Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

imunski sistem (37 od skupno 1310 raziskav)
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"According to the studies, it is supposed that short-term (2-24 h/d up to a week) exposure of ELF-EMF with strong density may increase innate immune response due to an increase of innate immunity cytokines. Furthermore, long-term (2-24 h/d up to 8 years) exposure to low-density ELF-EMF may cause a decrease in adaptive immune response, especially in Th1 subset."
Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact
Bandara P, Carpenter DO, Lancet Planet Health, december 2018
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation
Leach V et al, Rev Environ Health , september 2018
A significant amount of electromagnetic field/ electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges. It is regularly added to, freely accessible online and designed to allow data to be easily retrieved, sorted and analyzed.
"In the test group, the whole number of white blood cells, the level of hematocrit, percent of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly lower than the control group. The number of red blood cells, their average volume and the mean concentration of hemoglobin were notably higher than the controls. There was not observed a significant difference between the two groups in hemoglobin, its mean concentration, platelet count, percent of lymphocytes and neutrophils as well as serum levels of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and interferon γ."
"Fifteen minutes of RF-EMF exposure exerts quantifiable effects on subtle energy levels of endocrine glands, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen of healthy teenagers. "
"These data indicate no adverse effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure on immune-like T cell populations, T cell activation, or Th1/Th2 balance in developing rats, although significant transcriptional effects were observed."
"Our results indicate that non-ionizing sub-thermal radiation causes changes in the endothelial permeability and vascularization of the thymus, and is a tissue-modulating agent for Hsp90 and GR."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"These studies demonstrated an initial immune response in the human body exposed to 2.45-GHz RF fields at the SAR of 2 W/kg, which is the maximum value recommended by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines."
An Update on Neurological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields
Lai H, 2012 BioInitiative Working Groups, marec 2014
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases."
"In conclusion, microwave radiations were found to inhibit the activity functions of THP-1 monocytes stimulated with PMA and LPS."
"Results showed that exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (10 uT) significantly increases IL-6 when subjects were exposed to an intermittent magnetic field. However, no effect has been observed on interleukin IL-1B, IL-2, IL-1RA, and IL-2R."
"The International Oversight Committee (IOC) provided oversight on the conduct of the studies and was the firewall committee that dealt with the sponsors and researchers. This paper gives the IOC comments and conclusions on the differing results between the two studies."
"The RF exposure resulted in minor increases in formation of antibodies in brain tissue extract and the exposure did not appear to be pathological. In addition, a study was conducted to replicate a previous Soviet study on effects from the injection of blood serum from RF-exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal and offspring development of rats, using a similar animal model and protocol. Our results showed the same general trends as the earlier study, suggesting possible adverse effects of the blood serum from exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal development of intact rats, however, application of these results in developing exposure standards is limited."
"This study aimed to determine the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the physiological response of phagocytes to an infectious agent. THP-1 cells (human monocytic leukemia cell line) were cultured and 50 Hz, 1 mT EMF was applied for 4-6 h to cells induced with Staphylococcus aureus or interferon gamma/lipopolysaccharide (IFy/LPS). Alterations in nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, heat shock protein 70 levels (hsp70), cGMP levels, caspase-9 activation, and the growth rate of S. aureus were determined. The growth curve of exposed bacteria was lower than the control. Field application increased NO levels. The increase was more prominent for S. aureus-induced cells and appeared earlier than the increase in cells without field application. However, a slight decrease was observed in iNOS levels. Increased cGMP levels in response to field application were closely correlated with increased NO levels. ELF-EMF alone caused increased hsp70 levels in a time-dependent manner. When cells were induced with S. aureus or IFy/LPS, field application produced higher levels of hsp70. ELF-EMF suppressed caspase-9 activation by a small extent. These data confirm that ELF-EMF affects bacterial growth and the response of the immune system to bacterial challenges, suggesting that ELF-EMF could be exploited for beneficial uses."
"Both the atrazine and the combined treatments, but not the single EMF exposure, increased the number of degranulated mast cells. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the control and both of the combined treatments (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Additionally, low and high doses of atrazine combined with the EMFs were found significantly different when compared to the EMF group alone (both at p<0.001). Considering the biological importance of mast cells in cutaneous immune reactions, future studies should reveal whether combined exposures to chemical and physical environmental agents pose a serious health risk."
