Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

2003 (30 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"The results obtained from this study demonstrate that MW exposures cause significant increase in the LPS and there are protective effects of the anti-oxidants ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol."
Incidence of cancer in the vicinity of Korean AM radio transmitters
Ha M et al, Arch Environ Health, december 2003
"Among the 11 high-power sites, there were significantly increased incidences of leukemia in 2 areas and of brain cancer in 1 area. Future studies should incorporate additional detailed exposure assessments and a strong analytical study design to explore the possible association between radiofrequency radiation from AM radio transmitters and cancer."
The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain
Navarro EA et al, Electromagn Biol Med, december 2003
"The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure."
"The average EEG band power in active exposure recordings was compared to corresponding sham recordings. Statistical tests indicated significant difference in the full-power mode trial within the EEG alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-32 Hz) bands. A subsequent statistical analysis of median spectral power in discrete EEG rhythms revealed significant differences in 7 of the 32 distinct frequencies overall. In conclusion, the results of this study lend support to EEG effects from mobile phones activated in talk-mode."
"When residential magnetic fields are evaluated, the two upper residential time weighted average magnetic field categories showed non-significant elevated odds ratios (ORs) for all leukemia combined (OR: 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.5 and OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). The increased risk was confined to chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic and acute myeloid leukemia. Lymphoma showed a non-significant lower OR in the upper exposure category. Multiple myeloma showed non-significant elevated ORs. Occupational exposure showed no significant association to exposure for any site. CONCLUSIONS: Some elevated ORs were observed in the present study, but the results are based on small numbers and no firm conclusions can be drawn."
"The authors found a low-level increase in AMI risk in the highest exposure group (relative risk=1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.9) and suggestions of an exposure-response relation (p=0.02). A synergy index of 2.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.6) in monozygotic twins indicated that the risk of AMI was strengthened among ELF magnetic field-exposed subjects with genetic susceptibility to the disease. The results for AMI corroborate previous findings from the United States. The unusual opportunity to include genetic susceptibility in the present analyses showed that evaluations of effect modification in vulnerable subjects are warranted in ELF magnetic field research."
Decreased survival for childhood leukemia in proximity to television towers
Hocking B, Gordon I, Arch Environ Health, september 2003
"There was a significant difference in survival rates between the 2 groups (log-rank test, p = 0.03; Wilcoxon, p = 0.05). The 5-yr survival in the inner ring of municipalities was 55%, and in the outer ring was 71% (i.e., subjects in the inner ring were 23% less likely to survive than those in the outer ring); at 10 yr, survival in the inner and outer rings was 33% and 62%, respectively. Following adjustment, the mortality rate ratio that the authors used to compare the inner ring with the outer ring was 2.1 (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 4.0). There was an association between residential proximity to the television towers and decreased survival among cases of childhood leukemia in North Sydney, Australia."
Electrosensibility and electromagnetic hypersensitivity
Leitgeb N, Schrottner J, Bioelectromagnetics, september 2003
"The presented data show that the variation of the electrosensibility among the general population is significantly larger than has yet been estimated by nonionizing radiation protection bodies, but much smaller than claimed by hypersensitivity self-aid groups. These quantitative results should contribute to a less emotional discussion of this problem. The investigation method presented, is capable of exclusion diagnostics for persons suffering from the hypersensitivity syndrome."
"Chicken embryos were exposed to EMF from GSM mobile phone during the embryonic development (21 days). As a result the embryo mortality rate in the incubation period increased to 75% (versus 16% in control group)."
"Our results show significant increase (p < 0.05) in relation with age of subjects (elder subjects are more sensitive) and also, that the facing location is the worst position for some symptoms studied, especially for distances till 100 m from base stations."
[Effects of 2,450 MHz microwave on DNA damage induced by three chemical mutagens in vitro]
Zhang MB et al, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi, avgust 2003
"2 450 MHz MW (5 mW/cm(2)) did not induce DNA damage directly, but could enhance the DNA damage effects induced by MMC."
"These slow waves lasting for about one second repeated every 15-20 s at the same recording electrodes. After turning off the mobile phone, slow-wave activity progressively disappeared; local changes such as increased median frequency decreased and disappeared after 15-20 min. We observed similar changes in children, but the slow-waves with higher amplitude appeared earlier in children (10-20 s) than adults, and their frequency was lower (1.0-2.5 Hz) with longer duration and shorter intervals. The results suggested that cellular phones may reversibly influence the human brain, inducing abnormal slow waves in EEG of awake persons."
"The findings support previous observations of an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and ALS among employees occupationally exposed to ELF-MF. Further studies based on morbidity data are warranted."
"Our results are compatible with an increased risk of childhood leukemia among children whose mothers were exposed to the highest occupational levels of ELF-MF during pregnancy."
"ELF-EMF exposure (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 1-24 h, 20-1,000 mu T, 5 min on/10 min off) induced dose-dependent and time-dependent DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks. Effects occurred at a magnetic flux density as low as 35 mu T, being well below proposed International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. After termination of exposure the induced comet tail factors returned to normal within 9 h. The induced DNA damage is not based on thermal effects and arouses concern about environmental threshold limit values for ELF exposure."
