plodnost moških (122 od skupno 1329 raziskav)
"By contrast, 5 weeks of RF-EME exposure adversely impacted the vitality and motility profiles of mature epididymal spermatozoa. These spermatozoa also experienced increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species after 1 week of exposure, with elevated DNA oxidation and fragmentation across all exposure periods."
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system."
"With this hypothesis, we studied the effect of 3G mobile phone radiations on the reproductive system of male Wistar rats. Adult rats were divided into two groups: control and radio frequency-exposed. The animals were exposed to 3G mobile phone radiation for 45 days (2 hr/day) in specially designed exposure setup under standard conditions. Various biochemical and physiological parameters such as sperm count, sperm morphology, mitochondrial activity, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species level and histopathological analysis were studied. Histopathological examination revealed a reduction in spermatogenic cells and alterations in sperm membrane. Significant increase in ROS and lipid peroxidation level with simultaneously decrease in sperm count, alterations in sperm tail morphology were observed in the exposed group. In conclusion, exposure to mobile phone radiations induces oxidative stress in male Wistar rats which may lead to alteration in sperm parameters and affects their fertility."
"Available data indicate that exposure to EMF can cause adverse health effects. It is also reported that biological effects may occur at very low levels of exposure. The RFR effect can be more intensified based on the range and duration of the exposure. The RFR can also exert adverse effects in the first few minutes. Persistent exposures of EMF radiation can result in health hazards because these radiations interfere with normal physiological and biological function of the body. EMF works as an environmental pollutant and has undesirable health effects on animals and humans."
"From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations."
"Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure."
"This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF."
"With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed."
"Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure."
"RESULTS: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were found to be significantly different in the study group compared to the control group (p < .05), but no significant difference was found in serum IL-10, IL-32 levels and testis tissue IL-6, IL-10, IL-32 levels compared to the control group (p > .05). On the other hand, histopathological evaluation of testicular tissue revealed a significant difference in necrosis and spermatogenesis when compared with the control group (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz increases inflammation and testicular damage and negative impact on male reproductive system function."
"Decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, sperm count, and viability along with increased germ cells apoptosis and decreased serum testosterone level, was observed in the testes of all the mobile phone exposed mice compared with control. We also observed that, mobile phone radiation exposure in all the three different operative modes alters the testicular redox status via increasing ROS, NO, and MDA level, and decreasing antioxidant enzymes levels leading to enhanced apoptosis of testicular cells by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins along with decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein."
"Findings suggest that 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure induced testicular redox imbalance not only leads to enhanced testicular apoptosis via p53 dependent Bax-caspase-3 mediated pathway, but also increases the degree of apoptotic severity in a duration dependent manner."
"Results showed that 2.45 GHz microwave radiation resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease (p < 0.001) in the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), testosterone and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05). Flow cytometer analysis of blood showed the formation of micronuclei in microwave-exposed group. Histopathological changes were also seen in seminiferous tubules of microwave-exposed group as compared to the sham-exposed group. It is concluded that 2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposure causes oxidative stress in testes and it may lead to detrimental and injurious effects on fertility potential of the male reproductive system of Swiss albino mice."
"Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs."
"Our results confirmed a harmful effect of non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the juvenile rat testis."
"This study found that 5 mmol/L trolox protected the Wi-Fi-exposed semen in vitro from the damage of electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress."
"The authors have ignored the reports indicating Wi-Fi users at least should avoid long-term exposures. It has been shown that long-term exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation can lead to neurodegenerative diseases or adverse alterations in reproductive parameters."
"The possible negative impact of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality has been well established. While no certain conclusions can be drawn from current evidence, a growing number of studies indicate a decrease in male fertility associated with increased cellular phone usage (Agarwal et al., 2011) and laptop computers using Wi-Fi (Avendaño et al., 2012a). Here we review the current evidence regarding the effects of electromagnetic radiation and heat in male fertility."
"The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile."
"A total of thirty-two (n = 32) male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups as control (C, n = 8), sham (Sh, n = 8), mobile phone speech (Sp, n = 8) and mobile phone standby (ST by). Morphometric measurements were made with the help of a computer-assisted stereological analysis system. The testis weight and volume were significantly lower in the EMF exposed groups. The mean volume fraction of interstitial tissue was higher, but the volume fraction of tubular tissue was lower in the EMF-exposed groups. The mean tubular and germinal tissue volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and germinal epithelium height were also lower in EMF exposed groups. The cortisol levels in the EMF-exposed groups were significantly higher. In conclusion, the EMF created by mobile phones caused morphologic and histological changes by the affecting germinal epithelium tissue negatively."
"Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems cause a significant decrease in sperm motility and velocity, especially in non-progressive motile sperms. Other parameters of semen analysis did not change significantly.EMWs, which are used in communications worldwide, are a suspected cause of male infertility. Many studies evaluated the effects of cell phones and wi-fi on fertility. To our knowledge, no study has yet been done to show the effects of EMWs emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on fertility.Our study revealed a significant decrease in the quality of human semen after exposure to EMWs emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems."
"Cell phone use might have a negative effect on semen quality parameters and further research is needed."
"This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility."
"Electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range emitted from mobile phone jammers may lead to decreased motility and increased DNA fragmentation in human semen. It can be concluded that mobile phone jamming might exert adverse reproductive health effects."
"These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm2). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p < 0.001), brain (p < 0.004) and spleen (p < 0.006) in samples from rats exposed to microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health."
"Long term EMR exposure resulted in testicular physiopathology via oxidative damage and inflammation. GA may have ameliorative effects on the prepubertal rat testes physiopathology."
"Our own studies as well as the studies performed by other researchers indicate that using laptop computers on the lap adversely affects the male reproductive health. When it is placed on the lap, not only the heat from a laptop computer can warm men's scrotums, the electromagnetic fields generated by laptop's internal electronic circuits as well as the Wi-Fi Radiofrequency radiation hazards (in a Wi-Fi connected laptop) may decrease sperm quality. Furthermore, due to poor working posture, laptops should not be used on the lap for long hours."
"Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system."
"There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the range of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem illnesses - works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention."
"In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation."
"Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility."
"Exposure to microwave radiaton emitted from Wi-Fi routers affects sperm parameters such as count and motility which are among the key parameters determining the chance of conceiving."
"The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless Internet usage compared with the wired Internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless Internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = -0.089, p = 0.039). We have also explored the negative effect of wireless Internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"Both 1-hour and 7-hour groups showed a decrease in sperm parameters in a time dependent pattern. In parallel, the number of apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity increased in the seminiferous tubules of exposed rats. The seminal vesicle weight reduced significantly in both1-hour or 7-hour groups in comparison to the control group. Regarding to the progressive privilege of 2.45 GHz wireless networks in our environment, we concluded that there should be a major concern regarding the timedependent exposure of whole-body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi networks existing in the vicinity of our living places."
"Scientists and safety advocates say Health Canada’s new rules do not take into account many new studies on the safety of cellphones and other wireless devices."
"These data support the hypothesis that long-term exposure of 50 Hz magnetic fields is a significant risk factor for neoplastic development and fertility in mice."
"Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases."
"This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role."
"Electromagnetic radiation exposure resulted in testicular apoptosis in rats, mainly by the intrinsic pathways by down-regulated expression of caspase-8. Reduction in the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis was found higher with selenium administration compared with L-carnitine administration."
"Head defects increased in the exposure group (p < 0.05) while weight of the epididymis and seminal vesicles, seminiferous tubules diameter and tunica albuginea thickness were decreased in the exposure group (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001). However, other alterations of other parameters were not found significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, we observed that long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF emitted from Wi-Fi (2420 μW/kg, 1 g average) affects some of the reproductive parameters of male rats. We suggest Wi-Fi users to avoid long-term exposure of RF emissions from Wi-Fi equipment."
"Our bodies act as parasitic antennas that receive these waves and convert them into electric and magnetic fields. While thermal effects at the present level of cell phone radiation are negligible, most of the biological interactions are attributed to non-thermal effects. Male reproductive system is highly compartmentalized and sensitive biological system that requires the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to properly function. The generated electrical currents may alter the hormonal milieu and testicular microenvironment, necessary for sperm production. Additionally, sperm are electrically active cells and their exposure to cell phone electromagnetic waves and currents may affect their motility, morphology and even their count. Leaky plasma membranes, calcium depletion and oxidative stress are the postulated cellular mechanisms mediating the harmful effects of cell phones radiation on sperm and male fertility potentials. Evidences for such impacts come from designed animal and in vitro studies which may be different from in vivo human exposure. Nevertheless, the important advice is to apply strict regulations on further increase in the power density of the emitted cell phone radiation and to conduct in vivo human research to study its negative effects on fertility."
