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"The results showed that human spermatozoa exposed to RF-EMR have decreased motility, morphometric abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress, whereas men using mobile phones have decreased sperm concentration, decreased motility (particularly rapid progressive motility), normal morphology, and decreased viability. These abnormalities seem to be directly related to the duration of mobile phone use."
"This study raises interest in a possible association between exposure to RF radiation and cancer risk. However, the study power was very small, and the possible confounding effects of exposure to solvents and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) could not be ruled out. The hypothesis of an increased risk of cancer after radiofrequency exposure should be further explored by means of analytical studies characterised by adequate power and more accurate exposure assessment."
"The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure."
"Quite similar patterns and amplitudes of induction of these proteins were evidenced after either ionizing radiation or magnetic field exposure. No synergism after both treatments was observed. These findings suggest that magnetic fields explored in the present study may be considered as an insult at the cellular level."
"The relative contributions from different sources to the total exposure in terms of exposure quotient were evaluated and found to be 46% from FM radio, 26% from GSM900, 15% from DECT phones, 9% from WLAN, 3% from unknown sources, and 1% from TV broadcasting. RF sources located outdoors contribute about 73% to the population exposure indoors."
"The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm(-2), and found in two cases only."
"Selection bias tends to distort the effect estimates below unity, while analyses based on more comprehensive material gave results close to unity."
"For more than 10 years of mobile phone use reported on the side of the head where the tumor was located, an increased OR of borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.01, 1.92, p trend 0.04) was found, whereas similar use on the opposite side of the head resulted in an OR of 0.98 (95% CI 0.71, 1.37). Although our results overall do not indicate an increased risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use, the possible risk in the most heavily exposed part of the brain with long-term use needs to be explored further before firm conclusions can be drawn."
"Many reports in the literature have suggested the effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) (10 kHz-300,000 MHz) on the functions of the nervous system. Such effects are of great concern to researchers in bioelectromagnetics, since the nervous system coordinates and controls an organism’s responses to the environment through autonomic and voluntary muscular movements and neurohumoral functions. As it was suggested in the early stages of bioelectromagnetics research, behavioral changes could be the most sensitive effects of RFR exposure. At the summary of session B of the proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, Poland, in 1973, it was stated that “The reaction of the central nervous system to microwaves may serve as an early indicator of disturbances in regulatory functions of many systems” [Czerski et al., 1974]."
"Pretreatment with the cholinergic agonist physostigmine before magnetic field exposure reversed the field's effect on spatial learning. Data from this experiment indicate that magnetic field-induced spatial learning deficit is caused by the effect of the field on cholinergic systems."
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure."
"Results showed that the RFR exposure significantly increased DNA double strand breaks in brain cells of the rat, and the effect was partially blocked by treatment with naltrexone."
"These data indicate that mu-opioid receptors in the septum mediate a microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the hippocampus and support our hypothesis that microwaves at a whole body SAR of 0.6 W/kg can activate endogenous opioids in the brain."
"Immediately after a single exposure, an increase in the concentration of receptor was observed in the cerebral cortex, but no significant effect was observed in the hippocampus or cerebellum. No significant change in binding affinity of the receptors was observed in any of the brain-regions studied. In rats subjected to repeated exposures, no significant change in receptor concentration was found in the cerebral cortex immediately after the last exposure, which may indicate an adaptation to repeated exposures. Our data also show that handling and exposure procedures in our experiments did not significantly affect benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. Because benzodiazepine receptors in the brain are responsive to anxiety and stress, our data support the hypothesis that low-intensity microwave irradiation can be a source of stress."
"The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems."
"The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions."
"After 45 min of exposure to pulsed 2450 MHz microwaves (2 microseconds pulses, 500 pps, 1 mW/cm2, average whole body SAR 0.6 W/kg), rats showed retarded learning while performing in the radial-arm maze to obtain food rewards, indicating a deficit in spatial "working memory" function. This behavioral deficit was reversed by pretreatment before exposure with the cholinergic agonist physostigmine or the opiate antagonist naltrexone, whereas pretreatment with the peripheral opiate antagonist naloxone methiodide showed no reversal of effect. These data indicate that both cholinergic and endogenous opioid neurotransmitter systems in the brain are involved in the microwave-induced spatial memory deficit."
"During the probe trial, magnetic field-exposed animals spent significantly less time in the quadrant that contained the platform, and their swim patterns were different from those of the controls. These results indicate that magnetic field exposure causes a deficit in spatial "reference" memory in the rat. Rats subjected to magnetic field exposure probably used a different behavioral strategy in learning the maze."
