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"Results now available from these studies, which started concurrently, have shown that exposure to Sinusoidal-50 Hz Magnetic Field (S-50 Hz MF) combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation or to chronic administration of formaldehyde in drinking water induces a significantly increased incidence of malignant tumours in males and females. A second project of two large life-span carcinogenic bioassays was conducted on over 3000 Sprague Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 1.8 GHz GSM of mobile phone radio base station, alone or combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation. Early results from the experiment on 1.8 GHz GSM alone show a statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart malignant schwannoma among males exposed at the highest dose."
"This commentary addresses several unfounded criticisms about the design and results of the NTP study that have been promoted to minimize the utility of the experimental data on RFR for assessing human health risks. In contrast to those criticisms, an expert peer-review panel recently concluded that the NTP studies were well designed, and that the results demonstrated that both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR were carcinogenic to the heart (schwannomas) and brain (gliomas) of male rats."
"During the use of handheld mobile and cordless phones, the brain is the main target of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. An increased risk of developing glioma and acoustic neuroma has been found in human epidemiological studies. Primarily based on these findings, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) classified in May, 2011 RF radiation at the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B. A carcinogenic potential for RF radiation in animal studies was already published in 1982. This has been confirmed over the years, more recently in the Ramazzini Institute rat study. An increased incidence of glioma in the brain and malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on rats and mice. The NTP final report is to be published; however, the extended reports are published on the internet for evaluation and are reviewed herein in more detail in relation to human epidemiological studies. Thus, the main aim of this study was to compare earlier human epidemiological studies with NTP findings, including a short review of animal studies. We conclude that there is clear evidence that RF radiation is a human carcinogen, causing glioma and vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). There is some evidence of an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, and clear evidence that RF radiation is a multi‑site carcinogen."
"The first phase of our study showed increased frequencies of adverse health effects in MRI workers. In this study the rates of self-reported symptoms such as a headache, sleep problems, myalgia, palpitation, fatigue, concentration problems, attention problems, nervousness and backpain were possibly affected by static magnetic field. Furthermore we found that reaction time and working memory could be influenced by the movements of the body around a MRI scanner. It can be concluded that movement through a high magnetic field can also lead to some adverse cognitive effects in MRI staff."
"The findings reflect persisting acute effects of GSM handset emission on the autonomic nervous system. Exploring its influences on health status and survival needs further studies. Symmetrical breathing can be used as a sensitizing factor in other HRV/HRA analysis studies."
"The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors."
"We studied groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 20 or 1000 μT S-50 Hz MF and also to 0.1 Gy γ radiation delivered as a single acute exposure at 6 weeks of age. The results of the study showed significant carcinogenic effects for the mammary gland in males and females and a significant increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the heart as well as increased incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males. These results call for a re-evaluation of the safety of non-ionizing radiation."
"These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"It seems necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS to get it accepted as EMF-related health problems. The increasing exposure to RF-EMF in schools is of great concern and needs better attention. Longer-term health effects are unknown. Parents, teachers, and school boards have the responsibility to protect children from unnecessary exposure."
"This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role."
"The Government of India's efforts in laying down regulations regarding the safety limits, manufacture, marketing, and mobile use are still in nascent stage. The need for stringent enforcement of laws for prevention of phone usage while driving and guidelines of medical regulatory bodies regarding rules and regulations of phone usage while at class or attending patients is of utmost importance."
"Electrohypersensitivity can be caused by successive assaults on human bioelectrochemical dynamics from exogenous electromagnetic fields (EMF) and RFR or a single acute exposure. Once sensitized, further exposures are widely reported to cause reactivity to lower and lower intensities of EMF/RFR, at which point thousand-fold lower levels can cause adverse health impacts to the electrosensitive person. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) based on reports of individuals who first develop one condition, then rapidly develop the other. Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"In humans magnetite is found in the brain, heart, liver and spleen. Humans suffer from memory dysfunctions in many cases when iron is out of balance. Anomalous concentrations of magnetite is known to be associated with a neurodegenerative disorder like Alzheimer's disease. Due to the rapid speed and accuracy of our brain, memory and its functions must be governed by quantum mechanics."
"According to the results of this study, ELF-MF exposure could impair oxidant-antioxidant function and might increase oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capability was dependent on the duration and continuity of ELF-MF exposure."
"Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue."
"We present experimental data showing that the endogenous electric currents and the corresponding functions they control can be easily varied by externally applied electric or magnetic fields of similar or even significantly smaller intensities than those generating the endogenous currents. We present two possible ways by which external EMFs like those produced by human technology can distort the physiological endogenous electric currents and the corresponding biological/physiological functions: a) By direct interference between the external and the endogenous fields and, b) By alteration of the intracellular ionic concentrations (i.e. by changing the number of electric current carriers within the cells) after irregular gating of electrosensitive ion-channels on the cell membranes. Finally, we discuss how maintenance of this delicate electromagnetic equilibrium between living organisms and their natural environment, determines health and well-being, and how its disturbance will inevitably lead sooner or later to health effects."
"Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation may have some effects on the cardiovascular system of workers."
"The lipid peroxidation (LP) levels were higher in the radiation-exposed groups than in the control and sham control groups."
"The subject demonstrated statistically reliable somatic reactions in response to exposure to subliminal EMFs under conditions that reasonably excluded a causative role for psychological processes. EMF hypersensitivity can occur as a bona fide environmentally inducible neurological syndrome."
"The results of this study show that intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation in cardiac ventricles can increase in rats exposed to ELF magnetic field."
"There was a significant difference between the ELF-EMF and sham groups with respect to change in SBP value between baseline and the end of the exposure regimen (P=0.02), but not with respect to change in DBP (P=0.21). There were no adverse events other than mild paresthesia of the hands of two subjects in the ELF-EMF group. Our results suggest that repeated exposure to an ELF-EMF has a BP-lowering effect on humans with mild-to-moderate hypertension."
"Results of our study showed that pulse-modulated RF radiation causes oxidative injury in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues mediated by lipid peroxidation, increased level of NOx and suppression of antioxidant defense mechanism."
"RESULTS: GSH concentration was significantly lower in the heart of all experimental animals when compared to the control group; furthermore, the decrease was higher in the liver of restrained animals. SOD activity was lower in the plasma of restrained and EMF exposed animals compared to unrestrained rats. There were no significant differences in CAT activity and TBARS levels among all the experimental groups vs. the control group.
CONCLUSION: Two hours of 60 Hz EMF exposure might immediately alter the metabolism of free radicals, decreasing SOD activity in plasma and GSH content in heart and kidney, but does not induce immediate lipid peroxidation. Oxidative stress induced by movement restraint was stronger than that produced by EMF."
"The total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using ferric reducing ability method (FRAP). Exposure to ELF-MF (40 Hz, 7 mT, 30 min/day for 2 weeks) did not significantly alter tissue TBARS, H(2)O(2), total free -SH groups, reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. By contrast, ELF-MF with the same frequency and induction but used for 60 min/day for 14 days caused significant increase in TBARS and H(2)O(2) concentration (P<0.01) and decrease in the concentration of GSH (P<0.05) and total free -SH groups in heart homogenates. Moreover, exposure of rats to ELF-MF (40 Hz, 7 mT, 60 min/day for 2 weeks) resulted in the decrease of plasma antioxidant capacity. Our results indicate that effects of ELF-MF on ROS generation in the heart tissue and antioxidant capacity of plasma depend on its working time."
"This is the first study that documents immediate and dramatic changes in both Heart Rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) associated with MW exposure at levels well below (0.5%) federal guidelines in Canada and the United States (1000 microW/cm2)."
"Aim: investigate the effects of mobile phone–emitted radiation on some visceral organs including; heart, lung, liver and kidney. Methods: fifteen rats were assigned to two groups, the 1 st group served as control and the 2 nd group exposed to mobile phone radiation daily for 4 weeks (1h/day). Results: there was a different degree of damage in these organs subsequent to mobile phone exposure. Conclusion: the results of this study suggested that mobile phone radiation leads to histological changes in the different visceral organs."
