weight for the group exposed to microwaves for 20 min was significantly lower than for the control group, and the numerical density of the neurons in the cerebrum was higher. We concluded that microwave radiation at the dose tested mainly has a thermal effect."
Electromagnetic effects - From cell biology to medicine
Funk RH et al, Prog Histochem Cytochem, junij 2009
"All systems in an organism from the molecular to the organ level are more or less in motion. Thus, in living tissue we mostly find alternating fields as well as combination of EF and MF normally in the range of extremely low-frequency EMF. Because a bewildering array of model systems and clinical devices exits in the EMF field we concentrate on cell biological findings and look for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action. As an outlook for future research topics, this review tries to link areas of EF, MF and EMF research to thermodynamics and quantum physics, approaches that will produce novel insights into cell biology."

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