"These results provide evidence that EMF exposure can initiate the activation of microglia cells and STAT3 signalling involves in EMF-induced microglial activation."
"In medium exposure a reduction was also observed, but the difference was not significant. Multivariate analysis also confirmed the relation between exposure and NK activity. It has been suggested that ELF might affect tumour progression by inducing changes in the immune system: due to the role played by NK activity in host defence against cancer, the interference with the NK cell activity observed in this study is in agreement with this hypothesis. Furthermore, an increased risk for some neurodegenerative disorders has been reported in some epidemiological studies in ELF-MF-exposed workers: changes in NK function were also described in these diseases. Our results, showing the effect on NK activity of exposure exceeding 1 microT, suggest a possible mechanism for ELF-MF effects. This could open new horizons regarding the adverse long-term effects of these fields."
"In medium exposure a reduction was also observed, but the difference was not significant. Multivariate analysis also confirmed the relation between exposure and NK activity. It has been suggested that ELF might affect tumour progression by inducing changes in the immune system: due to the role played by NK activity in host defence against cancer, the interference with the NK cell activity observed in this study is in agreement with this hypothesis. Furthermore, an increased risk for some neurodegenerative disorders has been reported in some epidemiological studies in ELF-MF-exposed workers: changes in NK function were also described in these diseases. Our results, showing the effect on NK activity of exposure exceeding 1 microT, suggest a possible mechanism for ELF-MF effects. This could open new horizons regarding the adverse long-term effects of these fields."
"Thirty years ago, Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper published the first report on the association between childhood cancer and "electrical current configuration" of houses in Denver, Colorado. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined 50-60 Hz magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" because of the "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity of residential exposure relatively to childhood leukemia. With respect to health effects other than cancer, namely neurodegenerative disorders, miscarriage, subtle differences in the timing of melatonin release, altered autonomic control of the heart, and changes in the number of natural killer cells, some open questions still remain. Several authors recommended further investigation of the possible long-term effects of magnetic fields, focussing on populations experiencing high exposure levels. In this frame a research team of ISS searched for a suitable location to implement an epidemiological study aimed at a wide range of outcomes for which a priori hypotheses could be formulated. The recently published findings of this project showed an increase of primary and secondary malignant neoplasms, ischaemic disease and haematological diseases. Future studies should thus address the most exposed sectors of the population, take into account different outcomes (all neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, immunological disorders, specific cardiovascular effects) and follow research protocols that enable subsequent pooled analyses. A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision making where the available resources for environmental remediation be prioritatively allocated to worst-off situations."
"Considering both E:T ratios from 12:1 to 50:1 and Lytic Units, a significant reduction in NK activity was observed in the highest exposed workers compared to the low exposed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation between exposure and LU, while no correlation was evidenced with other personal characteristics. ELF-MF are considered possible carcinogens, and existing data suggest that they can act as promoters. Due to the role of NK activity in host defence against cancer, the results obtained in this study in workers exposed to ELF-MF levels exceeding 1 microT are in agreement with this hypothesis, and support the need for further investigation in this field."
"A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6W/Kg and 2W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at www.bioinitiative.org."
"The concentrations of total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were higher among persons with higher melatonin excretion. Similar associations were seen between melatonin excretion and helper T cells and NK cells when the data were analyzed as continuous variables (table 10). Therefore, we then evaluated the association between exposure to RF and immune markers among persons with total overnight melatonin excretion above and below the median (table 11). Paradoxically, associations between RF exposure and immune markers were found among persons with melatonin excretion below the median but not among persons with melatonin excretion above the median. For the group of individuals with low melatonin excretion, the concentrations of total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells were all significantly increased among persons in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of household RF exposure."
"The results indicate certain alterations of cutaneous and thyroid MC in rats exposed to EMF. However, the possible outcome of changes in the MC population under EMF influence on morphophysiological properties of other structures in skin and thyroid requires further investigation."
"Taken together, these EMF induced reactions could lead to a higher incidence of DNA damage and therefore, to an increased risk of tumour development. While the effects on melatonin and the extension of the lifetime of radicals can explain the link between EMF exposure and the incidence of for example leukaemia, the two additional mechanisms described here specifically for mouse macrophages, can explain the possible correlation between immune cell system stimulation and EMF exposure."