"Results from 10 pooled experimental (in vitro) and observational (in vivo) human studies (n = 1492) led these researchers to suggest that exposure to RF-EMW radiation from carrying a mobile phone in the trouser pocket negatively impacts sperm quality."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF."
"A systematic review was therefore conducted, followed by meta-analysis using random effects models, to determine whether exposure to RF-EMR emitted from mobile phones affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinic and research centres. The sperm quality outcome measures were motility, viability and concentration, which are the parameters most frequently used in clinical settings to assess fertility. We used ten studies in the meta-analysis, including 1492 samples. Exposure to mobile phones was associated with reduced sperm motility (mean difference -8.1% (95% CI -13.1, -3.2)) and viability (mean difference -9.1% (95% CI -18.4, 0.2)), but the effects on concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental in vitro and observational in vivo studies. We conclude that pooled results from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Further study is required to determine the full clinical implications for both sub-fertile men and the general population."
"All EMF sources used created statistically significant effects regarding fecundity and cell death-apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels (0.3 V/m blue tooth radiation), well below ICNIRP's guidelines, suggesting that Drosophila oogenesis system is suitable to be used as a biomarker for exploring potential EMF bioactivity. Also, there is no linear cumulative effect when increasing the duration of exposure or using one EMF source after the other (i.e. mobile phone and DECT handset) at the specific conditions used."
"These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells."
"We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway."
"Moreover, we observed that RF exposure did not increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, but inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells. These findings suggested that autophagy flux could be enhanced by 1800MHz GSM exposure (4w/kg), which is mediated by ROS generation. Autophagy may play an important role in preventing cells from apoptotic cell death under RF exposure stress."
"The number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group, influenced by electromagnetic radiation, is statistically lower than the number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group under no effect of the mobile phone. The number of non-progressive movement spermatozoa was significantly higher in the group, which was influenced by cell phone radiation. The DNA fragmentation was also significantly higher in this group."
"In conclusion, wireless (2.45 GHz) EMR caused oxidative damage in testis by increasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and decreasing in vitamin A and E levels. Melatonin supplementation prevented oxidative damage induced by EMR and also supported the antioxidant redox system in the testis."
"Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats."
"In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats."
"Long-term exposure to 100 μT and 500 μT ELF-MF did not affect oxidative or antioxidative processes, lipid peroxidation, or reproductive components such as sperm count and morphology in testes tissue of rats. However, long-term exposure to 500 μT ELF-MF did affect active-caspase-3 activity, which is a well-known apoptotic indicator."
"Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been increasing with the increasing demand for communication devices. The aim of the study was to discuss the mechanisms and risk factors of EMR changes on reproductive functions and membrane oxidative biology in females and males. It was reported that even chronic exposure to EMR did not increase the risk of reproductive functions such as increased levels of neoantigens abort. However, the results of some studies indicate that EMR induced endometriosis and inflammation and decreased the number of follicles in the ovarium or uterus of rats. In studies with male rats, exposure caused degeneration in the seminiferous tubules, reduction in the number of Leydig cells and testosterone production as well as increases in luteinizing hormone levels and apoptotic cells. In some cases of male and female infertility, increased levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and decreased values of antioxidants such as melatonin, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase were reported in animals exposed to EMR. In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems. However, there is no evidence to this date to support an increased risk of female and male infertility related to EMR exposure."
"These results suggest that the sperm DNA fragmentation could represent the only parameter significantly altered in the subjects who use the mobile phone for more than 4 h/day and in particular for those who use the device in the pocket of the trousers."
"Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places."
"These findings raise questions about the safety of radiofrequency exposure from Wi-Fi Internet access devices for growing organisms of reproductive age, with a potential effect on both fertility and the integrity of germ cells."
"This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases."
"RESULTS: The study of scanning electron microscopic revealed shrinkage of the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Apoptotic bodies were found in exposed group. A flow cytometry examination showed formation of micronuclei body in lymphocytes of exposed group. Comet assay confirmed DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand break. Testosterone level was found significantly decreased with the shrinkage of testicular size. CONCLUSIONS: 10 GHz field has an injurious effect on fertility potential of male-exposed animals."
