Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


T (43 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"In the test group, the whole number of white blood cells, the level of hematocrit, percent of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly lower than the control group. The number of red blood cells, their average volume and the mean concentration of hemoglobin were notably higher than the controls. There was not observed a significant difference between the two groups in hemoglobin, its mean concentration, platelet count, percent of lymphocytes and neutrophils as well as serum levels of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and interferon γ."
"In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases."
"The findings of this study show a statistically significant rise in the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after 4.5 hours of exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, followed by a fall after 8 hours of exposure."
"Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields."
"The potential impact of EMF exposure on public health is probably limited, although in some countries exposure might be relatively high and thus might have a more substantial impact. We recommend nationwide surveys in order to gain more insight into the contemporary exposure levels among children. Reducing exposure from power lines near densely populated areas and schools is advised. Future epidemiological studies should focus on limiting bias."
"Results showed a decrease in the following parameters: tubular diameter and seminiferous tubules area; seminiferous epithelium height; total volume of seminiferous tubule; tubular lumen; seminiferous epithelium; and Leydig cells. On the other hand, an increase was observed in connective tissue cells and blood vessels volume. Plasma testosterone, Sertoli cells population, tubular length and gonadosomatic index did not change when exposed to EMF. Histomorphometric analysis showed that exposure to EMF can promote a delay in testicular development."
"ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species."
"This work indicates that neurochemical modification of the hippocampal cholinergic system can be observed during and after an exposure to low intensity RF."
"This meta-analysis tends to confirm the presence of an association between exposure to magnetic fields and leukaemia among people who reside in the vicinity of high voltage transmission electric lines of > or = 49 kV. There is consistency across studies. Measures of exposure used in the studies were either distance from the lines or calculated fields estimated from pertinent line features. The results apply to adults as well as to children."
Use of mobile phones and changes in cognitive function in adolescents
Thomas S et al, Occup Environ Med, december 2010
"RESULTS: 236 students participated in both examinations. The proportion of mobile phone owners and the number of voice calls and short message services (SMS) per week increased from baseline to follow-up. Participants with more voice calls and SMS at baseline showed less reductions in response times over the 1-year period in various computerised tasks. Furthermore, those with increased voice calls and SMS exposure over the 1-year period showed changes in response time in a simple reaction and a working memory task. No associations were seen between mobile phone exposure and the Stroop test. CONCLUSIONS: We have observed that some changes in cognitive function, particularly in response time rather than accuracy, occurred with a latency period of 1 year and that some changes were associated with increased exposure. However, the increased exposure was mainly applied to those who had fewer voice calls and SMS at baseline, suggesting that these changes over time may relate to statistical regression to the mean, and not be the effect of mobile phone exposure."
"Seven percent of the children and 5% of the adolescents showed an abnormal mental behaviour. In the multiple logistic regression analyses measured exposure to RF fields in the highest quartile was associated to overall behavioural problems for adolescents (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5) but not for children (1.3; 0.7-2.6). These results are mainly driven by one subscale, as the results showed an association between exposure and conduct problems for adolescents (3.7; 1.6-8.4) and children (2.9; 1.4-5.9). As this is one of the first studies that investigated an association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and mental health behaviour more studies using personal dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings."
"More marked intergroup differences were recorded when tumor incidence was separately evaluated for each of the six mammary complexes, the most pronounced MF effect on tumor incidence being seen in the cranial thoracic complex. The data substantiate that, at least under the experimental conditions used in our laboratory, 50-Hz, 100-microT MF exposure significantly facilitates the development and growth of mammary tumors in the DMBA rat model of breast cancer."
"Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) was evaluated in 31 multi-level apartment buildings with built-in step-down transformer stations. In each building, three apartments were selected: one apartment located immediately above the transformer room (index apartment), one located on the same floor and one on a higher floor. The mean value of measured MFs was 0.98 microT in apartments above transformers, 0.13 microT on the same floor, and 0.1 microT in on higher floors. The mean measured MF value was higher than 0.2 microT in 30 (97%) index apartments, 4 (14%) on the same floor as the index apartments and 4 (13%) on higher floors. The corresponding numbers were 25 (81%), 0 and 0, respectively, when 0.4 microT was used as cut-point. It is concluded that apartments in building with built-in transformers can be reliably classified into high and low-exposure categories based on their location in relation to transformers."
