Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

2004 (33 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
Twelve institutes in seven countries have found genotoxic effects and modified expressions on numerous genes and proteins after Radio frequency and extremely low frequency EMF exposure at low levels, below current international safety guidance, to living cells in-vitro. These results confirm the likelihood of long-term genetic damage in the blood and brains of users of mobile phones and other sources of electromagnetic fields. The idea behind the REFLEX study was to attempt replicate damage already reported to see if the effects were real and whether, or not, more money should be spent of research into the possible adverse health effects of EMF exposure. They concluded that in-vitro damage is real and that it is important to carry out much more research, especially monitoring the long-term health of people.
"Significant decrease in lymphoblast count was obtained at 15 and 30th experimental day (P < 0.05), whereas other examined parameters did not significantly differed in comparison to the sham-exposed controls. The findings point out at stress response in blood-forming system in rats after selected microwave exposure, which could be considered rather as sign of adaptation than malfunction."
"Newly diagnosed cancers were significantly higher among those who had lived for 10 years within 400 metres of the mast, in operation since 1993, compared with those living further away, and the patients had fallen ill on average 8 years earlier. People living within 400 metres of the mast in Naila had three times the risk of developing cancer than those living further away. This semms to be an undeniable clustering of cancer cases."
"A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints."
Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma
Lonn S et al, Epidemiology, november 2004
"Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years' duration."
Dirty Electricity and Electrical Hypersensitivity: Five Case Studies
Havas M, Stetzer D, World Health Organization Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity, oktober 2004
"Deteriorating power quality is becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Poor power quality, also known as dirty electricity, refers primarily to a combination of harmonics and transients generated primarily by electronic devices and by non-linear loads. We have assumed, until recently, that this form of energy is not biologically active. However, when Graham/Stetzer™ filters were installed in homes and schools, symptoms associated with electrical hypersensitivity (such as chronic fatigue, depression, headaches, body aches and pains, ringing in the ears, dizziness, impaired sleep, memory loss, and confusion) were reduced."
The Microwave Syndrome - Further Aspects of a Spanish Study
Oberfeld G et al, Conference Proceedings, oktober 2004
"The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. The inclusion of the distance, which might be a proxy for the sometimes raised "concerns explanation", did not alter the model substantially."
"On heat treatment at temperatures from 38-42 degrees C, the MN frequency increased in a temperature-dependent manner. We also showed that an increase in SAR causes a rise in temperature and this may be connected to the increase in MN formation generated by exposure to HFEMF."
"Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure."
Are environmental electromagnetic fields genotoxic?
Crumpton MJ, Collins AR, DNA Repair (Amst), oktober 2004
"Long-term exposure to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) greater than 0.4 microT has been linked, by epidemiological studies, to a small elevated risk of childhood leukaemia. Laboratory-based experiments have been claimed to show that ELF EMFs induce a variety of biological responses, although these claims are controversial. Recent experiments by Ivancsits et al. [Mutat. Res. 519 (2002) 1; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 76 (2003) 431; Mech. Age. Dev. 124 (2003) 847; H.W. Rüdiger, S. Ivancsits, E. Diem, O. Jahn, Genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF on human cells in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics Society 25th Annual Meeting, Maui, USA, 2003] suggest that ELF EMFs are genotoxic, on the basis of observations that intermittent exposures induce single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) in the DNA of cultured human fibroblasts. The implications of these findings are discussed."
"The GSM field is found to affect both females and males. Our results suggest that this field-radiation decreases the rate of cellular processes during gonad development in insects."
"In conclusion, the mixed function oxidase system was activated, the formation of superoxide radical, lipid peroxide, oxidized protein, and lipofuscin was increased, and the antioxidative defense system was weakened in heart tissue of microwave-exposed rats, but the oxidative damage was significantly reduced by catechin supplementation."
"In comparison with the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) for experimental days 8 and 15. The frequency of micronucleated PCEs was also significantly increased on experimental day 15 (P < 0.05). Pair-wise comparison of data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham-exposed and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions the findings revealed a transient effect on proliferation and maturation of erythropoietic cells in the rat bone marrow and the sporadic appearance of micronucleated immature bone marrow red cells."
