M (96 od skupno 1329 raziskav)
"Although cell proliferation and the percentages of neurons and astrocytes differentiated from eNSCs were not affected by 50 Hz ELF-EMF, the expression of genes regulating neuronal differentiation was altered. In conclusion, our results support that 50 Hz ELF-EMF induce molecular changes during eNSCs differentiation, which might be compensated by post-transcriptional mechanisms to support cellular homeostasis."
"Cytogenetic analyses were performed on human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves during 30 and 120 min at a constant temperature of 36.1 degrees C (body temperature). The temperature was kept constant by means of a temperature probe put in the blood sample which gives feedback to a microcomputer that controls the microwave supply. We found a marked increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (including dicentric chromosomes and acentric fragments) and micronuclei. On the other hand the microwave exposure did not influence the cell kinetics nor the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency."
"The present data support the idea that Wi-Fi signal may influence normal physiology through changes in gender related cortical excitability, as reflected by alpha and beta EEG frequencies."
"A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible infertility. The prenatal development of the newborns, however, evaluated by the crown-rump length, the body weight, and the number of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal vertebrae, was improved."
"According to the studies, it is supposed that short-term (2-24 h/d up to a week) exposure of ELF-EMF with strong density may increase innate immune response due to an increase of innate immunity cytokines. Furthermore, long-term (2-24 h/d up to 8 years) exposure to low-density ELF-EMF may cause a decrease in adaptive immune response, especially in Th1 subset."
"Exposure to microwave radiaton emitted from Wi-Fi routers affects sperm parameters such as count and motility which are among the key parameters determining the chance of conceiving."
"RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility."
"RESULTS: Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure > or = 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies.
CONCLUSIONS: Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation."
"Our meta-analysis provided conclusive data that ELF-MFs can increase apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. Furthermore, there is a possibly individual intensity and time range with maximum created effect according to window effect."
"We conclude that, although the 1.95 GHz signal (UMTS modulated) does not exacerbate the yield of aberrant cells caused by ionizing radiation, the overall burden of X-ray-induced chromosomal damage per cell in first-mitosis lymphocytes may be enhanced at 2.0 W/kg SAR. Hence the SAR may either influence the repair of X-ray-induced DNA breaks or alter the cell death pathways of the damage response."
"We found that an ELF-MF (0.1 mT, 50 Hz) exposure was capable of entraining expression of clock genes BMAL1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, and CRY2. Moreover, ELF-MF treatment induced an alteration in circadian clock gene expression previously entrained by serum shock stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that ELF-MF may be able to drive circadian physiologic processes by modulating peripheral clock gene expression."
"All EMF sources used created statistically significant effects regarding fecundity and cell death-apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels (0.3 V/m blue tooth radiation), well below ICNIRP's guidelines, suggesting that Drosophila oogenesis system is suitable to be used as a biomarker for exploring potential EMF bioactivity. Also, there is no linear cumulative effect when increasing the duration of exposure or using one EMF source after the other (i.e. mobile phone and DECT handset) at the specific conditions used."
"RESULTS: An increase in primary DNA damage was detected in all cerebral areas of the exposed mice sacrificed at the end of exposure, as compared to controls. DNA damage, as can be evaluated by the comet assay, appeared to be repaired in mice sacrificed 24 h after a 7-day exposure. Neither a short (15 h) nor long (7 days) MF-exposure induced hsp70 expression, metabolic and behavioural changes.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in vivo ELF-MF induce reversible brain DNA damage while they do not elicit the stress response."
"Significantly higher ROS level was observed for every radiation exposure time. After 60 min of exposure, the applied radiation caused significant lipid and protein damage. The highest GSH concentration was detected after 10 minute-exposure. The results of our study showed enhanced susceptibility of SH-SY5Y cells for development of oxidative stress even after short-term RF exposure."
"In conclusion, under the given laboratory conditions, modulated RF radiation might cause impairment in cell oxidation-reduction equilibrium within the growing cells."
"ROS concentration increase within the cell caused by RF/MW radiation seems to be a
biologically relevant hypothesis to give clear insight into the RF/MW action at nonthermal
level of radiation."