"The data showed that all three subtypes of opioid receptors are involved in the microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the hippocampus. However, the microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the frontal cortex was not significantly affected by any of the drug treatments, confirming our previous conclusion that the effect of microwaves on the frontal cortex is not mediated by endogenous opioids."
"Treatment with the iron chelator deferiprone also blocked the effects of magnetic fields on brain cell DNA, suggesting the involvement of iron. Acute magnetic field exposure increased apoptosis and necrosis of brain cells in the rat. We hypothesize that exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic field initiates an iron-mediated process (e.g., the Fenton reaction) that increases free radical formation in brain cells, leading to DNA strand breaks and cell death. This hypothesis could have an important implication for the possible health effects associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in the public and occupational environments."
"Results show that brain cells of microwave-exposed rats had significantly higher levels of DNA single- and double-strand breaks when compared with sham-exposed animals. Exposure to noise alone did not significantly affect the levels (i.e., they were similar to those of the sham-exposed rats). However, simultaneous noise exposure blocked microwave-induced increases in DNA strand breaks. These data indicate that simultaneous exposure to a temporally incoherent magnetic field could block microwave-induced DNA damage in brain cells of the rat."
"Immediately after 2 h of exposure to pulsed (2 microseconds width, 500 pulses/s) microwaves, no significant effect was observed, whereas a dose rate-dependent [0.6 and 1.2 W/kg whole body specific absorption rate (SAR)] increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of rats at 4 h postexposure. Furthermore, in rats exposed for 2 h to continuous-wave 2450 MHz microwaves (SAR 1.2 W/kg), increases in brain cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as at 4 h postexposure."
"An increase in both types of DNA strand breaks was observed after exposure to either the pulsed or continuous-wave radiation, No significant difference was observed between the effects of the two forms of radiation. We speculate that these effects could result from a direct effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy on DNA molecules and/or impairment of DNA-damage repair mechanisms in brain cells. Our data further support the results of earlier in vitro and in vivo studies showing effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA."
"Since cumulated DNA strand breaks in brain cells can lead to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer and an excess of free radicals in cells has been suggested to be the cause of various human diseases, data from this study could have important implications for the health effects of RFR exposure."
"Although cumulative frequency of use showed no significant changes in the DNA integrity of the classified sub-groups, the long-term users (> 10 years) showed higher induction of DNA damage and increased frequency of micronuclei and micro nucleated cells."
"A positive correlation between the total number of chromosome aberrations and cumulative 6-years dosage was also found. The data emphasized the dangerous effects of prolonged exposure to both types of radiation and indicated that chromosomal aberration analysis should be obligatory for individuals working at radio-relay stations."
"Review of some key studies, both recent and old (1971), reveals that the participants' symptoms were the same as those reported by people exposed to radiofrequency fields emitted by devices other than smart meters. Interestingly, the vast majority of Victorian cases did not state that they had been sufferers of electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) prior to exposure to the wireless meters, which points to the possibility that smart meters may have unique characteristics that lower people's threshold for symptom development."
"Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus."
"Discrimination ability was significantly reduced in EHS (only 40% of the EHS but 60% of the controls felt no sensation under sham stimulation during the complete series), whereas the perception thresholds for real magnetic pulses were comparable in both groups (median 21% versus 24% of maximum pulse intensity). Intra-cortical facilitation was decreased in younger and increased in older EHS. In addition, typical EMF-related cognitions (aspects of rumination, symptom intolerance, vulnerability and stabilizing self-esteem) specifically differentiated EHS from their controls. These results demonstrate significant cognitive and neurobiological alterations pointing to a higher genuine individual vulnerability of electromagnetic hypersensitive patients."
"Electrosensitive patients showed reduced intracortical facilitation as compared to both control groups, while motor thresholds and intracortical inhibition were unaffected. This pilot study gives additional evidence that altered central nervous system function may account for symptom manifestation in subjectively electrosensitive patients as has been postulated for several chronic multisymptom illnesses sharing a similar clustering of symptoms."
"Thus acute single exposure to microwave and radiant-energy thermal loads produced similar alterations in canalicular membrane permeability. Conversely, multiple exposures produced nonreversible changes in bile flow rate and canalicular membrane permeability, with microwave exposure producing greater alterations in the function of the canalicular membrane than an equivalent radiant-energy thermal load."