"Histopathologic changes in skin were analyzed. In the IR group, increased thickness of stratum corneum, atrophy of epidermis, papillamatosis, basal cell proliferation, increased granular cell layer (hypergranulosis) in epidermis and capillary proliferation, impairment in collagen tissue distribution and separation of collagen bundles in dermis were all observed compared to the control group. Most of these changes, except hypergranulosis, were prevented with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, exposure to 900 MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones caused mild skin changes. Furthermore, melatonin treatment can reduce these changes and may have a beneficial effect to prevent 900 MHz mobile phone-induced rat skin changes."
"Taken together, these EMF induced reactions could lead to a higher incidence of DNA damage and therefore, to an increased risk of tumour development. While the effects on melatonin and the extension of the lifetime of radicals can explain the link between EMF exposure and the incidence of for example leukaemia, the two additional mechanisms described here specifically for mouse macrophages, can explain the possible correlation between immune cell system stimulation and EMF exposure."
"These results indicate that Mono Mac 6 cells are more sensitive to ELF-MF than monocytes. Using diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) a specific inhibitor for the NADPH oxidase, the MF-effect was not inhibited in Mono Mac 6 cells. Therefore, we suggest that ELF-MF exposure induces the activation of NADH oxidase in these cells. However, the MF-effect was inhibited by DPI in monocytes, indicating the activation of the NADPH oxidase after exposure to ELF-MF."
"We observed higher mortality rates for all cancers and leukemia in some age groups in the area near the AM radio broadcasting towers. Although these findings do not prove a causal link between cancer and RF exposure from AM radio broadcasting towers, it does suggest that further analytical studies on this topic are needed in Korea."
The cancer epidemiology of radiation
Wakeford R, Oncogene, avgust 2004
"However, the evidence for a carcinogenic effect of other forms of nonionizing radiation, such as those associated with mobile telephones or electricity transmission lines, is not convincing, although the possibility of a link between childhood leukaemia and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cannot be dismissed entirely."
"The results of cytochemistry showed that compared to the sham-exposed, a significant decrease of cytochrome oxidase activity in neurons exposed for 2 hours per day and the neurons exposed for 12 hours to be immediately experimented (P < 0.001). Down-regulation of CCO should be classified as 'non-thermal effects'. Cumulated power effect were observed in neuronal response to the microwave. The influence on the CCO of the chosen microwave EMF could be recovered to some extent. The effects had no close relation between the first exposure and the cultured age of neurons."
Malignant melanoma of the skin - not a sunshine story!
Hallberg O, Johansson O, Med Sci Monit, julij 2004
"A good correlation in time was found for the rollout of FM/TV broadcasting networks while the increased amount of "sun travel" by air (charter) did not start until 7 years after the melanoma trend break in 1955. Counties that did not roll out their FM-broadcasting network until several years after 1955 continued to have a stable melanoma mortality during the intervening years. The increased incidence and mortality of melanoma of skin cannot solely be explained by increased exposure to UV-radiation from the sun. We conclude that continuous disturbance of cell repair mechanisms by body-resonant electromagnetic fields seems to amplify the carcinogenic effects resulting from cell damage caused e.g. by UV-radiation."
"The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources."
"Some of these observations are not consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that all health effects of RFR arise from thermal mechanisms. It is concluded that RFR from mobile phones can cause peripheral neurophysiological changes in some persons. The effects occur at exposure levels below the present safety levels for RFR. Possible non-thermal mechanisms are discussed and may point to future directions of research."
"GSM-217 EMF induced a significant upregulation of mRNA levels of the heat shock protein, hsp70 of p53-deficient ES cells differentiating in vitro, paralleled by a low and transient increase of c-jun, c-myc, and p21 levels in p53-deficient, but not in wild-type cells. Our data indicate that the genetic background determines cellular responses to GSM modulated EMF."