"The twenty-first century is marked with aggressive development of the wireless communications (satellite, mobile phones, Internet, Wi-Fi). In addition to thousand of satellites that deliver radio and TV signals, large satellite and base station networks secure intensive instant delivery of audio and video information. It is fair to say that that the entire civilization, both biosphere and mankind are exposed to continuous exposure of multitude of radiofrequency (RF) signals. It should be taken into account that the entire world population is exposed to exponentially increasing RF radiation from base stations and satellite antennas. While several years ago the potential hazard was connected with placement of mobile phones close to human head, today "smart phones" represent small, but powerful computers continuously receiving audio and video data. The largest group of users is the children and teenagers who "need" to communicate nearly 24 h a day. This is even more important because cell phones and tablets may be seen in the hands of children as little as two years in age. There is no way to assess and predict the potential damages of children brain, vision and hearing under exposure to RF radiation. The WHO precautionary principle and IARC classification must be applied in discussing the potential hazard of the use of today's and tomorrow's communication devices."
"This paper discusses the potential health hazard and lack of scientific assessment and regulatory actions in protection of the life on the planet."
"We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects."
"The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals."
"RESULTS: GSH concentration was significantly lower in the heart of all experimental animals when compared to the control group; furthermore, the decrease was higher in the liver of restrained animals. SOD activity was lower in the plasma of restrained and EMF exposed animals compared to unrestrained rats. There were no significant differences in CAT activity and TBARS levels among all the experimental groups vs. the control group.
CONCLUSION: Two hours of 60 Hz EMF exposure might immediately alter the metabolism of free radicals, decreasing SOD activity in plasma and GSH content in heart and kidney, but does not induce immediate lipid peroxidation. Oxidative stress induced by movement restraint was stronger than that produced by EMF."
"The odds ratio (OR) for having lived within 2.6 miles of the radio towers before diagnosis was 2.0 (95% CI 0.06 to 8.3). The clustering may have been a chance event, but because of its peculiar characteristics, we feel it should be noted."
"Decrease in CB immunoreactivity (IR) was noted in exposed (E1.6) group with loss of interneurons and pyramidal cells in CA1 area and loss of granule cells. Also, an overall increase in GFAP IR was observed in the hippocampus of E1.6. By TUNEL assay, apoptotic cells were detected in the CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, which reflects that chronic RF exposure may affect the cell viability. In addition, the increase of GFAP IR due to RF exposure could be well suited with the feature of reactive astrocytosis, which is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the loss of nearby neurons. Chronic RF exposure to the rat brain suggested that the decrease of CB IR accompanying apoptosis and increase of GFAP IR might be morphological parameters in the hippocampus damages."
"Body weights did not change significantly. CB immunoreactivity (IR) displayed moderate staining of cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) areas and prominently stained granule cells. CR IR revealed prominently stained pyramidal cells with dendrites running perpendicularly in the CA area. Exposure for 1 month produced almost complete loss of pyramidal cells in the CA1 area. CaBP differences could cause changes in cellular Ca(2+)levels, which could have deleterious effect on normal hippocampal functions concerned with neuronal connectivity and integration."
"Compared with sham control group, decreased CB and CR IRs, loss of CB and CR immunoreactive cells and increased GFAP IR exhibiting hypertrophic cytoplasmic processes were noted in both experimental groups. E4 group showed a prominent decrement in CB and CR IR than the E1.6 group due to down-regulation of CaBP proteins and neuronal loss. GFAP IR was more prominent in the E4 group than the E1.6 group. Decrement in the CaBPs can affect the calcium-buffering capacity leading to cell death, while increased GFAP IR and changes in astrocyte morphology, may mediate brain injury due to radiofrequency exposure."
"Auditory brainstem response (ABR) analysis also revealed a significant threshold elevation of in the exposed (E4) group, which may be associated with auditory dysfunction. The present study suggests that the auditory brainstem region is susceptible to chronic exposure to RF radiation, which may affect the function of the central auditory system."
"The debate shows how the EC risk management framework can be used to apply the Precautionary Principle to small and uncertain public health risks. However, despite the need for evidence-based policy making, many of the decisions remain value driven and therefore subjective."
"High-voltage (HV) sources, including the HV overhead power lines that are the focus of public concern, accounted for 23% of the exposures above 0.2 microT, and 43% of those above 0.4 microT. Public health interest has focused on the consideration of precautionary measures that would reduce exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Our study provides a basis for considering the options for exposure mitigation in the UK. For instance, in elevated-exposure homes where net currents are higher than usual, if it is possible to reduce the net currents, then the exposure could be reduced for a sizeable proportion of these homes."