"Many but not all observed cellular responses to MMW were similar to thermally induced effects. For example, cell exposure to a 94 GHz field induced nitric oxide production in some morphologically distinct neuronal cells that could not be reproduced by thermal heating of the cells up to 42 degrees C."
"Our results show that non-thermal exposure to the radiofrequency fields investigated here can induce mitotic aberrations in root meristematic cells of A. cepa. The observed effects were markedly dependent on the field frequencies applied as well as on field strength and modulation. Our findings also indicate that mitotic effects of RF-EMF could be due to impairment of the mitotic spindle."
"The growth of plants exposed for 2 h to the 23 V/m electric field of 900 MHz significantly decreased in comparison with the control, while an electric field of the same strength but at 400 MHz did not have such effect. A modulated field at 900 MHz strongly inhibited the growth, while at 400 MHz modulation did not influence the growth significantly. At both frequencies a longer exposure mostly decreased the growth and the highest electric field (390 V/m) strongly inhibited the growth. Exposure of plants to lower field strength (10 V/m) for 14 h caused significant decrease at 400 and 1900 MHz while 900 MHz did not influence the growth. Peroxidase activity in exposed plants varied, depending on the exposure characteristics. Observed changes were mostly small, except in plants exposed for 2 h to 41 V/m at 900 MHz where a significant increase (41%) was found. Our results suggest that investigated electromagnetic fields (EMFs) might influence plant growth and, to some extent, peroxidase activity. However, the effects of EMFs strongly depended on the characteristics of the field exposure."
"Our results showed that non-thermal exposure to investigated radiofrequency fields induced oxidative stress in duckweed as well as unspecific stress responses, especially of antioxidative enzymes. However, the observed effects markedly depended on the field frequencies applied as well as on other exposure parameters (strength, modulation and exposure time). Enhanced lipid peroxidation and H(2)O(2) content accompanied by diminished antioxidative enzymes activity caused by exposure to investigated EMFs, especially at 900 MHz, indicate that oxidative stress could partly be due to changed activities of antioxidative enzymes."
"M. funereus individuals are sensitive to both sine wave and square wave ELF MF (50 Hz, 2 mT) of different duration, whereby their reactions depend on the characteristics of the applied MF and specificity of each individual."
"There are poor oxidative toxic effects of one hour of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens in the animals. However, melatonin supplementation in the lens seems to have protective effects on the oxidant system by modulation of GSH-Px activity."
Pathological Effects of Radio Waves
Tolgskaya MS, Gordon ZV, Consultants Bureau, januar 1973
Tolgskaya and Gordon in 1973 published a long and detailed review of effects of microwave and lower frequency EMFs on experimental animals, mostly rodents. They report that non-thermal exposures impact many tissues, with the nervous system being the most sensitive organ in the body, based on histological studies, followed by the heart and the testis. They also report effects of non-thermal exposures on liver, kidney, endocrine and many other organs. The nervous system effects are very extensive and include many changes in cell structure, dysfunction of synaptic connections between neurons and programmed cell death.
"Visible 200-kv wires were noted at 45 of 2,098 dwellings and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The magnetic field measured at the dwelling varied between 0.0004 to 1.9 microT (mean value 0.069 microT). The magnetic field was higher (0.22 microT) at dwellings with visible 200-kV wires than at those without such wires. Magnetic fields of 0.3 microT or more were measured at 48 dwellings, and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The difference was most pronounced for dwellings of nervous system tumors and was less for leukemias."
