do 1980 (16 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
"In 1948 two groups of investigators reported independently and almost coincidentally that when the eyes of rabbits or dogs were exposed to sufficient microwave radiation, opacities subsequently developed in the crystalline lens. Both groups employed continuous wave radiation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. with a wave length of 12.3 cm. In the 30 years since that initial discovery, this phenomenon has been extensively investigated in numerous laboratories and we now have a substantial body of information concerning it. However, we have yet to identify the site and the manner of interaction between microwaves and ocular tissues which provide the mechanism for cataractogenesis."
"An excess of electrical wiring configurations suggestive of high current-flow was noted in Colorado in 1976-1977 near the homes of children who developed cancer, as compared to the homes of control children. The finding was strongest for children who had spent their entire lives at the same address, and it appeared to be dose-related. It did not seem to be an artifact of neighborhood, street congestion, social class, or family structure. The reason for the correlation is uncertain; possible effects of current in the water pipes or of AC magnetic fields are suggested."
"Laboratory studies have shown that electromagnetic fields similar to those from high-voltage transmission lines can produce biological effects. Surveys of the actual effects of such lines on exposed individuals usually have been hampered by complicating factors tending to blur the data. By means of a new approach, however, correlation has been established between the presence of transmission-line fields and the occurrence of suicides in part of the Midlands of England."
"In view of the results presented it may be concluded that substances injuring cell membranes sensitize cell cultures to electromagnetic radiation of the microwave range and may enhance the specific (non-thermal) effect of microwaves."
"The widespread availability of radiant energy sources such as diathermy machines, microwave ovens, and electric ovens and ranges makes it imperative to examine carefully any possible hazards that may result from their use. With this in mind, radiant energy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cataractogenesis."
"The absorbed power distribtuion pattern in the eyes of rabbits exposed to near-zone 2450-MHz radiation has been derived from thermocouple measurements. The results indicated that the absorption increased steadily until a peak of 0.92 W/kgm for each millwatt/square centimeter incident was reached in the vitreous body (just behind the lens) and then fell off rapidly as the depth increased, thereby suggesting the lens may be the most susceptible or critical part of the eye to near-zone 2450-MHz radiation. This contention was strongly supported by our time and power-density threshold studies. Following irradiation, irreversible changes in the lens were seen in the posterior cortical area only. All other changes in the eye were transient and disappeared by the second postirradiation day."
"Rabbits were irradiated with 2450-MHz continuous microwave energy. Effects of the radiation on the ocular lens were assessed by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination of the eye. Two lenses were selected for electron microscopy, one that was severely damaged and one that appeared unaffected by the radiation. There were prominent ultrastructural changes in both lenses."
"In terms of lethal effectiveness, therefore, the ordering is, from most effective to least effective, 0.95 < 2.45 < 7.44 < 4.54 GHz. It is worth pointing out that American National Standard, C95.1, "Safety Level of Electromagnetic Radiation with Respect to Personnel," recommends an energy-density radiation protection guide of 1 mW-hr/cm2 averaged over any 0.1 hr period. For the most lethal frequency (0.95 GHz) the lethal energy constant was found to be 36,643 mW-sec/cm2 or 10.2 mW-hr/cm2 This is approximately a factor of ten greater than the radiation protection guide."
"The growing body of Russian and eastern European literature describing a wide variety of functional changes and clinical effects, leading to consideration of "radio-wave sickness" as a possible independent nosologic entity, cannot simply be ignored. With increasing uses and power, the stage is set for the appearance of late effects previously undetected possibly because of their infrequency, lack of distinctiveness or mild character. There may now be a better opportunity to resolve the uncertainties of present knowledge in the face of an increasing risk."
"An additional interesting feature of the data concerns the relatively severe effects of fairly "low powers. At the 1700 KHz frequency, a power of only 50 mw/cm2 produced a complete cessation of bar-press responding within a ten-minute exposure period. A level of 50 mw/cm2, of course, is relatively close to the safety level of 10 mw/cm established for humans exposed to microwave fields. The fact that microwave effects are found at power levels not far above the established safety level points to the necessity for additional, careful, and comprehensive examinations of the biological effects of microwaves, with a variety of species. It is possible that not only the rat, but other species as well, may exhibit enhanced sensitivity to certain microwave frequencies."
Tolgskaya and Gordon in 1973 published a long and detailed review of effects of
microwave and lower frequency EMFs on experimental animals, mostly rodents.
They report that non-thermal exposures impact many tissues, with the nervous system
being the most sensitive organ in the body, based on histological studies, followed by
the heart and the testis. They also report effects of non-thermal exposures on liver,
kidney, endocrine and many other organs. The nervous system effects are very
extensive and include many changes in cell structure, dysfunction of synaptic
connections between neurons and programmed cell death.
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical
Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects,
listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave
frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9
central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4
behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG
changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8
different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration
in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity,
altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis)
and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total
of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations
documenting these various health effects.
As early as in the 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the “microwave syndrome”. The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. The microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment, even though the EMF were below today’s reference value. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from EMF. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were offered.
"An experiment has been carried out to determine pathological and longevity effects caused by chronic microwave irradiation of mice. Two hundred males were exposed daily for 59 weeks to 0.100 w/cm2 for 4.5 minutes. This treatment produced an average body temperature rise of 3.3° C. Histopathology was performed on all dead mice in both irradiated and control group. Changes in body weight, in body temperature response to heating, and in the blood picture were not evident. Testicular degeneration in the form of tubule atrophy and neoplasms of the white cells were indicated. Longevity of the mice did not appear to be affected under the prevailing conditions."
"The development of cataract as a result of electromagnetic radiations is well established. Formerly it was supposed that this effect was unique to the action of infra-red, ultraviolet and roentgen radiations, although as early as 1926 in a survey of work in these fields Duke-Elder1 suggested that other portions of the spectrum, if of sufficient magnitude, might produce cataract. On the other hand, as late as 1944 it was the opinion of Bellows, basing his views on the work of Legge and of Hartridge and Hill, that electromagnetic waves longer than 20,000 angstrom units would be absorbed completely by the cornea. In 1948 it was demonstrated by Richardson, Duane and Hines5 that lenticular opacities could be produced by continuous microwave radiations of 12.25 cm. wavelength. These observations were confirmed by the contemporary work of Daily, Wakim, Herrick and Parkhill, which was completed later in 1948. The following year Salisbury, Clark and Hines in a technical article attributed the damage to a ready transmission through the cornea and a high absorption by the lens of microwaves 10 to 12 cm in wavelength."
"The outcome of this experiment clearly shows that testicular damage will result from 12 cm irradiations at a temperature below that of the abdominal cavity and below that necessary to cause injury by infra red exposures. This finding suggests that damage may result in part from factors other than heat."