"The Residential Sources Study was set up to investigate the sources of power frequency magnetic fields that contributed to average residential exposure estimates of 0.2 μT and above in the UK Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS). The work was carried out by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), now the Radiation Protection Division (RPD) of the Health Protection Agency (HPA), on behalf of the Leukaemia Research Fund Epidemiology and Genetics Unit at the University of York (EGU), as part of an extension of the UKCCS EMF Hypothesis - that exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (specifically power frequency magnetic fields) may play a role in the aetiology of childhood cancer."
"These data showed that EMR of Wi-Fi leads to hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress, and impaired insulin secretion in the rat pancreatic islets."
"The elevation of local CBF was correlated with temperature rise in both target and rectum at the end of RF exposure. However, the local CBF elevation seemed to be elevated by the rise in target temperature, but not by that of the rectal temperature, in the early part of RF exposure or at low-intensity RF exposure. These findings suggest that local RF exposure of the rat cortex drives a regulation of CBF accompanied by a local temperature rise, and our findings may be helpful for discussing physiological changes in the local cortex region, which is locally exposed to RF."
"The results of our study suggest that chronic (45 d), intermittent (2 h/d) amplitude modulated RF field exposure to the peripubertal rat increases the emotional component of phasic pain over a basal eaualgesic state, while late response to tonic pain is decreased. The data suggest that amplitude modulated RF field differentially affects the mechanisms involved in the processing of various noxious stimuli."
"In this article, we present the model of slow non uniform rotation of the charged DNA-domain/nucleoid for the combined effects of MW and static magnetic field. The solution of this model suggests that the combined action of MW and static magnetic field results in slow non uniform rotation of nucleoid with angular speed that depends on Larmor frequency. The model predicts that non thermal effects of MW are dependent on carrier frequency and also static magnetic field in the area of exposure."
"The few studies that specifically have investigated NDDs or NDD relevant end-points show that effects of exposure are either lacking or indicating positive effects on neuronal viability and differentiation. In both immune and NDD relevant studies, experiments with realistic long-term exposures are lacking. Importantly, consequences of a possible long-lasting mild oxidative stress are thus not investigated. In summary, the existing experimental studies are not adequate in answering if there is a causal relationship between MF-exposure and AD, as suggested in epidemiological studies."
"These findings suggest the possible existence of an athermal effect of RF radiation that causes increased levels of aneuploidy. These results contribute to the assessment of potential health risks after continuous chronic exposure to RF radiation at SARs close to the current levels set by ICNIRP guidelines."
"The subject demonstrated statistically reliable somatic reactions in response to exposure to subliminal EMFs under conditions that reasonably excluded a causative role for psychological processes. EMF hypersensitivity can occur as a bona fide environmentally inducible neurological syndrome."
"Attempts to replicate both epidemiological and laboratory studies have been mostly unsuccessful as study design, small sample populations and confounding variables have hampered progress to date. Identification of these problems, in the current context of international exposure guideline re-evaluation, is essential for future EMF studies. These studies should address the possible deleterious health effects of EMFs as well as the detection and characterization of subtle physiological changes they may induce. Recommendations for future work include investigating the macro- and microcirculatory relationship and the use of laboratory geomagnetic shielding."
"Despite the existence of national and international RF-radiation exposure guidelines, there are increasing public demands for precaution with respect to human exposure to RF radiation. Since current epidemiological evidence is insufficient to make a definitive judgment on the health risks of low-level RF radiation exposure, laboratory evidence assessing biological plausibility and theoretical mechanisms of interaction are important. A number of studies have reported that RF radiation may induce alterations in gene/protein expression in a variety of cells/tissues that may be associated with potentially harmful health outcomes, while other studies have shown no clear effects related to RF radiation. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence related to changes in protein and gene expression induced by low-level RF radiation."
"In all three cases a significant decrease in the survival time of the exposed nerves, as compared to their unexposed mates, was seen."
"There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus."
