Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

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vnetje (27 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"According to the studies, it is supposed that short-term (2-24 h/d up to a week) exposure of ELF-EMF with strong density may increase innate immune response due to an increase of innate immunity cytokines. Furthermore, long-term (2-24 h/d up to 8 years) exposure to low-density ELF-EMF may cause a decrease in adaptive immune response, especially in Th1 subset."
"RESULTS: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were found to be significantly different in the study group compared to the control group (p < .05), but no significant difference was found in serum IL-10, IL-32 levels and testis tissue IL-6, IL-10, IL-32 levels compared to the control group (p > .05). On the other hand, histopathological evaluation of testicular tissue revealed a significant difference in necrosis and spermatogenesis when compared with the control group (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz increases inflammation and testicular damage and negative impact on male reproductive system function."
A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation
Leach V et al, Rev Environ Health , september 2018
A significant amount of electromagnetic field/ electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges. It is regularly added to, freely accessible online and designed to allow data to be easily retrieved, sorted and analyzed.
Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?
Di Ciaula A, Int J Hyg Environ Health, februar 2018
"The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases."
Localized Heat Urticaria from 95-GHz Millimeter Waves
Gibbons JA, Aerosp Med Hum Perform, junij 2017
"The subject, a 39-yr-old active duty man, participated in a test of a 95-GHz energy beam designed to heat the skin. He had delayed presentation of raised, erythematous, nonpruritic, nonpainful areas at five of the exposure sites where the skin temperature exceeded 54°C. All wheals resolved within 2 h of the exposures."
"Long term EMR exposure resulted in testicular physiopathology via oxidative damage and inflammation. GA may have ameliorative effects on the prepubertal rat testes physiopathology."
"Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health."
"Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
An Update on Neurological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields
Lai H, 2012 BioInitiative Working Groups, marec 2014
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been increasing with the increasing demand for communication devices. The aim of the study was to discuss the mechanisms and risk factors of EMR changes on reproductive functions and membrane oxidative biology in females and males. It was reported that even chronic exposure to EMR did not increase the risk of reproductive functions such as increased levels of neoantigens abort. However, the results of some studies indicate that EMR induced endometriosis and inflammation and decreased the number of follicles in the ovarium or uterus of rats. In studies with male rats, exposure caused degeneration in the seminiferous tubules, reduction in the number of Leydig cells and testosterone production as well as increases in luteinizing hormone levels and apoptotic cells. In some cases of male and female infertility, increased levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and decreased values of antioxidants such as melatonin, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase were reported in animals exposed to EMR. In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems. However, there is no evidence to this date to support an increased risk of female and male infertility related to EMR exposure."
"This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases."
"There were severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark pyknotic nuclei and less neuron in the EMR groups compared to control groups. The most affected EMR group was the 2450 MHz group. In the frontal cortex and brain stem of the EMR groups, caspase-3 immunoreactivity was increased compared to the control group. The most affected group was again the 2450 MHz group. CONCLUSION: EMR causes to structural changes in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum and impair the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system. This deterioration can cause to disease including loss of these areas function and cancer development."
"In conclusion, microwave radiations were found to inhibit the activity functions of THP-1 monocytes stimulated with PMA and LPS."
"The few studies that specifically have investigated NDDs or NDD relevant end-points show that effects of exposure are either lacking or indicating positive effects on neuronal viability and differentiation. In both immune and NDD relevant studies, experiments with realistic long-term exposures are lacking. Importantly, consequences of a possible long-lasting mild oxidative stress are thus not investigated. In summary, the existing experimental studies are not adequate in answering if there is a causal relationship between MF-exposure and AD, as suggested in epidemiological studies."
"Our findings provide new epidemiological evidence that high maternal MF levels in pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma in offspring."
"Results showed that exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (10 uT) significantly increases IL-6 when subjects were exposed to an intermittent magnetic field. However, no effect has been observed on interleukin IL-1B, IL-2, IL-1RA, and IL-2R."
"EMF is a stressor agent that induces an imbalance between ROS generation and antioxidant defense response. Calcium ions may play a pivotal role in enhancing oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory reactions and apoptosis associated with EMF exposure. Therefore calcium channel blockade seems to play a role in brain protection."
"This study suggests that ELF MF exposure leads to morphological alterations of the conjunctiva and reductions in the number of goblet cells. We believe that ELF MF may cause dry eye symptoms."
"In summary, repeated exposure to the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from mobile phones is able to induce hepatic, renal and splenic tissue damage. The degree of damage increased with time of exposure to EMR. Previously similar tissue changes have been described using lower frequency EMR [9, 11–13]. However our study was the first to expose the mobile phone itself to the animals."
"A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6W/Kg and 2W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at www.bioinitiative.org."
"The exposed eyes showed miosis, conjunctival congestion, corneal edema, and an increase in the light scattering of the anterior shallow cortex in the pupillary area of the lens. The group under systemic anesthesia showed much stronger symptoms than those treated without anesthesia. All of the anterior ocular changes disappeared within a week. The highest temperature during exposure was in the vitreous, followed by the anterior chamber, and the retrobulbar cavity of the orbit. The ocular temperatures of the rabbits under systemic anesthesia were 2-9 degrees C higher than those without anesthesia. Body temperature showed an increase of 1 degrees C during the exposure. Acute high intensity microwave exposure temporarily induced anterior segments inflammation and lens changes. The more pronounced ocular effects in the anesthetized rabbits were associated with the significantly higher ocular temperatures in the anesthetized animals. The influence of systemic anesthesia on ocular changes should be considered."
"One could speculate that the cardiac MCs are responsible for these changes due to degranulation after exposure to EMFs. However, it is still not known how, and through which mechanisms, all these different cells are affected by EMFs. In this article, we present a theoretical model, based upon observations on EMFs and their cellular effects, to explain the proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans."
"Three men were accidentally exposed to high levels of ultrahigh frequency radiofrequency radiation (785 MHz mean frequency) while working on a television mast. They experienced an immediate sensation of intense heating of the parts of the body in the electromagnetic field followed by a variety of symptoms and signs which included pain, headache, numbness, and parasthesiae, malaise, diarrhoea, and skin erythema. The most notable problem was that of acute then chronic headache involving the part of the head which was most exposed."
"Elaboration of structural signs of secretory activity in the PIMs by LMW radiation in the absence of pulmonary pathological changes indicates its potential for cell activation in addition to the already established role of LMW in heat supplementation. This activation could be due to either increased core body temperature or initiation of intracellular signaling by the LMW radiation. This study also shows that the HMW radiation is capable of inducing pathology in the form of changes in the pulmonary interstitial matrix and may not be a good source of supplementary heat."
Mortality in Rats Exposed to CW Microwave Radiation at 0.95, 2.45, 4.5 and 7.44 GHz
Polson P et al, Stanford Research Institute, januar 1974
"In terms of lethal effectiveness, therefore, the ordering is, from most effective to least effective, 0.95 < 2.45 < 7.44 < 4.54 GHz. It is worth pointing out that American National Standard, C95.1, "Safety Level of Electromagnetic Radiation with Respect to Personnel," recommends an energy-density radiation protection guide of 1 mW-hr/cm2 averaged over any 0.1 hr period. For the most lethal frequency (0.95 GHz) the lethal energy constant was found to be 36,643 mW-sec/cm2 or 10.2 mW-hr/cm2 This is approximately a factor of ten greater than the radiation protection guide."
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects, listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9 central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4 behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8 different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity, altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis) and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations documenting these various health effects.

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