"Exposure to microwaves at power densities of 10-50 mW/cm2 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in JEV-induced lethality. Mice did not become tolerant or sensitized to microwave potentiation of JEV-induced mortality because 4 daily exposures at 10 or 50 mW/cm2 (SARS, approximately 24-98 W/kg) did not alter the lethality pattern to subsequent microwave radiation of JEV-exposed animals. Similarly, hypercarbia (5, 10, and 20% CO2) was observed to produce a dose-dependent increase in JEV-induced lethality. Both microwave radiation and hypercarbia are thought to promote pinocytosis in CNS capillary endothelial cells. This may be one mechanism by which they enhance JEV-induced lethality in adult Swiss-Cox mice."
"Tissue exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and ELF-modulated microwave fields at levels below those inducing significant thermal effects has revealed highly nonlinear mechanisms as a basis for observed effects. Interactions of phonons and excitons along linear molecules may produce nonlinear molecular vibrations in the form of soliton waves."
"CRIP2, PLXND1, PTX3, SERPINF1, and TRPV2, were confirmed as differentially expressed after 6 h of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study reporting on potential gene expression modification associated with MMW radiation used in wireless communication applications."
"Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health."
"However, lucigenin-amplified t-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-initiated brain homogenates chemiluminescence, was significantly increased in mouse exposed to 60 Hz, MF, 12 G for 3 h compared to sham exposed group. We also measured SOD activity, that plays a critical role of the antioxidant defensive system in brain. In the group exposed to 60 Hz, MF, 12 G for 3 h, brain SOD activity was significantly increased. These results suggest that 60 Hz, MF could deteriorate antioxidant defensive system by reactive oxygen species (ROS), other than superoxide radicals. Further studies are needed to identify the kind of ROS generated by the exposure to 60 Hz, MF and elucidate how MF can affect biological system in connection with oxidative stress."
"The odds ratio conveyed by being above a 24-hour time-weighted average of 2 milligauss was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.5-2.1). Exposure assessment measurements at 12 weeks were poorly correlated with those taken at 30 weeks. Nonetheless, the prospective substudy results regarding miscarriage risk were consistent with the nested study results."
"We observed that 221 genes altered their expression after a 2-h exposure. The number of affected genes increased to 759 after a 6-h exposure. Functional classification of the affected genes reveals that apoptosis-related genes were among the upregulated ones and the cell cycle genes among the downregulated ones. We observed no significant increase in the expression of heat shock genes. These results indicate that the RF fields at 2.45 GHz can alter gene expression in cultured human cells through non-thermal mechanism."
"However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF."
"This study concludes that, at least in the present developmental level of communication technologies, intensive mobile phone use seems to be part of the same health-related lifestyle as health compromising behaviours."
"Though results from this study suggest a reduction of human standing balance with MF exposure, as well as an increase of physiological tremor amplitude within the frequency range associated with central nervous system contribution, no exposure effect appeared on other investigated parameters (e.g., EEG or voluntary motor control). These results suggest that 1 h of 60 Hz, 1,800 uT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the cortical electrical activity."
"The effect of cell phone subscriptions was significant (P = 0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (P = 0.894), population (P = 0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationship between cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence is disturbing and certainly needs further epidemiological evaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limit exposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation."
"Developed by the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK), it discloses step-by-step the criteria for weighing scientific data and pools partial evidences of different scientific approaches to conclude on the overall evidence of causality between risk factor and effects. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by analyzing evidence of carcinogenicity of ionizing radiation, mobile phone use, and nocturnal exposure to visible light."
"It is remarkable that authorities play a marginal role in informing physicians. Only 4% mention having received information on "electromagnetic pollution" from such a source. It is rather remarkable that there is such a widespread contradiction between physicians' opinions and established national and international health risk assessment. With respect to the frequency with which doctors are confronted with this issue, the results demonstrate an urgent need for action."
"The presented data show that the variation of the electrosensibility among the general population is significantly larger than has yet been estimated by nonionizing radiation protection bodies, but much smaller than claimed by hypersensitivity self-aid groups. These quantitative results should contribute to a less emotional discussion of this problem. The investigation method presented, is capable of exclusion diagnostics for persons suffering from the hypersensitivity syndrome."
"Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose-response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure."
"At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies."
"It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects."
"Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects."
"Most of these symptoms are allegedly triggered by exposure to different sources of EMFs, but there have been no valid etiological studies published on this more general syndrome. It appears that the so-called hypersensitivity to environmental electric and magnetic fields is an unclear health problem whose nature has yet to be determined."
"We report the results of a telephone survey among a sample of 2,072 Californians. Being "allergic or very sensitive" to being near electrical devices was reported by 68 subjects, resulting in an adjusted prevalence of 3.2% (95% confidence interval = 2.8, 3.7). The perception of risk of exposure to EMFs through the use of hair dryers (vs. exposure to power and distribution lines) was the factor the most associated with self-reporting about hypersensitivity to EMFs. However, risk perception was not sufficient to explain the characteristics of people reporting this disorder."