"The odds ratios for exposed women versus unexposed women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative breast cancer were 1.33 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.90) and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.50), respectively (ER status was available for 44% of the cases). Women with the highest occupational exposure had an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.40) when compared with those unexposed at work. The findings suggest an association between exposure to magnetic fields and breast cancer in women."
Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat
Lai H, Singh NP, Environ Health Perspect, maj 2004
"Treatment with the iron chelator deferiprone also blocked the effects of magnetic fields on brain cell DNA, suggesting the involvement of iron. Acute magnetic field exposure increased apoptosis and necrosis of brain cells in the rat. We hypothesize that exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic field initiates an iron-mediated process (e.g., the Fenton reaction) that increases free radical formation in brain cells, leading to DNA strand breaks and cell death. This hypothesis could have an important implication for the possible health effects associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in the public and occupational environments."
"These results demonstrate that acute short-term exposure to ELF-MF is able to modify a motor activity in dependence on the extent of AMPH-induced neurotransmitter imbalance."
Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station
Wolf R, Wolf D, International Journal of Cancer Prevention, april 2004
"A comparison of the relative risk revealed that there were 4.15 times more cases in area A than in the entire population. The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station."
"The exposed eyes showed miosis, conjunctival congestion, corneal edema, and an increase in the light scattering of the anterior shallow cortex in the pupillary area of the lens. The group under systemic anesthesia showed much stronger symptoms than those treated without anesthesia. All of the anterior ocular changes disappeared within a week. The highest temperature during exposure was in the vitreous, followed by the anterior chamber, and the retrobulbar cavity of the orbit. The ocular temperatures of the rabbits under systemic anesthesia were 2-9 degrees C higher than those without anesthesia. Body temperature showed an increase of 1 degrees C during the exposure. Acute high intensity microwave exposure temporarily induced anterior segments inflammation and lens changes. The more pronounced ocular effects in the anesthetized rabbits were associated with the significantly higher ocular temperatures in the anesthetized animals. The influence of systemic anesthesia on ocular changes should be considered."
"The findings have shown that microwaves from GSM mobile phone affected chromatin conformation in human normal and transformed lymphocytes. Because of the very low SAR value in the exposed samples, the microwave effects could not be attributed to heating induced by the exposure system. The exposure level in this study was far below the ICNIRP value. GSM microwaves under specific conditions of exposure affected human lymphocytes similar to stress response. The findings indicated that the microwave effects differ at various GSM frequencies and vary between donors."
"Complainants related their symptoms most frequently to exposure to mobile phone base stations (74%), followed by mobile phones (36%), cordless phones (29%) and power lines (27%). No distinct symptoms related to a specific field source could be identified. Eighty-five percent of the people who consulted a public authority because of their symptoms were unsatisfied with the response, whereas consultation of self-help groups or building ecologists usually fulfilled expectations. Two thirds of complainants had taken some action to reduce their symptoms. The most common measure was to avoid exposure if possible."
"This study suggests that low power microwave radiation higher than 0.50 mW/cm2 can inhibit lens epithelial cell proliferation, and increase the expression of P27Kip1. These effects may account for the decline of lens epithelial proliferation after exposure to microwave radiation."
"However, lucigenin-amplified t-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-initiated brain homogenates chemiluminescence, was significantly increased in mouse exposed to 60 Hz, MF, 12 G for 3 h compared to sham exposed group. We also measured SOD activity, that plays a critical role of the antioxidant defensive system in brain. In the group exposed to 60 Hz, MF, 12 G for 3 h, brain SOD activity was significantly increased. These results suggest that 60 Hz, MF could deteriorate antioxidant defensive system by reactive oxygen species (ROS), other than superoxide radicals. Further studies are needed to identify the kind of ROS generated by the exposure to 60 Hz, MF and elucidate how MF can affect biological system in connection with oxidative stress."
"MF exposure significantly increased mammary tumor development and growth in SD1 but not SD2 rats. These data indicate that the genetic background plays a pivotal role in effects of MF exposure. Different strains or substrains of rats may serve to evaluate the genetic factors underlying sensitivity to cocarcinogenic or tumor-promoting effects of MF exposure."

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