"All measurements were well below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guideline levels. Average night-time ELF-MFs (long-term measurement from 10 pm to 6 am, geometric mean over households) above 100 nT were obtained in 2.3%, and RF-EMFs above 1000 microW/m(2) in 7.1% of households. Highest ELF-EFs were primarily due to lamps beside the bed (max = 166 V/m), and highest ELF-MFs because of transformers of devices (max = 1030 nT) or high current of power lines (max = 380 nT). The highest values of RF-EMFs were caused by DECT telephone base stations (max = 28979 microW/m(2)) and mobile phone base stations (max = 4872 microW/m(2)). Simple reduction measures resulted in an average decrease of 23 nT for ELF-MFs, 23 V/m for ELF-EFs, and 246 microW/m(2) for RF-EMFs. A small but statistically significant correlation between ELF-MF exposure and overall RF-EMF levels of R = 0.16 (P = 0.008) was computed that was independent of type (flat, single family) and location (urban, rural) of houses."
Trends in residential exposure to electromagnetic fields from 2006 to 2009
Tomitsch J, Dechant E, Radiat Prot Dosimetry, avgust 2011
"No difference in the medians of all-night ELF-MFs of railway current was observed. RF-EMFs increased from 41.35 to 59.56 uW m(-2). Increases primarily occurred in the frequency ranges of Global System for Mobile 900 MHz, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System and Wireless Local Area Network. Television changeover from analogue to digital resulted in a reduction within the Ultra-high Frequency-band from 0.47 to 0.35 uW m(-2). The base stations of the recently established terrestrial trunked radio system caused a median of 0.05 uW m(-2)."
Exposure to electromagnetic fields in households--trends from 2006 to 2012
Tomitsch J, Dechant E et al, Bioelectromagnetics, januar 2015
"The median of all-night measurements of ELF-MFs at 50 Hz decreased from 13.50 to 11.37 nT. The median of total RF-EMFs increased from 28.13 to 52.16 uW/m(2). Highest increases were found for universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) and wireless local area networks (WLAN)."
"We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions."
"Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation."
"This work shows that subjects exposed over a long period (up to 20 years) and on a daily basis to magnetic fields experienced significant changes in serum sodium, chloride, phosphorus and glucose where an effect for field-hour interaction was noted for exposures greater than 0.3uT. Our data suggest that long-term exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (exposure >0.3uT) in healthy men could induce some biological modifications of certain blood parameters, though their clinical relevance needs further investigation."
"Collectively, these data indicate that 900 MHz MW-EMF acts as DNA damage signal at short time of exposure thus leading to an early activation of genes involved either in double- or single-strand DNA repair process as well as in the cell cycle arrest. Although this activation, the acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells are unable to achieve growth arrest since the downstream effectors of both DNA repair and G1 phase genes are down-expressed either at early and late high-frequency EMF exposure times. Furthermore, in tumor cells the 900 MHz MW-EMF acts as negative regulator of genes involved in the control of chromosomal organization and in the inhibition of angiogenesis thus leading to tumor progression and metastatic transformation."
"The results for the time-course of PCEs indicated significant differences (P<0.05) for the 2nd, the 8th and the 15th day between control and treated subgroups of animals. Increased influx of immature erythrocytes into the peripheral circulation at the beginning of the experiment revealed that the proliferation and maturation of nucleated erythropoietic cells were affected by exposure to the 2,450 MHz radiofrequency radiation. Such findings are indicators of radiation effects on bone-marrow erythropoiesis and their subsequent effects in circulating red cells. The incidence of micronuclei/1,000 PCEs in peripheral blood was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the subgroup exposed to rf/MW radiation after eight irradiation treatments of 2 h each in comparison with the sham-exposed control group. It is likely that an adaptive mechanism, both in erythrocytopoiesis and genotoxicity appeared in the rat experimental model during the subchronic irradiation treatment."
"The results of this study suggest that, under the experimental conditions applied, repeated 915 MHz irradiation could be a cause of DNA breaks in renal and liver cells, but not affect the cell genome at the higher extent compared to the basal damage."