"A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of testosterone and an increase in caspase-3 activity were found in the RF-exposed animals. Distortions in sperm head and mid piece of sperm mitochondrial sheath were also observed as captured by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). In addition, progeny from RF-exposed rats showed significant decreases in number and weight as compared with that of sham-exposed animals. A reduction in testosterone, an increase in caspase-3, and distortion in spermatozoa could be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications of repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation."
"Testicular infertility or testicular cancer due to mobile phone or microwave radiations suggests an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though generation of ROS in testis has been responsible for possible toxic effects on physiology of reproduction, the reviews of last few decades have well established that these radiations are very harmful and cause mutagenic changes in reproductive pattern and leads to infertility. The debate will be focused on bio-interaction mechanism between mobile phone and testicular cancer due to ROS formation. This causes the biological damage and leads to several changes like decreased sperm count, enzymatic and hormonal changes, DNA damage, and apoptosis formation."
"The results showed that human spermatozoa exposed to RF-EMR have decreased motility, morphometric abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress, whereas men using mobile phones have decreased sperm concentration, decreased motility (particularly rapid progressive motility), normal morphology, and decreased viability. These abnormalities seem to be directly related to the duration of mobile phone use."
"The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks."
"In present experiment, it is suggested that the exposure of adult male fresh semen to a 50-Hz EMF in vitro could inhibit the motoricity and the activity ratio, but not affect the pH value of the semen within 60 min."
"To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the direct impact of laptop use on human spermatozoa. Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect. We speculate that keeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to prove this contention."
"Detailed in vitro motility analysis of bovine spermatozoa exposed to microwave radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility."
"Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress."
"Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men."
"Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made."
"Electromagnetic field affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related events in testis tissue."
"Results of our study showed that pulse-modulated RF radiation causes oxidative injury in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues mediated by lipid peroxidation, increased level of NOx and suppression of antioxidant defense mechanism."
"Long-term microwave radiation may cause injury to male reproduction, which is positively correlated with the radiation dose, and has an obvious late effect."
"The present study investigates the effect of 10-GHz microwave radiation on the fertility pattern of 70-day-old male rats (sham exposed and exposed), which were exposed for 2 h/d for 45 days continuously at a specific absorption rate of 0.014 W/kg and a power density of 0.21 mW/cm(2). Results show a significant change in the level of reactive oxygen species, histone kinase, apoptotic cells, and percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in the exposed group compared with the sham-exposed group. The study concludes that there is a significant effect of microwave radiations on the reproductive pattern in male rats, which is a causative factor of male infertility."
"This is an in-vitro pilot study which established the effect of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from 2.4 GHz laptop antenna on human semen. Ten samples of the semen, collected from donors between the ages of 20 and 30 years were exposed when the source of the RFR was in active mode. Sequel to the exposure, both the exposed samples and another ten unexposed samples from same donors were analysed for sperm concentration, motility and morphology grading. A test of significance between results of these semen parameters using Mann-Whitney U-test at 0.05 level of significance showed a significant effect of RFR exposure on the semen parameters considered."
"Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Wave Exposure from Cellular Phones on the Reproductive Pattern in Male Wistar Rats."
"Semen quality in the adult male can be affected by a number of environmental and lifestyle factors. However, most studies to date have only considered how sperm concentration, motility and morphology are affected by such exposures. More recent studies, outlined in this review, have begun to examine the effect of environmental and lifestyle factors on sperm DNA integrity. Important factors appear to include: (i) Physical agents such as radiation and heat; (ii) Chemical agents such as cigarette smoke, airborne pollutants, and chemotherapeutic drugs; and (iii) Biological factors including sexually transmitted infections, increasing male age, elevated body mass index and medical conditions such as insulin dependent diabetes. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to account for how sperm DNA might be damaged by these factors. There is, however, uncertainty about the most appropriate laboratory test(s) to identify and quantify such DNA damage and no convincing evidence on possible therapeutic measures."
"A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility."
"Results showed a decrease in the following parameters: tubular diameter and seminiferous tubules area; seminiferous epithelium height; total volume of seminiferous tubule; tubular lumen; seminiferous epithelium; and Leydig cells. On the other hand, an increase was observed in connective tissue cells and blood vessels volume. Plasma testosterone, Sertoli cells population, tubular length and gonadosomatic index did not change when exposed to EMF. Histomorphometric analysis showed that exposure to EMF can promote a delay in testicular development."
