Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

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uho (47 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"In May 2011 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated cancer risks from radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Human epidemiological studies gave evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. RF radiation was classified as Group 2B, a possible human carcinogen. Further epidemiological, animal and mechanistic studies have strengthened the association. In spite of this, in most countries little or nothing has been done to reduce exposure and educate people on health hazards from RF radiation. On the contrary ambient levels have increased. In 2014 the WHO launched a draft of a Monograph on RF fields and health for public comments. It turned out that five of the six members of the Core Group in charge of the draft are affiliated with International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), an industry loyal NGO, and thus have a serious conflict of interest. Just as by ICNIRP, evaluation of non-thermal biological effects from RF radiation are dismissed as scientific evidence of adverse health effects in the Monograph. This has provoked many comments sent to the WHO. However, at a meeting on March 3, 2017 at the WHO Geneva office it was stated that the WHO has no intention to change the Core Group."
"Fifteen minutes of RF-EMF exposure exerts quantifiable effects on subtle energy levels of endocrine glands, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen of healthy teenagers. "
Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation
Medeiros LN, Sanchez TG, Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, januar 2016
"There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus."
Protect children from EMF
Markov M, Grigoriev Y, Electromagn Biol Med, september 2015
"The twenty-first century is marked with aggressive development of the wireless communications (satellite, mobile phones, Internet, Wi-Fi). In addition to thousand of satellites that deliver radio and TV signals, large satellite and base station networks secure intensive instant delivery of audio and video information. It is fair to say that that the entire civilization, both biosphere and mankind are exposed to continuous exposure of multitude of radiofrequency (RF) signals. It should be taken into account that the entire world population is exposed to exponentially increasing RF radiation from base stations and satellite antennas. While several years ago the potential hazard was connected with placement of mobile phones close to human head, today "smart phones" represent small, but powerful computers continuously receiving audio and video data. The largest group of users is the children and teenagers who "need" to communicate nearly 24 h a day. This is even more important because cell phones and tablets may be seen in the hands of children as little as two years in age. There is no way to assess and predict the potential damages of children brain, vision and hearing under exposure to RF radiation. The WHO precautionary principle and IARC classification must be applied in discussing the potential hazard of the use of today's and tomorrow's communication devices."
"The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, both in the short and relatively long terms. Increased exposure duration led to an increase in the histopathological changes."
"Review of some key studies, both recent and old (1971), reveals that the participants' symptoms were the same as those reported by people exposed to radiofrequency fields emitted by devices other than smart meters. Interestingly, the vast majority of Victorian cases did not state that they had been sufferers of electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) prior to exposure to the wireless meters, which points to the possibility that smart meters may have unique characteristics that lower people's threshold for symptom development."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"Auditory brainstem response (ABR) analysis also revealed a significant threshold elevation of in the exposed (E4) group, which may be associated with auditory dysfunction. The present study suggests that the auditory brainstem region is susceptible to chronic exposure to RF radiation, which may affect the function of the central auditory system."
"The findings indicated cellular structural damage in the cochlea caused by radiofrequency radiation exposure during cochlear development in the rat model."
"This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma."
Effect of handheld mobile phone use on parotid gland salivary flow rate and volume
Bhargava S et al, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, avgust 2012
"Heavy users of mobile phones demonstrated increased salivary flow rate, blood flow rate, and volume of parotid glands."
"We report significant increase in all salivary oxidative stress indices studied in mobile phone users. Salivary flow, total protein, albumin and amylase activity were decreased in mobile phone users. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the use of mobile phones may cause oxidative stress and modify salivary function."
"There was no increase in risk of acoustic neuroma with ever regular use of a mobile phone or for users who began regular use 10 years or more before the reference date. Elevated odds ratios observed at the highest level of cumulative call time could be due to chance, reporting bias or a causal effect. As acoustic neuroma is usually a slowly growing tumour, the interval between introduction of mobile phones and occurrence of the tumour might have been too short to observe an effect, if there is one."
"Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by long-term mobile phone use or latency."
Tinnitus and mobile phone use
Hutter HP et al, Occup Environ Med, december 2010
"RESULTS: Mobile phone use up to the index date (onset of tinnitus) on the same side as the tinnitus did not have significantly elevated ORs for regular use and intensity or for cumulative hours of use. The risk estimate was significantly elevated for prolonged use (greater than or equal to 4 years) of a mobile phone (OR 1.95; CI 1.00 to 3.80). CONCLUSIONS: Mobile phone use should be included in future investigations as a potential risk factor for developing tinnitus."
Audiologic disturbances in long-term mobile phone users
Panda NK et al, J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, februar 2010
"CONCLUSION: Long-term and intensive mobile phone use may cause inner ear damage. A large sample size would be required to reach definitive conclusions."
"This is the first study that documents immediate and dramatic changes in both Heart Rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) associated with MW exposure at levels well below (0.5%) federal guidelines in Canada and the United States (1000 microW/cm2)."
Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Int J Oncol, julij 2009
"Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11. In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10. For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age <20 years, OR=5.0, 95% CI 1.5-16 whereas no association was found for cordless phone in that group, but based on only one exposed case. The annual age-adjusted incidence of astrocytoma for the age group >19 years increased significantly by +2.16%, 95% CI +0.25 to +4.10 during 2000-2007 in Sweden in spite of seemingly underreporting of cases to the Swedish Cancer Registry. A decreasing incidence was found for acoustic neuroma during the same period. However, the medical diagnosis and treatment of this tumour type has changed during recent years and underreporting from a single center would have a large impact for such a rare tumour."
"GSM-like RFR caused decreases in DPOAE amplitudes mainly in non-pregnant adult rabbits. Prolonged exposure may affect the DPOAE amplitude. Recommendations are given to prevent the potential hazardous effects of RF in humans."
"The evaluation of AN risk factors is challenging due to its long latency. Some studies of longer term cell phone use have found an increased risk of ipsilateral AN. Adopting a prospective approach to acquire data on cell phone use, obtaining retrospective billing records that provide independent evaluations of exposures, and incorporating information on other key potential risk factors from questionnaires could markedly advance the capacity of studies to evaluate the impact of cell phones on AN."
"Prolonged exposure and hyperthermia related to the power density of applied RF, increasing the temperature in the ear canal, may affect DPOAE amplitudes. Harmful effects of RF are mainly observed as a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes at 4.0-6.0 kHz during extrauterine exposure in infancy. During the intrauterine period, the water content of the middle and inner ear and amnion fluid may play a protective role. Therefore, children must be protected from RF exposure. The use of mobile phones at short distances from the ear of the infants should be avoided because of the lower thickness of the anatomical structure in infancy."
"Methodologic considerations revealed that three important conditions for epidemiologic studies to detect an increased risk are not met: a ) no evidence-based exposure metric is available; b) the observed duration of mobile phone use is generally still too low; c) no evidence-based selection of end points among the grossly different types of neoplasias is possible because of lack of etiologic hypotheses. Concerning risk estimates, selection bias, misclassification bias, and effects of the disease on mobile phone use could have reduced estimates, and recall bias may have led to spuriously increased risks. The overall evidence speaks in favor of an increased risk, but its magnitude cannot be assessed at present because of insufficient information on long-term use."
"Regarding brain tumors the meta-analysis yielded for glioma odds ratio (OR)=1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9-1.1. OR increased to 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 with 10 year latency period, with highest risk for ipsilateral exposure (same side as the tumor localisation), OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, lower for contralateral exposure (opposite side) OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.7. Regarding acoustic neuroma OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.8-1.1 was calculated increasing to OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.97-1.9 with 10 year latency period. For ipsilateral exposure OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.4, and for contralateral exposure OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.8-1.9 were found. Regarding meningioma no consistent pattern of an increased risk was found. Concerning age, highest risk was found in the age group <20 years at time of first use of wireless phones in the studies from the Hardell group. For salivary gland tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer no consistent pattern of an association with use of wireless phones was found. One study on uveal melanoma yielded for probable/certain mobile phone use OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2-14.5. One study on intratemporal facial nerve tumor was not possible to evaluate due to methodological shortcomings. In summary our review yielded a consistent pattern of an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma after >10 year mobile phone use. We conclude that current standard for exposure to microwaves during mobile phone use is not safe for long-term exposure and needs to be revised."
"Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus."
Mobile phones and brain tumours: a review of epidemiological research
Croft RJ et al, Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, december 2008
"There are reports of small associations between MP-use ipsilateral to the tumour for greater than 10 years, for both acoustic neuroma and glioma, but the present paper argues that these are especially prone to confounding by recall bias. The reported associations are in need of replication with methods designed to minimise such bias before they can be treated as more than suggestive."
"We conclude that this meta-analysis gave a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > or =10-years latency period."
"No significant increased risk for glioma, meningioma or neuroma was observed among cell phone users participating in Interphone. The statistical power of the study is limited, however. Our results, suggesting the possibility of an increased risk among the heaviest users, therefore need to be verified in the international INTERPHONE analyses."
"No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Five studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased OR especially for ipsilateral exposure. Highest OR = 5.4, 95 % CI = 3.0-9.6 was calculated for high-grade glioma and ipsilateral exposure in one study. Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for > 10 years give a consistent pattern of an increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma, most pronounced for high-grade glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure."
"For all studied phone types OR for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours, increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV."
"Instead, the microwave pulse, upon absorption by soft tissues in the head, launches a thermoelastic wave of acoustic pressure that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear. There, it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal hearing."
"A significant association was found between cordless phone use and difficulties in concentration (P < .05) or attention disorders (P < .05). However, after correction of the gender role, these differences were not significant. No association was found between mobile phone use and the above-mentioned symptoms. No significantly higher prevalence of self-reported symptoms was found in individuals who had used mobile phones, video display terminals or cordless phones more frequently than others."
"We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer."
Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function
Oktay MF, Dasdag S, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2006
"However, detection thresholds in those who talked approximately 2 h per day were found to be higher than those in either moderate users or control subjects. Differences at 4000 Hz for both bone and air conduction for right ears, and 500 Hz, and 4000 Hz bone and air conduction for left ears were significant for mean hearing threshold. This study shows that a higher degree of hearing loss is associated with long-term exposure to electromagnetic (EM) field generated by cellular phones."
"Digital phones yielded OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.05-3.8, whereas for cordless phones OR was not significantly increased. In the multivariate analysis, analogue phones represented a significant risk factor for acoustic neuroma."
"It is concluded that the use of mobile phone is a health risk factor, and thus it is suggested that excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided and social awareness increased through health promotion activities, such as group discussions or public presentations and via electronic and printed media sources."
Hearing level and intensive use of mobile phones
Garcia Callejo FJ et al, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp, maj 2005
"Frequent management of mobile phones in a middle period of time allows to detect a mild hearing loss, but the cause of this disorder keeps unclear."
Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma
Lonn S et al, Epidemiology, november 2004
"Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years' duration."
Dirty Electricity and Electrical Hypersensitivity: Five Case Studies
Havas M, Stetzer D, World Health Organization Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity, oktober 2004
"Deteriorating power quality is becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Poor power quality, also known as dirty electricity, refers primarily to a combination of harmonics and transients generated primarily by electronic devices and by non-linear loads. We have assumed, until recently, that this form of energy is not biologically active. However, when Graham/Stetzer™ filters were installed in homes and schools, symptoms associated with electrical hypersensitivity (such as chronic fatigue, depression, headaches, body aches and pains, ringing in the ears, dizziness, impaired sleep, memory loss, and confusion) were reduced."
The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain
Navarro EA et al, Electromagn Biol Med, december 2003
"The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure."
"Two new exposure parameters Specific Absorption per Day (SAD) and Specific Absorption per Call (SAC) have been devised and are obtained as combinations of SAR, calling time per day, and number of calls per day, respectively. The results indicates that SAR values >0.5 W/kg may be an important factor for the prevalence of some of the symptoms, especially in combination with long calling times per day."
Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones
Hardell L et al, Neuroepidemiology, marec 2003
"A significant increase in the incidence of VS was only found for the latter of the two time periods 1960-1979 and 1980-1998. For all other brain tumors taken together, the incidence significantly increased yearly by +0.80% (CI 0.59-1.02) for the time period 1960-1998, although the increase was only significant for benign tumors other than VS during 1960-1979."
"When duration of use was analysed as a continuous variable in the total material, the risk increased per year for analogue phones with OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08. For astrocytoma and ipsilateral use the trend was for analogue phones OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.02-1.19, digital phones OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01-1.22, and cordless phones OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.19. There was a tendency of a shorter tumour induction period for ipsilateral exposure to microwaves than for contralateral, which may indicate a tumour promotor effect."
Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours
Hardell L et al, Eur J Cancer Prev, avgust 2002
"With regard to the anatomical area of the tumour and exposure to microwaves, the risk was increased for tumours located in the temporal area on the same side of the brain that was used during phone calls; for analogue cellular telephones the OR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9). Use of a telephone on the opposite side of the brain was not associated with an increased risk for brain tumours. With regard to different tumour types, the highest risk was for acoustic neurinoma (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.8-6.8) among analogue cellular telephone users."
"Factors distinguishing the two systems (radio frequency emission, phone temperatures and various ergonomic factors) may be responsible for these results, as well as for a secondary finding: a statistically significant association between calling time/number of calls per day and the prevalence of warmth behind/around or on the ear, headaches and fatigue."
Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use
Oftedal G et al, Occup Med (Lond), maj 2000
"Most symptoms usually began during or within half an hour after the call and lasted for up to 2 h. Relatively few had consulted a physician or been on sick leave because of the symptoms, but about 45% among those with an MP attributed symptom had taken steps to reduce the symptom. These results suggest an awareness of the symptoms, but not necessarily a serious health problem."
"Study of mobile phone users showed a statistically significant association between calling time/number of calls per day and the prevalence of warmth behind/around the ear, headaches, and fatigue."
Mortality in Rats Exposed to CW Microwave Radiation at 0.95, 2.45, 4.5 and 7.44 GHz
Polson P et al, Stanford Research Institute, januar 1974
"In terms of lethal effectiveness, therefore, the ordering is, from most effective to least effective, 0.95 < 2.45 < 7.44 < 4.54 GHz. It is worth pointing out that American National Standard, C95.1, "Safety Level of Electromagnetic Radiation with Respect to Personnel," recommends an energy-density radiation protection guide of 1 mW-hr/cm2 averaged over any 0.1 hr period. For the most lethal frequency (0.95 GHz) the lethal energy constant was found to be 36,643 mW-sec/cm2 or 10.2 mW-hr/cm2 This is approximately a factor of ten greater than the radiation protection guide."

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