"In comparison with the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) for experimental days 8 and 15. The frequency of micronucleated PCEs was also significantly increased on experimental day 15 (P < 0.05). Pair-wise comparison of data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham-exposed and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions the findings revealed a transient effect on proliferation and maturation of erythropoietic cells in the rat bone marrow and the sporadic appearance of micronucleated immature bone marrow red cells."
"Such findings are considered to be indicators of radiation effects on BM erythropoiesis consequently reflected in the PB. Rehabilitated dynamic haemopoietc equilibrium in rats by the end of experiment indicates possibility of activation adaptation process in rats to the selected experimental conditions of subchronic RF/MW exposure."
"In comparison to the sham exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes revealed significant differences for the 8th and 15th experimental day. Bone marrow erythrocyte maturation and/or proliferation initiated by subthermogenic RF/MW irradiation showed temporary disturbance. Thereafter, the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow red cells was significantly increased after 15 irradiation treatments. Comparison of micronucleus frequency data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions, RF/MWirradiation initiates transitory cytogenetic effect manifested with micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells."
"Multinucleated cells significantly increased (p < 0.01) in treated animals. The elevation of the number of nuclei per cell was time- and dose-dependent. Macrophages with two nucleoli were more common in animals treated twice or eight times. Polynucleation, that is three and more nucleoli in a single cell, was frequently observed after 13 or 22 treatments. Binucleation and multinucleation of alveolar macrophages were sensitive time- and dose-dependent morphological indicators of pulmonary stress."
Animal study on electromagnetic field biological potency
Trosić I et al, Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, marec 1999
"The results of peripheral blood cell response suggested a decreasing tendency in total leukocyte count and in relative lymphocyte count in the treated group. A slight increase was also observed in granulocyte count and in the absolute count of peripheral blood erythrocytes over control animals."
"Significant decrease in lymphoblast count was obtained at 15 and 30th experimental day (P < 0.05), whereas other examined parameters did not significantly differed in comparison to the sham-exposed controls. The findings point out at stress response in blood-forming system in rats after selected microwave exposure, which could be considered rather as sign of adaptation than malfunction."
"Therefore, we suggest that MFs, rather than producing biological effects by a new pathway or mechanism of interaction, exert their effect(s) by interacting with already functioning reactions or pathways. If correct, the question of an MF's mechanism of interaction refocuses on how weak fields might enhance or depress a molecular reaction in progress, rather than on finding a new transduction pathway."
"Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue."
"The lipid peroxidation (LP) levels were higher in the radiation-exposed groups than in the control and sham control groups."
"Results showed positive associations between ELF in the recent past and glioma. Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumorigenesis."
"An excess risk was seen for breast cancer (SIR = 1.5). Analysis of a nested case-control study within the cohort showed an association between breast cancer in women aged 50+ years and shift work. In a model with adjustment for age, calendar year, and year of first birth, the rate ratio for breast cancer associated with being a radio and telegraph operator--in comparison with all Norwegian women born 1935 or later--analyzed with Poisson regression, was 1.5 after adjustment for fertility factors. These results support a possible association between work as a radio and telegraph operator and breast cancer. Future epidemiologic studies on breast cancer in women aged 50 and over, should address possible disturbances of chronobiological parameters by environmental factors."
"The present study provides some support for an association between exposure to calculated residential magnetic fields and cutaneous malignant melanoma, but because of the lack of a biological hypothesis and the known strong association between solar radiation and melanoma, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further studies would be of interest."
"When residential magnetic fields are evaluated, the two upper residential time weighted average magnetic field categories showed non-significant elevated odds ratios (ORs) for all leukemia combined (OR: 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.5 and OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). The increased risk was confined to chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic and acute myeloid leukemia. Lymphoma showed a non-significant lower OR in the upper exposure category. Multiple myeloma showed non-significant elevated ORs. Occupational exposure showed no significant association to exposure for any site. CONCLUSIONS: Some elevated ORs were observed in the present study, but the results are based on small numbers and no firm conclusions can be drawn."

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