"We conclude that these radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility."
"ELF-EMFs significantly decreased the number of living sperm and the quality of movement of sperm, although these adversities did not impact on the outcome of the other parameters investigated."
"Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model."
"The mean number of zona-bound sperm of the test hemizona and controls was 22.8 +/- 12.4 and 31.8 +/- 12.8 (p < 0.05), respectively. This study concludes that although RF-EMF exposure did not adversely affect the acrosome reaction, it had a significant effect on sperm morphometry. In addition, a significant decrease in sperm binding to the hemizona was observed. These results could indicate a significant effect of RF-EMF on sperm fertilization potential."
"Epidemiological studies related to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) have mainly used crude proxies for exposure, such as job titles, distance to, or use of different equipment emitting RF EMF. The Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) has measured RF field emitted from high-frequency antennas and radars on several spots where the crew would most likely be located aboard fast patrol boats (FPB). These boats are small, with short distance between the crew and the equipment emitting RF field. We have described the measured RF exposure aboard FPB and suggested different methods for calculations of total exposure and annual dose. Linear and spatial average in addition to percentage of ICNIRP and squared deviation of ICNIRP has been used. The methods will form the basis of a job exposure matrix where relative differences in exposure between groups of crew members can be used in further epidemiological studies of reproductive health."
"We conducted a population-based case-control study among healthy sperm donors to study exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) and poor sperm quality. All participants wore a meter to capture daily MF exposure. After controlling for confounders, compared to those with lower MF exposure, those whose 90th percentile MF level > or = 1.6mG had a two-fold increased risk of abnormal sperm motility and morphology (odds ratio (OR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-3.9). Increasing duration of MF exposure above 1.6 mG further increased the risk (p=0.03 for trend test). Importantly, the association and dose-response relationship were strengthened when restricted to those whose measurement day reflected their typical day of the previous 3 months (a likely period of spermatogenesis). Age-adjusted Spearman Rank Order Correlations showed an inverse correlation between MF exposure and all semen parameters. Our study provides some evidence for the first time that MF exposure may have an adverse effect on sperm quality."
"The exposure of male mice to radiofrequency radiations from mobile phone (GSM) base stations at a workplace complex and residential quarters caused 39.78 and 46.03%, respectively, in sperm head abnormalities compared to 2.13% in control group. Statistical analysis of sperm head abnormality score showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in occurrence of sperm head abnormalities in test animals. The major abnormalities observed were knobbed hook, pin-head and banana-shaped sperm head. The occurrence of the sperm head abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent. The implications of the observed increase occurrence of sperm head abnormalities on the reproductive health of humans living in close proximity to GSM base stations were discussed."
"This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling."
"Hormonally stimulated adult (9-12 months) females (n = 140) were inseminated with semen samples from G1, G2, G3 and CG (0.88 x 109 spermatozoa/0.5 mL average insemination portion) immediately after ELF EMF exposure and fertilization (kindling) rates were calculated. For the G2 it was 54.28% data indicate 50 Hz ELF EMF induced alterations of spermatozoa motility and kindling rate in rabbits, therefore influencing fertility."
"RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility."
"RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring."
"In the present study adult male rats were exposed to 200 MHz radiofrequency (RF) fields, amplitude modulated at 16 Hz (power density = 1.47 mw/cm2, average specific absorption rate = 2.0-1.65 W/kg). After 35 days of exposure 6 days a week (2 h/day), the rats were mated with normal female rats. In comparison to controls, a significant decrease in fertility was observed in exposed rats. This is attributed to disrupted spermatogenesis due to exposure to RF fields. Ultrastructural changes in seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells, and spermatids were responsible for decreased fertility. Serum testosterone level of rats, measured by ELISA, showed no significant difference in the exposed rats. It is concluded that an amplitude-modulated RF field may have an adverse effect on male reproductive capability."
"The incidence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and defective spermatogenesis is increasing probably due to environmental and lifestyle-related factors. The aim of this review is to briefly describe and comment on the principal lifestyle factors. The recent findings that the electromagnetic waves following the use of the cell phone and the prolonged exposure to the noise stress cause relevant testicular dysfunction in man or animals reinforce the hypothesis of the importance of lifestyle-related factors."