"236 individuals provided occupational data covering 117 different occupations. Average exposure was significantly higher at work than at home. Elevated average occupational exposure was found for welding trades, printers, telephonists and filing and other records assistants. The discrimination of a rigid JEM based on occupation is improved by linking the classification with industry and by use of contextual information. CONCLUSIONS: This report constitutes a substantial expansion of information on adult exposure to ELF MF in the UK. There is evidence that the accuracy of exposure assessments based solely on job codes is improved by linking with either industry code or contextual knowledge of equipment, such as electron beam welders, and of power lines or substations in the work environment."
"These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells."
"This commentary addresses several unfounded criticisms about the design and results of the NTP study that have been promoted to minimize the utility of the experimental data on RFR for assessing human health risks. In contrast to those criticisms, an expert peer-review panel recently concluded that the NTP studies were well designed, and that the results demonstrated that both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR were carcinogenic to the heart (schwannomas) and brain (gliomas) of male rats."
"High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF."
"The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus."
"It is concluded that the use of mobile phone is a health risk factor, and thus it is suggested that excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided and social awareness increased through health promotion activities, such as group discussions or public presentations and via electronic and printed media sources."
"It was found that the MDA level increased (P<0.05), GSH level and CAT enzyme activity decreased (P<0.05), and vitamins A, E and D(3) levels did not change (P>0.05) in the brain tissues of EMF-exposed guinea pigs. In addition, MDA, vitamins A, D(3) and E levels, and CAT enzyme activity increased (P<0.05), and GSH level decreased (P<0.05) in the blood of EMF-exposed guinea pigs. It was concluded that electromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone might produce oxidative stress in brain tissue of guinea pigs. However, more studies are needed to demonstrate whether these effects are harmful or/and affect the neural functions."
"In controls, DMBA induced tumors in approximately 55% of the animals within the 3 month period of sham-exposure. Already 8 weeks after DMBA application, the MF-exposed group exhibited significantly more tumors than sham-exposed animals. At time of autopsy, significantly more MF-exposed DMBA-treated rats exhibited macroscopically visible mammary tumors than DMBA-treated controls, thus indicating that MF exposure enhances the development and growth of cancers in this model. Comparison of the data from 50 microT with recent data from other flux densities indicated that long-term MF exposure of DMBA-treated rats increases the incidence of palpable and/or macroscopically visible mammary tumors in a highly dose-related fashion. Determination of nocturnal serum melatonin after 9 and 12 weeks of exposure at 50 microT did not yield significant differences between MF-exposed rats and sham-exposed controls, whereas a marked suppression of T cell proliferative capacity was seen in MF exposed rats. The data add further evidence to the hypothesis that hormone-dependent tissues such as breast might be particularly sensitive to MF-effects and indicate that immune system depression is involved in the increased breast cancer growth observed in MF exposed rats."
"With the exception of high cut-point analyses (0.3/0.4 microT), where the possibility of a moderate risk increase cannot be excluded, no increase in childhood brain cancer risk was evident for any of the exposure metrics."
"We investigate the relationship between cell phones and brain cancer using brain cancer death rates for 88 countries between 1990 and 2015 from the World Health Organization and country‐level mobile phone subscription rates from the World Bank. We estimate difference‐in‐difference models including country and year fixed effects and time‐varying country covariates. We find that mobile phone subscription rates are positively and statistically significantly associated with death rates from brain cancer 15–20 years later. In falsification tests, we find few positive associations between mobile phone subscription rates and deaths from rectal, pancreatic, stomach, breast or lung cancer or ischemic heart disease. Finally, differential effects models suggest that mobile phone subscription rates are associated with brain cancer deaths 15–19 years later relative to deaths from other causes."
"For children exposed to more than 0.2 microT, an elevated but not significant odds ratio (OR) was observed (OR = 3.2, 95 percent confidence interval = 0.7-14.9). These figures are based on only four leukemia cases and three controls since only 1.5 percent of the study population was classified as highly exposed. Exploratory analyses revealed ORs that were not statistically significantly increased for other characteristics of the magnetic field at varying cut-points. The results are comparable with those from other studies. Although not statistically significant, they may indicate a positive association between EMF and childhood leukemia."