"Thirty years ago, Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper published the first report on the association between childhood cancer and "electrical current configuration" of houses in Denver, Colorado. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined 50-60 Hz magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" because of the "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity of residential exposure relatively to childhood leukemia. With respect to health effects other than cancer, namely neurodegenerative disorders, miscarriage, subtle differences in the timing of melatonin release, altered autonomic control of the heart, and changes in the number of natural killer cells, some open questions still remain. Several authors recommended further investigation of the possible long-term effects of magnetic fields, focussing on populations experiencing high exposure levels. In this frame a research team of ISS searched for a suitable location to implement an epidemiological study aimed at a wide range of outcomes for which a priori hypotheses could be formulated. The recently published findings of this project showed an increase of primary and secondary malignant neoplasms, ischaemic disease and haematological diseases. Future studies should thus address the most exposed sectors of the population, take into account different outcomes (all neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, immunological disorders, specific cardiovascular effects) and follow research protocols that enable subsequent pooled analyses. A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision making where the available resources for environmental remediation be prioritatively allocated to worst-off situations."
"Non statistically significant increases were observed for all and primary cancers; primary cancers were significantly increased among subjects with > 30 years' residence and latency. A significant increase for all, primary, and secondary cancers, and a two-fold increase for ischaemic diseases, was observed in subjects in the sub-area with the highest exposure. No increase was seen in neoplastic haematological diseases."
"The object of this work was to review recent trends in public health in Sweden. Data on different adverse health indicators were collected from official Swedish registries. We found that population health generally improved during the early 1990s but suddenly started to deteriorate from 1997 onwards. This quite dramatic change is not likely to be explained only by improved diagnostics but physical causes need immediately to be searched for. A connection with the increasing exposure of the population to GHz radiation from mobile phones, base stations and other communication technologies cannot be ruled out."
"Attempts to replicate both epidemiological and laboratory studies have been mostly unsuccessful as study design, small sample populations and confounding variables have hampered progress to date. Identification of these problems, in the current context of international exposure guideline re-evaluation, is essential for future EMF studies. These studies should address the possible deleterious health effects of EMFs as well as the detection and characterization of subtle physiological changes they may induce. Recommendations for future work include investigating the macro- and microcirculatory relationship and the use of laboratory geomagnetic shielding."
"The tone of the parasympathetic system measured indirectly by analysis of heart rate variability was increased while sympathetic tone was lowered during the call with use of a mobile phone. It was shown that the call with a mobile phone may change the autonomic balance in healthy subjects. Changes in heart rate variability during the call with a mobile phone could be affected by electromagnetic field but the influence of speaking cannot be excluded."
"A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6W/Kg and 2W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at www.bioinitiative.org."
"A statistical significant increase in fetal and neonatal HR, and statistical significant decrease in stroke volume and COP before and after use of mobile phone were noted. All these changes are attenuated with increase in gestational age. Exposure of pregnant women to mobile phone significantly increase fetal and neonatal HR, and significantly decreased the COP."
"A significant association was found between cordless phone use and difficulties in concentration (P < .05) or attention disorders (P < .05). However, after correction of the gender role, these differences were not significant. No association was found between mobile phone use and the above-mentioned symptoms. No significantly higher prevalence of self-reported symptoms was found in individuals who had used mobile phones, video display terminals or cordless phones more frequently than others."
"It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects."
"The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. The inclusion of the distance, which might be a proxy for the sometimes raised "concerns explanation", did not alter the model substantially."
"In conclusion, the mixed function oxidase system was activated, the formation of superoxide radical, lipid peroxide, oxidized protein, and lipofuscin was increased, and the antioxidative defense system was weakened in heart tissue of microwave-exposed rats, but the oxidative damage was significantly reduced by catechin supplementation."
"The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure."
"The authors found a low-level increase in AMI risk in the highest exposure group (relative risk=1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.9) and suggestions of an exposure-response relation (p=0.02). A synergy index of 2.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.6) in monozygotic twins indicated that the risk of AMI was strengthened among ELF magnetic field-exposed subjects with genetic susceptibility to the disease. The results for AMI corroborate previous findings from the United States. The unusual opportunity to include genetic susceptibility in the present analyses showed that evaluations of effect modification in vulnerable subjects are warranted in ELF magnetic field research."
"Exposure during sleep reduced waking after sleep onset and affected heart rate variability. Exposure prior to sleep reduced heart rate during waking and stage 1 sleep."
"The Risk Evaluation analyzes the potential human health risks of magnetic field exposure. Specifically, this document provides an evaluation of the animal, laboratory and human evidence that shows how exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields may or may not increase human health risks. The Risk Evaluation is based on the results of published research studies, with emphasis on new studies, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Working Group Report, and the results of the California EMF Program Studies."
