Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

kostno-mišični sistem (29 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
Electromagnetic Fields of Mobile Phone Jammer Exposure on Blood Factors in Rats
Shojaeifard MB et al, J Biomed Phys Eng, december 2018
"The data from mature rats revealed that jammer usage led to a significant difference in blood factors including RBC, platelet, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and RDWCV (P≤0.05); however, the number of lymphocytes, WBC and MCVH in the blood was the same in all groups."
"The first phase of our study showed increased frequencies of adverse health effects in MRI workers. In this study the rates of self-reported symptoms such as a headache, sleep problems, myalgia, palpitation, fatigue, concentration problems, attention problems, nervousness and backpain were possibly affected by static magnetic field. Furthermore we found that reaction time and working memory could be influenced by the movements of the body around a MRI scanner. It can be concluded that movement through a high magnetic field can also lead to some adverse cognitive effects in MRI staff."
Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?
Di Ciaula A, Int J Hyg Environ Health, februar 2018
"The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases."
"Therefore, ELF-EMF exposure can change the content of certain TEs in teeth and, after administering MLT and GL, the values of some of the TEs return to normal."
"These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions."
"It seems necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS to get it accepted as EMF-related health problems. The increasing exposure to RF-EMF in schools is of great concern and needs better attention. Longer-term health effects are unknown. Parents, teachers, and school boards have the responsibility to protect children from unnecessary exposure."
"These findings suggest that microwave treatment at a SAR of 4 W/kg has undefined adverse effects on BM-MSCs. However, the reduced-expression of proteins related to osteogenic differentiation suggests that microwave can the influence at the mRNA expression genetic level."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
An Update on Neurological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields
Lai H, 2012 BioInitiative Working Groups, marec 2014
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects."
"The results demonstrate that ELF-MF and Mn can have significant effects on levels of elements in rat teeth. Further experimental and epidemiological studies of ELF-MF and Mn are needed in order to evaluate their dental effects."
"The results demonstrate that ELF-MF and Mn can have significant effects on levels of elements in rat teeth. Further experimental and epidemiological studies of ELF-MF and Mn are needed in order to evaluate their dental effects."
"Though results from this study suggest a reduction of human standing balance with MF exposure, as well as an increase of physiological tremor amplitude within the frequency range associated with central nervous system contribution, no exposure effect appeared on other investigated parameters (e.g., EEG or voluntary motor control). These results suggest that 1 h of 60 Hz, 1,800 uT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the cortical electrical activity."
"Statistically significant decrease was found in Mg levels in the ELF-500 exposure group in comparison to sham and ELF-100 exposure groups (p < 0.05). Zn levels were found to be lower in the ELF-500 exposure group than those in the sham and ELF-100 exposure groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were determined between groups in terms of the levels of P, Cu and Fe. In conclusion, it can be maintained that long-term ELF-MF exposure can affect the chemical structure and metabolism of bone by changing the levels of some important elements such as Ca, Zn and Mg in rats."
"The geometric and biomechanical analyses showed that a significant decrease in rats exposed to 100 microT-MF in comparison to sham and 500 microT-MF exposed rats about the values of cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft (P<0.05). Maximum load increased in 100 muT-MF and 500 microT-MF exposed rats when compared to that of the sham rats (P<0.05). The cortical thickness of the femurs of MF-exposed rats (100 microT and 500 microT) were significantly decreased in comparison to that of sham groups' rats (P<0.05 and P<0.001). However, no significant differences were found in the other biomechanical endpoints between each other groups, such as: length of the femur, displacement, stiffness, energy absorption capacity, elastic modulus, and toughness of bone (P>0.05). These experiments demonstrated that 100 microT-MF and 500 microT-MF can affect biomechanical and geometrical properties of rats' bone."
"This large case-control study identified a significantly increased risk of leukemia among the offspring of men likely to have been occupationally exposed to EMF, with differing associations between males and females. Increased risks of chondrosarcoma and renal carcinoma were also seen, although based on smaller numbers. Further detailed investigations in this area are required to understand this association."
"In the exposed group the weight was significantly decreased only at birth, while the circumferences of the head and chest as well as the height were significantly reduced at all studied ages. The radiological study revealed a significant delay in carpal bone ossification of the exposed children. In conclusion: Exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields emerged from high voltage electric power lines increases the incidence of growth retardation of children. Isolating these power lines in a scientific way in order to shield both the magnetic and electric fields or removing them far away from the inhabitant areas is recommended."