"From 1992 to 1996, we obtained electromagnetic field measurements in two population-based case-control studies on childhood leukemia in the northwestern part of Germany and in Berlin. Exposure assessment comprised residential 24-hour measurements and short-term measurements. We obtained 24-hour measurements for a total of 176 cases and 414 controls. We compared subjects exposed to median 24-hour measurements of 0.2 microT or more with those exposed to lower amounts. Multivariate regression analysis revealed an odds ratio of 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.8-6.7)."
"Although the study adds evidence of an excess of leukemia in a population living near high-power radio transmitters, no causal implication can be drawn. There is still insufficient scientific knowledge, and new epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify a possible leukemogenic effect of residential exposure to radio frequency radiation."
"The risk of childhood leukaemia was higher than expected within 6 km from the station (Standardized Incidence Ratio = 217; 95% Confidence Interval 99-405). Stone's test showed a significant decrease in risk with increasing distance both for male adult mortality (p-value = 0.03) and for childhood incidence (p-value = 0.04). A Score test, showed a significant decrease in risk of childhood incidence as function of the distance. The main limitations of this study are the small number of observed cases and the use of distance as a proxy for RF exposure. Further research will require a systematic campaign of electromagnetic field measurements to allow better assessment of the population exposure."
"For all studied phone types OR for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours, increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV."
"Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. Values of the order of tens of muT were found which is in sharp contrast to the values found in our normal environment (0.05-0.1muT). There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc. We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures."
"The review also covers the work of other groups on low-level effects and the inhibition of the effects with an applied noise field. The group at CUA has shown that biological effects can be found after exposure to low-level ELF and RF electromagnetic fields, and when effects are observed, applying an ELF magnetic noise field inhibits the effects. Also, other research groups have tried to replicate the studies from the CUA group, or to apply EMF noise to suppress EMF-induced effects. Replications of the CUA effects have not always been successful. However, in all cases where the noise field has been applied to prevent an observed effect, it has been successful in eliminating the effect."
"The results suggest that treatment with electromagnetic field stimulated germination of freshly harvested R. smirnowii seeds (increased germination percentage up to 70%), but reduced germination of fresh M. nigra seeds (by 24%)."
"We report for the first time that short treatments of sunflower seeds induce stressor specific pattern of changes in the content of seed phytohormones involved in the control of germination: vacuum treatment affected auxin/cytokinin balance; CP treatments substantially increased gibberellin content while other effects varied with treatment duration; EMF treatment was effective in decreasing abscisic acid content. Such a finding indicates that despite high resistance to environmental stresses in a dehydrated state, seeds rapidly respond even to short pre-sowing treatments with physical stressors on the level of phytohormone balance. Our results show that exposure of seeds to radio-frequency EMF or CP could induce a similar long-term effect on gene expression and the development of germinated plants suggesting that radio frequency radiation component of CP and EMF could be the main cause of the observed effect."
"Here we review data, which provide evidence that non-thermal microwave effects do exist and may play a significant role. This evidence is based on research at all biological levels, from cell-free systems through cells, tissues and organs, to animal and human organisms."
"The list of cancers with increased risk in firefighters strongly overlaps the list of cancers at increased risk in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Firefighters have increased exposure to RFR in the course of their work, from the mobile two-way radio communications devices which they routinely use while fighting fires, and at times from firehouse and fire vehicle radio transmitters. I suggest that some of the increased cancer risk in firefighters is caused by RFR exposure, and is therefore preventable. The precautionary principle should be applied to reduce the risk of cancer in firefighters, and workman's compensation rules will necessarily need to be modified."
"The cancer incidence in the teachers at this school is unusually high and is strongly associated with high frequency voltage transients, which may be a universal carcinogen, similar to ionizing radiation."
"During 1949-1951, all states showed a peak in leukemia mortality at ages 2-4. At ages 0-1, leukemia mortality was not related to electrification levels. At ages 2-4, there was a 24% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8%-41%) increase in leukemia mortality for a 10% increase in percent of homes served by electricity. The childhood leukemia peak of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be attributable to electrification."
"When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1)."
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"The IARC has classified EMF as a "possible carcinogen" which refers to the circumstances where there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate evidence in experimental animals. The IARC review indicated limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in relation to childhood leukemia at high level exposure in the residential environment (average residential magnetic field strength greater than 0.4 uT). Even higher levels of exposure in the occupational environment may increase the risk of leukemia in adults."