"They had a higher critical fusion frequency (43 vs. 40 Hz), and a trend to increased amplitude of steady-state VEPs at stimulation frequencies of 30-70 Hz. The data indicated that the observed group of patients had a trend to hyper sympathotone, hyperresponsiveness to sensor stimulation and heightened arousal."
"These data do not indicate that EHS patients or control are affected by low-level 60 Hz magnetic field exposure. However, persons reporting EHS differed from the control subjects in baseline values of investigated physiological characteristics. Perhaps EHS patients have a rather distinctive physiological predisposition to sensitivity to physical and psychosocial environmental stressors."
"Biological effects have been reported, such as radiofrequency sickness, electroencephalographic and blood pressure changes and also cancer risks in humans and animals exposed to microwave irradiation. Some European countries (Italy, France, Belgium, etc.) have taken measures to protect their populations."
"Occupational exposure to radiofrequency EMF can result in changes of the diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate with lowering of their amplitudes and a shift of the acrophase. The clinical relevance of the present finding needs to be investigated in further studies."
"The results of this literature study demonstrate that highly similar changes exist in the skin of "screen dermatitis" patients, as regards the clinical manifestations as well as alterations in the cell populations, and in skin damaged by UV light or ionizing radiation."
"The electrocardiographic abnormalities detected in the resting and/ or 24 h ECG were significantly more frequent (p = 0.006) in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields than in non-exposed subjects (75% versus 25%). A clear tendency for a higher number of rhythm disturbances (mostly ExV) was observed in AM broadcast station workers."
"No correlation between the power spectrum and the subjects age was noted. Such a relationship, however, could be observed in the control group. In the study group a statistically significant negative correlation was found between the maximum intensity of EM fields and HF power spectrum. Thus it was concluded that occupational exposure to EM fields brings about impairments in the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular function."
"The two cases we report, with comparable subjective symptoms and hypertension following a common exposure, provide further strong, circumstantial evidence of cause and effect. A greater knowledge of the mechanisms involved in bioeffects which may be induced by radiofrequency and microwave radiation is definitely needed."
"No significant changes in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system and blood parameters (Hb, WBC and blood platelets) occurred in the exposed subjects of either group. Some changes in ECG (ST-T interval and abnormal heart rate) were observed in the group exposed to high intensity (> or = 100 V/m) radiation. 100 V/m is suggested as an exposure limit for RF (< 30 MHz) radiation."
"The inter-beat interval decreased during microwave exposures at 42.0 W/kg and higher when CW or square-wave modulation was used, which is consistent with established effects of elevated temperatures. However, increases in the inter-beat interval during CW exposures at 1.2-12.2 W/kg, and decreases in the inter-beat interval after PW exposures at 8.4-12.2 W/kg, are not consistent with simple thermal effects. Analysis of variance indicated that SAR, modulation, and the modulation-SAR interaction were all significant factors in altering the inter-beat interval. The latter two factors indicated that the cardiac cells were affected by athermal as well as thermal effects of microwave exposure."
"The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard."
"The growing body of Russian and eastern European literature describing a wide variety of functional changes and clinical effects, leading to consideration of "radio-wave sickness" as a possible independent nosologic entity, cannot simply be ignored. With increasing uses and power, the stage is set for the appearance of late effects previously undetected possibly because of their infrequency, lack of distinctiveness or mild character. There may now be a better opportunity to resolve the uncertainties of present knowledge in the face of an increasing risk."
Tolgskaya and Gordon in 1973 published a long and detailed review of effects of
microwave and lower frequency EMFs on experimental animals, mostly rodents.
They report that non-thermal exposures impact many tissues, with the nervous system
being the most sensitive organ in the body, based on histological studies, followed by
the heart and the testis. They also report effects of non-thermal exposures on liver,
kidney, endocrine and many other organs. The nervous system effects are very
extensive and include many changes in cell structure, dysfunction of synaptic
connections between neurons and programmed cell death.
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical
Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects,
listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave
frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9
central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4
behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG
changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8
different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration
in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity,
altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis)
and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total
of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations
documenting these various health effects.
As early as in the 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the “microwave syndrome”. The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. The microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment, even though the EMF were below today’s reference value. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from EMF. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were offered.