"In TUNEL staining (In situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy-UTP nick end labeling), germ cells showed a significantly higher apoptotic rate in exposed mice than in sham controls (P < 0.001). TUNEL-positive cells were mainly spermatogonia. In an electron microscopic study, degenerating spermatogonia showed condensation of nuclear chromatin similar to apoptosis. These results indicate that apoptosis may be induced in spermatogenic cells in mice by continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF of 14 microT."
"RESULT(S): Samples exposed to RF-EMW showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and viability, increase in ROS level, and decrease in ROS-TAC score. Levels of TAC and DNA damage showed no significant differences from the unexposed group. CONCLUSION(S): Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility."
"In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects."
"In all age groups there were significant linear trends with higher prevalence of involuntary childlessness with higher self-reported exposure to radiofrequency fields. However, the degree of exposure to radiofrequency radiation and the number of children were not associated. For self-reported exposure both to high-frequency aerials and communication equipment there were significant linear trends with lower ratio of boys to girls at birth when the father reported a higher degree of radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure."
"Use of cell phones decrease the semen quality in men by decreasing the sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology. The decrease in sperm parameters was dependent on the duration of daily exposure to cell phones and independent of the initial semen quality."
"These results suggest that carrying cell phones near reproductive organs could negatively affect male fertility."
"In the analysis of the effect of GSM equipment on the semen it was noted that an increase in the percentage of sperm cells of abnormal morphology is associated with the duration of exposure to the waves emitted by the GSM phone. It was also confirmed that a decrease in the percentage of sperm cells in vital progressing motility in the semen is correlated with the frequency of using mobile phones."
"These data suggest that EMR emitted by cellular phone influences human sperm motility. In addition to these acute adverse effects of EMR on sperm motility, long-term EMR exposure may lead to behavioral or structural changes of the male germ cell. These effects may be observed later in life, and they are to be investigated more seriously."
"Initial reports indicated that exposure of chicken eggs during embryonic development to power-line electric fields of 50 and 60 Hz, at 10 V/m in air (which is frequently in locations inhabited by humans), could cause the brain tissues of the hatched chickens to respond differently in a particular test. More recently, an anecdotal report of human sensitivity to EMF has appeared that shows a health-related influence of prior exposure history to particular power-line frequencies in chemically sensitized individuals. These reports open the question of whether the ambient electromagnetic environment can leave an imprint on developing organisms and if such imprint changes have the potential for health consequences."
"The duration of possession and the daily transmission time correlated negatively with the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (r = -0.12 and r = -0.19, respectively), and positively with the proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (r = 0.12 and r = 0.28, respectively). The low and high transmitter groups also differed in the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (48.7% vs. 40.6%). The prolonged use of cell phones may have negative effects on the sperm motility characteristics."
"This study suggests that while RFEMR does not have a dramatic impact on male germ cell development, a significant genotoxic effect on epididymal spermatozoa is evident and deserves further investigation."
"The weight of testes, testicular biopsy score count and the percentage of interstitial tissue to the entire testicular tissue were not significantly different in EMF group compared to the control group. However, the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the mean height of the germinal epithelium were significantly decreased in EMF group (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in serum total testosterone level in EMF group (p<0.05). Therefore, there was an insignificant decrease in plasma LH and FSH levels in EMF group compared to the control group (p>0.05)."
"The GSM field is found to affect both females and males. Our results suggest that this field-radiation decreases the rate of cellular processes during gonad development in insects."
"The Risk Evaluation analyzes the potential human health risks of magnetic field exposure. Specifically, this document provides an evaluation of the animal, laboratory and human evidence that shows how exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields may or may not increase human health risks. The Risk Evaluation is based on the results of published research studies, with emphasis on new studies, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Working Group Report, and the results of the California EMF Program Studies."
"We observed minor semen quality and hormonal differences between the groups, including a slightly higher mean follicle-stimulating hormone level for exposed operators (7.6 vs 5.8 mIU/mL). Further occupational studies of RF-exposed men may be warranted."
"Histological changes were especially observed in the testes of rats of the speech groups. Seminiferous tubular diameter of rat testes in the standby and speech groups was found to be lower than the sham group (P < 0.05). Rectal temperatures of rats in the speech group were found to be higher than the sham and standby groups (P < 0.05). The rectal temperatures of rats before and after exposure were also found to be significantly higher in the speech group (P < 0.05). Specific absorption rate (SAR) was determined as 0.141 W/kg."