"Our results have implications for assessing the risks of mobile phone use such as radiofrequency field (RF) exposure and driving accidents, for studying adoption and use of other emerging technologies, for understanding the genetic architecture of the cognitive and personality traits that predict consumer behavior, and for challenging the common assumption that consumer behavior is shaped entirely by culture, media, and family environment."
"Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10(-3) W/Kg. Twenty-four hours
after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis
were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without
initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity."
"Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland."
"Our results indicate that non-ionizing sub-thermal radiation causes changes in the endothelial permeability and vascularization of the thymus, and is a tissue-modulating agent for Hsp90 and GR."
"Cell phone emitted radiations had their adverse effect on salivary glands and facial nerves. Studies showed that cell phone emitted radiations had effects on oral mucosal cells and causes changes in salivary flow rate. It was still unclear that cell phone radiations cause tumours of the salivary glands."
"This method has been used to confirm that a static magnetic field alone has no such effect. However, the frequency of micronucleus formation increases significantly when certain treatments (e.g., X-irradiation) are given prior to exposure to a 10 T static magnetic field. It has also been reported that treatment with trace amounts of ferrous ions in the cell culture medium and exposure to a static magnetic field increases DNA damage, which is detected using the comet assay. In addition, many studies have found a strong magnetic field that can induce orientation phenomena in cell culture."
"Our results could explain one of the mechanisms and sites of action of ELF magnetic fields. A possible explanation of the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields could be a decrease in Ca(2+) influx through inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The detailed mechanism of effect, however, needs to be further studied under voltage-clamp conditions."
"The number and severity of migraine headaches were correlated significantly with an increased use of mobile phones during day and Wi-Fi per week (p<0.05). The usage of fixed-line telephones had no significant relationship with the study variables (p>0.05)."
"The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested."
"We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the 13-country case-control Interphone Study (2001-2004), in which researchers evaluated the associations of mobile phone use with the risks of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. In the main publication of the multinational Interphone Study, investigators concluded that biases and errors prevented a causal interpretation. We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and nonparticipant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. In our modeling, we sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, when comparing those in the highest quartile of use (>558 lifetime hours) to those who were not regular users, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). After adjustment for selection and recall biases, the odds ratio was 2.2 (95% limits: 1.3, 4.1). There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our results from Canadian data."
"Collectively, our data reveal that ELF-EMFs (1) induced reactive oxygen species production in myoblasts and myotubes with a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential; (2) activated the cellular detoxification system, increasing catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and (3) altered intracellular Ca(2+)homeostasis, increasing the spontaneous activity of myotubes and enhancing cellular reactivity to a depolarizing agent (KCl) or an agonist (caffeine) of intracellular store Ca(2+)channels. In conclusion, our data support a possible link between exposure to ELF-EMFs and modification of the cellular redox state, which could, in turn, increase the level of intracellular Ca(2+)and thus modulate the metabolic activity of C2C12 cells."
"Even if further studies remain necessary to identify the ROS/intracellular Ca(2+)cross-talking pathway activated by ELF-EMF exposure, we support the hypothesis that ROS and Ca(2+) could be the cellular "primum movens" of the ELF-EMF induced effects on biological systems."
"An analysis of the data from the Interphone studies suggests that either the use of a cellphone protects the user from a brain tumor, or the studies had serious design flaws. Eleven flaws are identified: (1) selection bias, (2) insufficient latency time, (3) definition of 'regular' cellphone user, (4) exclusion of young adults and children, (5) brain tumor risk from cellphones radiating higher power levels in rural areas were not investigated, (6) exposure to other transmitting sources are excluded, (7) exclusion of brain tumor types, (8) tumors outside the cellphone radiation plume are treated as exposed, (9) exclusion of brain tumor cases because of death or illness, (10) recall accuracy of cellphone use, and (11) funding bias. The Interphone studies have all 11 flaws, and the Swedish studies have 3 flaws (8, 9 and 10). The data from the Swedish studies are consistent with what would be expected if cellphone use were a risk for brain tumors, while the Interphone studies data are incredulous. If a risk does exist, the public health cost will be large. These are the circumstances where application of the Precautionary Principle is indicated, especially if low-cost options could reduce the absorbed cellphone radiation by several orders of magnitude."
"Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed."
"We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A probable human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France)."