Association Of Health Problems With 50 Hz Magnetic Fields In Human Adults Living Near Power Transmission Lines
Booth RJ et al, Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine, avgust 2001
"Five of the eight health variables showed a linear dose-response relationship with exposure. After adjustment for possible confounding, significantly elevated odds ratios were obtained at higher exposure levels both for asthma and for combined chronic illnesses. The results are consistent with a possible adverse effect of environmental magnetic field exposure on immune-related and other illnesses."
"In the workers of retransmission TV center and center of satellite communications on increased IgG and IgA concentration and decreased count of lymphocytes and T8 cells was found. However, in the radar operators IgM concentration was elevated and a decrease in the total T8 cell count was observed. The different behaviour of examined immunological parameters indicate that the effect of microwave radiation on immune system depends on character of an exposure. Disorders in the immunoglobulins' concentrations and in the T8 cell count did not cause any clinical consequences."
"Immunoglobulin concentrations and T-lymphocyte subsets in workers of TV re-transmission and satellite communication centres were assessed. An increase in IgG and IgA concentrations, an increased count of lymphocytes and T8 lymphocytes, an decreased count of NK cells and a lower value of T-helper/T-suppressor ratio were found. Neither disorders in immunoglobulin concentrations nor in the count of T8 and NK cells had any clinical implications."
"Elaboration of structural signs of secretory activity in the PIMs by LMW radiation in the absence of pulmonary pathological changes indicates its potential for cell activation in addition to the already established role of LMW in heat supplementation. This activation could be due to either increased core body temperature or initiation of intracellular signaling by the LMW radiation. This study also shows that the HMW radiation is capable of inducing pathology in the form of changes in the pulmonary interstitial matrix and may not be a good source of supplementary heat."
"In controls, DMBA induced tumors in approximately 55% of the animals within the 3 month period of sham-exposure. Already 8 weeks after DMBA application, the MF-exposed group exhibited significantly more tumors than sham-exposed animals. At time of autopsy, significantly more MF-exposed DMBA-treated rats exhibited macroscopically visible mammary tumors than DMBA-treated controls, thus indicating that MF exposure enhances the development and growth of cancers in this model. Comparison of the data from 50 microT with recent data from other flux densities indicated that long-term MF exposure of DMBA-treated rats increases the incidence of palpable and/or macroscopically visible mammary tumors in a highly dose-related fashion. Determination of nocturnal serum melatonin after 9 and 12 weeks of exposure at 50 microT did not yield significant differences between MF-exposed rats and sham-exposed controls, whereas a marked suppression of T cell proliferative capacity was seen in MF exposed rats. The data add further evidence to the hypothesis that hormone-dependent tissues such as breast might be particularly sensitive to MF-effects and indicate that immune system depression is involved in the increased breast cancer growth observed in MF exposed rats."
"The effect of continuous (CW; 2.45 GHz carrier frequency) or amplitude-modulated (AM; 50 Hz square wave) microwave radiation on the immune response was tested. CW exposures (6 days, 3 h/day) induced elevations of the number of antibody-producing cells in the spleen of male Balb/c mice (+37%). AM microwave exposure induced elevation of the spleen index (+15%) and antibody-producing cell number (+55%) in the spleen of male mice. No changes were observed in female mice. It is concluded that both types of exposure conditions induced moderate elevation of antibody production only in male mice."
"This article begins with a short review of the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of nonthermal levels of ELF electromagnetic fields on the biochemistry and activity of immune cells and then closely examines new results that suggest a role for Ca2+ in the induction of these cellular field effects. Based on these findings it is proposed that membrane-mediated Ca2+ signaling processes are involved in the mediation of field effects on the immune system."
Long-Term, Low-Level Microwave Irradiation of Rats
Chou CK et al, Bioelectromagnetics, januar 1992
"The finding of a near fourfold increase of primary malignancies in the exposed animals is provocative. These data cannot be considered as an artifact because different statistical analyses led to similar results."
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects, listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9 central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4 behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8 different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity, altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis) and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations documenting these various health effects.
As early as in the 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the “microwave syndrome”. The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. The microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment, even though the EMF were below today’s reference value. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from EMF. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were offered.

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