"Cultured fibroblasts of six healthy donors of different age exposed to intermittent ELF-EMF (50 Hz sinus, 1 mT) for 1-24 h exhibited different basal DNA strand break levels correlating with age. The cells revealed a maximum response at 15-19 h of exposure. This response was clearly more pronounced in cells from older donors, which could point to an age-related decrease of DNA repair efficiency of ELF-EMF induced DNA strand breaks."
"Our study gives some support to the hypothesis that EMF exposure increases the risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, and suggests that magnetic field exposure may represent a late-acting influence in the disease process. Electric shock is an unlikely explanation for the increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in "electrical and electronics work" in this study."
"The co-exposure of cells to BP and 0.8 mT ELF-EMF for 24 h, followed by BP exposure for 48 h led to significant increases in the frequencies of MN and SCE compared to BP treatment for 72 h alone (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between field exposed and sham exposed control cells. The obtained results suggest that low density ELF-EMF could act as an enhancer of the initiation process of BP rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in human lymphocytes."
"Three groups each of eight rats were exposed for 2 hr to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found highly significant (p< 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats."
"In pineal glands isolated in the morning, 4-h in vitro exposure did not affect the basal release of melatonin from the pineal gland as well as the basal NAT and HIOMT activities. Pineal gland exposure to MF 30 min before norepinephrine addition significantly (p<0.05) increased NAT activity, HIOMT activity and melatonin release (p<0.05). These effects were not observed in pineals co-treated with MF and norepinephrine or in sonicated glands exposed to MF. The results suggest that in pineals isolated in the morning, 4-h MF exposure changes melatonin release by affecting the signal transduction pathway leading from the norepinephrine receptor to NAT and HIOMT and not via a direct effect at the enzyme levels."
"Exposure to microwave radiation enhances the aggregation of bovine serum albumin in vitro in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Microwave radiation also promotes amyloid fibril formation by bovine insulin at 60 degrees C. These alterations in protein conformation are not accompanied by measurable temperature changes, consistent with estimates from field modelling of the specific absorbed radiation (15-20 mW kg(-1)). Limited denaturation of cellular proteins could explain our previous observation that modest heat-shock responses are induced by microwave exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also show that heat-shock responses both to heat and microwaves are suppressed after RNA interference ablating heat-shock factor function."
"The present study provides some support for an association between exposure to calculated residential magnetic fields and cutaneous malignant melanoma, but because of the lack of a biological hypothesis and the known strong association between solar radiation and melanoma, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further studies would be of interest."
"Exposure during sleep reduced waking after sleep onset and affected heart rate variability. Exposure prior to sleep reduced heart rate during waking and stage 1 sleep."
"Two new exposure parameters Specific Absorption per Day (SAD) and Specific Absorption per Call (SAC) have been devised and are obtained as combinations of SAR, calling time per day, and number of calls per day, respectively. The results indicates that SAR values >0.5 W/kg may be an important factor for the prevalence of some of the symptoms, especially in combination with long calling times per day."
"Workers categorized in the highest 10 percent of EMF exposure were twice as likely to die from prostate cancer as those exposed to EMFs at lower levels, after adjustment for PCB exposure, race, and active work status within the past 2 years (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 3.04). The odds ratio for PCB exposure and prostate cancer mortality was 1.47 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.24) after adjustment for suspected confounding factors."
Neurological effects of radiofrequency radiation
Hocking B, Westerman R, Occup Med, marec 2003
"Cases have arisen after exposure to much of the radiofrequency range. In some cases, symptoms are transitory but lasting in others. After very high exposures, nerves may be grossly injured. After lower exposures, which may result in dysaesthesia, ordinary nerve conduction studies find no abnormality but current perception threshold studies have found abnormalities. Only a small proportion of similarly exposed people develop symptoms. The role of modulations needs clarification. Some of these observations are not consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that all health effects of RFR arise from thermal mechanisms."
Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones
Hardell L et al, Neuroepidemiology, marec 2003
"A significant increase in the incidence of VS was only found for the latter of the two time periods 1960-1979 and 1980-1998. For all other brain tumors taken together, the incidence significantly increased yearly by +0.80% (CI 0.59-1.02) for the time period 1960-1998, although the increase was only significant for benign tumors other than VS during 1960-1979."
"When duration of use was analysed as a continuous variable in the total material, the risk increased per year for analogue phones with OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08. For astrocytoma and ipsilateral use the trend was for analogue phones OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.02-1.19, digital phones OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01-1.22, and cordless phones OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.19. There was a tendency of a shorter tumour induction period for ipsilateral exposure to microwaves than for contralateral, which may indicate a tumour promotor effect."
"Here we review data, which provide evidence that non-thermal microwave effects do exist and may play a significant role. This evidence is based on research at all biological levels, from cell-free systems through cells, tissues and organs, to animal and human organisms."
An exploratory investigation of suicide and occupational exposure
van Wijngaarden E, J Occup Environ Med, januar 2003
"The association for electromagnetic field exposure was highest for suicide between the ages 20 and 35 (odds ratio; OR = 1.5), while the highest risk of suicide for pesticide exposure was seen between the ages of 35 and 49 years (OR = 1.5). Further investigation to replicate these findings seems warranted, using higher quality occupational data."

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