"As far as the study is concerned, this is the first human study to assess the associations between mobile phone use and alterations in the levels of TSH and thyroid hormones. Based on the findings, a higher than normal TSH level, low mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations in mobile users were observed. It seems that minor degrees of thyroid dysfunction with a compensatory rise in TSH may occur following excessive use of mobile phones. It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of mobile microwaves on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones."
"Over the past decades, the use of common sources of electromagnetic fields such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phones has been increased enormously all over the world. There is ongoing concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields can lead to adverse health effects. It has recently been shown that even low doses of mercury are capable of causing toxicity."
"To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors."
"Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places."
"Our own studies as well as the studies performed by other researchers indicate that using laptop computers on the lap adversely affects the male reproductive health. When it is placed on the lap, not only the heat from a laptop computer can warm men's scrotums, the electromagnetic fields generated by laptop's internal electronic circuits as well as the Wi-Fi Radiofrequency radiation hazards (in a Wi-Fi connected laptop) may decrease sperm quality. Furthermore, due to poor working posture, laptops should not be used on the lap for long hours."
"The authors have ignored the reports indicating Wi-Fi users at least should avoid long-term exposures. It has been shown that long-term exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation can lead to neurodegenerative diseases or adverse alterations in reproductive parameters."
"These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions."
"A significant association was found between cordless phone use and difficulties in concentration (P < .05) or attention disorders (P < .05). However, after correction of the gender role, these differences were not significant. No association was found between mobile phone use and the above-mentioned symptoms. No significantly higher prevalence of self-reported symptoms was found in individuals who had used mobile phones, video display terminals or cordless phones more frequently than others."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"Miranda-Filho et al. in their recently published paper entitled “Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence” provided a global status report of the geographic and temporal variations in the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in different countries across continents worldwide. While the authors confirm the role of genetic risk factors and ionizing radiation exposures, they claimed that no firm conclusion could be drawn about the role of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The paper authored by Miranda-Filho et al. not only addresses a challenging issue, it can be considered as a good contribution in the field of brain and CNS cancers. However, our correspondence addresses a basic shortcoming of this paper about the role of electromagnetic fields and cancers and provides evidence showing that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), at least at high levels and long durations, can increases the risk of cancer."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"In the workers of retransmission TV center and center of satellite communications on increased IgG and IgA concentration and decreased count of lymphocytes and T8 cells was found. However, in the radar operators IgM concentration was elevated and a decrease in the total T8 cell count was observed. The different behaviour of examined immunological parameters indicate that the effect of microwave radiation on immune system depends on character of an exposure. Disorders in the immunoglobulins' concentrations and in the T8 cell count did not cause any clinical consequences."
"Widespread use of mobile phones has increased the human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). It is required to investigate the effect of EMFs on the biological systems. In this paper the effect of mobile phone RF (910MHz and 940 MHz) on structure and function of HbA was investigated. Oxygen affinity was measured by sodium dithionite with UV-vis spectrophotometer. Structural changes were studied by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicated that mobile phone EMFs altered oxygen affinity and tertiary structure of HbA. Furthermore, the decrease of oxygen affinity of HbA corresponded to the EMFs intensity and time of exposure."
"Exposure conditions vary greatly among different end points measured, making comparisons and conclusions among experiments difficult. Although most of the available evidence does not suggest that electric and/or magnetic fields cause DNA damage, the existence of some positive findings and limitations in the set of studies carried out suggest a need for additional work."
"RESULTS: Of 465 articles meeting our initial criteria, 23 case-control studies, which involved 37,916 participants (12,344 patient cases and 25,572 controls), were included in the final analyses. Compared with never or rarely having used a mobile phone, the odds ratio for overall use was 0.98 for malignant and benign tumors (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.07) in a random-effects meta-analysis of all 23 studies. However, a significant positive association (harmful effect) was observed in a random-effects meta-analysis of eight studies using blinding, whereas a significant negative association (protective effect) was observed in a fixed-effects meta-analysis of 15 studies not using blinding. Mobile phone use of 10 years or longer was associated with a risk of tumors in 13 studies reporting this association (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.34). Further, these findings were also observed in the subgroup analyses by methodologic quality of study. Blinding and methodologic quality of study were strongly associated with the research group. CONCLUSION: The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies. Prospective cohort studies providing a higher level of evidence are needed."