Erythropoietic changes in rats after 2.45 GHz nonthermal irradiation
Busljeta I et al, Int J Hyg Environ Health, januar 2005
"In the applied experimental condition, RF/MW radiation might cause disturbance in red cell maturation and proliferation, and induce micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells."
"In comparison with the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) for experimental days 8 and 15. The frequency of micronucleated PCEs was also significantly increased on experimental day 15 (P < 0.05). Pair-wise comparison of data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham-exposed and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions the findings revealed a transient effect on proliferation and maturation of erythropoietic cells in the rat bone marrow and the sporadic appearance of micronucleated immature bone marrow red cells."
"Histopathologic changes in skin were analyzed. In the IR group, increased thickness of stratum corneum, atrophy of epidermis, papillamatosis, basal cell proliferation, increased granular cell layer (hypergranulosis) in epidermis and capillary proliferation, impairment in collagen tissue distribution and separation of collagen bundles in dermis were all observed compared to the control group. Most of these changes, except hypergranulosis, were prevented with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, exposure to 900 MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones caused mild skin changes. Furthermore, melatonin treatment can reduce these changes and may have a beneficial effect to prevent 900 MHz mobile phone-induced rat skin changes."
"This correlation, combined with both frequent exposure opportunity for bathing children and substantial dose to bone marrow resulting from contact, lead us to suggest that contact current due to V(W-E) could explain the association between high residential magnetic fields and childhood leukemia."
"Cytologic investigations designed to study bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of albino rats irradiated by an electromagnetic field, 2375, 2450, and 3000 MEGS, revealed structural and functional changes in populations of megakaryocytes, immunocompetent cells as well as of undifferentiated cells, and of other types of cells that are dependent on the intensity of irradiation and permit establishing the probability-threshold levels of exposure taking account of reactions of perception and physiologic adaptation together with compensatory and regenerative processes and the injury sustained. It is shown that changes in bone marrow cells differentiation and reproduction rather than integral shifts in the peripheral blood that acquire the utmost significance. Subjected to a particular scrutiny in the paper are blast cells, which cells' repopulation was noted to be getting increased in low-intensity exposure as were disturbances in their mitosis pattern."
"The results are consistent with previous observations. Dose-related developmental toxicity was observed for 2ME both in the presence and absence of r.f. radiation. However, concurrent RF radiation exposure changed the shape of the dose-effect curve of 2ME. These data indicate that combined exposure effects should be considered when developing exposure guidelines and intervention strategies."
"The results are consistent with previous observations. Significant interactions were observed between 2ME and RF radiation sufficient to maintain colonic temperatures at 41 degrees C for 1 h, but no consistent interactions were seen at lower temperatures even with longer durations. These data indicate that combined exposure effects should be considered when developing both RF radiation and chemical exposure guidelines and intervention strategies."
"Motor function, memory and attention significantly differed between the exposed and control groups. Children living in front of the RLS had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased."
"Many reports in the literature have suggested the effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) (10 kHz-300,000 MHz) on the functions of the nervous system. Such effects are of great concern to researchers in bioelectromagnetics, since the nervous system coordinates and controls an organism’s responses to the environment through autonomic and voluntary muscular movements and neurohumoral functions. As it was suggested in the early stages of bioelectromagnetics research, behavioral changes could be the most sensitive effects of RFR exposure. At the summary of session B of the proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, Poland, in 1973, it was stated that “The reaction of the central nervous system to microwaves may serve as an early indicator of disturbances in regulatory functions of many systems” [Czerski et al., 1974]."
"The current state of biological research is reviewed, and a summary of the known effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation exposure on animals and humans provided. These known effects appear to be principally thermal, similar to conventional electrical burn injuries, but with some unique systemic expression. Derangements of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematological, ophthalmological, and behavioral functions are well described in animal experimentation."
Mortality in Rats Exposed to CW Microwave Radiation at 0.95, 2.45, 4.5 and 7.44 GHz
Polson P et al, Stanford Research Institute, januar 1974
"In terms of lethal effectiveness, therefore, the ordering is, from most effective to least effective, 0.95 < 2.45 < 7.44 < 4.54 GHz. It is worth pointing out that American National Standard, C95.1, "Safety Level of Electromagnetic Radiation with Respect to Personnel," recommends an energy-density radiation protection guide of 1 mW-hr/cm2 averaged over any 0.1 hr period. For the most lethal frequency (0.95 GHz) the lethal energy constant was found to be 36,643 mW-sec/cm2 or 10.2 mW-hr/cm2 This is approximately a factor of ten greater than the radiation protection guide."
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects, listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9 central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4 behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8 different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity, altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis) and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations documenting these various health effects.

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