"Somewhat increased risks were found for amateur radio operators (OR 2.2; CI 0.7-6.6), work with radar equipment (OR 2.0; CI 0.3-14.2) and engineers in electronics and telecommunication industry (OR 2.3; CI 0.8-6.7) based on few exposed subjects, however. Video display unit work gave OR 1.5; CI 0.98-2.3 and for exposure 480 working days (median number) the risk increased further to OR 1.8; CI 1.1-3.2. Because of low numbers of exposed subjects in some calculations some of these results might be spurious and need to be further studied."
"This is a preliminary survey of semen quality among Danish military personnel operating mobile ground-to-air missile units that use several microwave emitting radar systems. The maximal mean exposure was estimated to be 0.01 mW/cm2. The median sperm density of the military personnel was significantly low compared to the references. The difference is either due to chance, uncontrolled bias, or nonthermal effects of transitory microwaves."
"A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible infertility. The prenatal development of the newborns, however, evaluated by the crown-rump length, the body weight, and the number of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal vertebrae, was improved."
"The group of men with potential microwave exposures demonstrated lower sperm counts/mL (P = 0.009) and sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.027) than the comparison group."
"Occupational use of hand-held radar was the only shared risk factor among all six officers, and all routinely held the radar gun directly in close proximity to their testicles. Health effects of occupational radar use have not been widely studied, and further research into a possible association with testicular cancer is warranted."
"Mouse spermatozoa were exposed in vitro for 1 h to 27- or 2,450-MHz CW RF radiation at SARs of 0 to 90 W/kg under isothermal (37 +/- 0.2 degrees C) conditions. Exposure at either frequency to RF radiation at SARs of 50 W/kg or greater resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the ability of irradiated sperm to fertilize mouse ova in vitro (P less than .05). Over the range of SARs there was no apparent difference in the effects of 27- vs. 2,450-MHz RF radiation. There were no readily detectable exposure effects on spermatozoan morphology, ultrastructure, or capacitation. The reduction of in vitro fertilization is attributed to a direct effect of RF radiation on spermatozoa rather than to heating."
"The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard."
"An additional interesting feature of the data concerns the relatively severe effects of fairly "low powers. At the 1700 KHz frequency, a power of only 50 mw/cm2 produced a complete cessation of bar-press responding within a ten-minute exposure period. A level of 50 mw/cm2, of course, is relatively close to the safety level of 10 mw/cm established for humans exposed to microwave fields. The fact that microwave effects are found at power levels not far above the established safety level points to the necessity for additional, careful, and comprehensive examinations of the biological effects of microwaves, with a variety of species. It is possible that not only the rat, but other species as well, may exhibit enhanced sensitivity to certain microwave frequencies."
Tolgskaya and Gordon in 1973 published a long and detailed review of effects of
microwave and lower frequency EMFs on experimental animals, mostly rodents.
They report that non-thermal exposures impact many tissues, with the nervous system
being the most sensitive organ in the body, based on histological studies, followed by
the heart and the testis. They also report effects of non-thermal exposures on liver,
kidney, endocrine and many other organs. The nervous system effects are very
extensive and include many changes in cell structure, dysfunction of synaptic
connections between neurons and programmed cell death.
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical
Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects,
listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave
frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9
central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4
behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG
changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8
different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration
in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity,
altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis)
and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total
of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations
documenting these various health effects.
"An experiment has been carried out to determine pathological and longevity effects caused by chronic microwave irradiation of mice. Two hundred males were exposed daily for 59 weeks to 0.100 w/cm2 for 4.5 minutes. This treatment produced an average body temperature rise of 3.3° C. Histopathology was performed on all dead mice in both irradiated and control group. Changes in body weight, in body temperature response to heating, and in the blood picture were not evident. Testicular degeneration in the form of tubule atrophy and neoplasms of the white cells were indicated. Longevity of the mice did not appear to be affected under the prevailing conditions."
"The outcome of this experiment clearly shows that testicular damage will result from 12 cm irradiations at a temperature below that of the abdominal cavity and below that necessary to cause injury by infra red exposures. This finding suggests that damage may result in part from factors other than heat."