"When either 24-hour or sleep-time exposure to magnetic field or electric field measurements was used, no exposure-effect relation was evident. However, the trend of decreasing 6-OHMS concentration with age was more pronounced for women living near the lines, as was a lower 6-OHMS concentration in women with high body mass index. Chronic residential exposure to magnetic fields from high-power lines may accentuate the decrease in melatonin secretion observed in some vulnerable subgroups of the population."
"Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by long-term mobile phone use or latency."
"In pineal glands isolated in the morning, 4-h in vitro exposure did not affect the basal release of melatonin from the pineal gland as well as the basal NAT and HIOMT activities. Pineal gland exposure to MF 30 min before norepinephrine addition significantly (p<0.05) increased NAT activity, HIOMT activity and melatonin release (p<0.05). These effects were not observed in pineals co-treated with MF and norepinephrine or in sonicated glands exposed to MF. The results suggest that in pineals isolated in the morning, 4-h MF exposure changes melatonin release by affecting the signal transduction pathway leading from the norepinephrine receptor to NAT and HIOMT and not via a direct effect at the enzyme levels."
"These results indicate that the dynamic and brain-region specific changes in ionotropic glutamate receptor expression induced by ELF-MF are insufficient to influence the rat spatial learning ability."
"Dosimetric comparison with various adult and child anatomical models was conducted. Significant differences in the physical and anatomical features between adult and child models demonstrated the importance of creating realistic infant models. Current safety guidelines for infant exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may not be conservative."
"In conclusion, microwave radiations were found to inhibit the activity functions of THP-1 monocytes stimulated with PMA and LPS."
"The results were based on the separate analysis of 870 cases of leukemia, 577 brain tumors, and 1,980 female breast cancers. We estimated the risk of leukemia among those exposed to magnetic fields of > 0.2 microtesla (microT), relative to the risk among those exposed to fields of < 0.1 microT; the odds ratio was 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.9]. For distance < 50 meters relative to > or = 100 meters, the relative risk was 2.0 (95% CI = 1.4-2.9). For brain tumors and female breast cancers, the odds ratios were close to unity."
"Our findings provide new epidemiological evidence that high maternal MF levels in pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma in offspring."
"We conducted a population-based case-control study among healthy sperm donors to study exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) and poor sperm quality. All participants wore a meter to capture daily MF exposure. After controlling for confounders, compared to those with lower MF exposure, those whose 90th percentile MF level > or = 1.6mG had a two-fold increased risk of abnormal sperm motility and morphology (odds ratio (OR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-3.9). Increasing duration of MF exposure above 1.6 mG further increased the risk (p=0.03 for trend test). Importantly, the association and dose-response relationship were strengthened when restricted to those whose measurement day reflected their typical day of the previous 3 months (a likely period of spermatogenesis). Age-adjusted Spearman Rank Order Correlations showed an inverse correlation between MF exposure and all semen parameters. Our study provides some evidence for the first time that MF exposure may have an adverse effect on sperm quality."
"After controlling for multiple other factors, women who were exposed to higher MF levels had 2.72 times the risk of miscarriage (hazard ratio = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.42-5.19) than those with lower MF exposure. The increased risk of miscarriage associated with high MF was consistently observed regardless of the sources of high MF. The association was much stronger if MF was measured on a typical day of participants' pregnancies. The finding also demonstrated that accurate measurement of MF exposure is vital for examining MF health effects. This study provides fresh evidence, directly from a human population, that MF non-ionizing radiation could have adverse biological impacts on human health."
"Our findings provide strong prospective evidence that prenatal maximum magnetic field exposure above a certain level (possibly around 16 mG) may be associated with miscarriage risk. This observed association is unlikely to be due to uncontrolled biases or unmeasured confounders."
"Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for screening potential electromagnetic-reaction protein markers. HSP70 and hnRNP K are involved in the stress reaction of HLECs exposed to microwaves. These cell responses are nonthermal effects of the electromagnetic field."
"Our results show that MW-exposed rats had significant deficits in spatial learning and memory performance. MW exposure increased levels of plasma corticosterone, and consequently GC receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and apoptosis in the hippocampus. However, co-administration of the GR antagonist RU486 with MW exposure partially reversed the cognitive impairment and neuronal loss. These data indicate that GCs might contribute to the cognition deficit induced by chronic low-power-density MW exposure."
"Results are suggestive of a possible association between maternal occupational ELF-MF exposure and certain brain tumors in their offspring."
"The experiment results demonstrate that the conformation of insulin molecular has been altered by electric fields exposure for 30 minutes or by heat exposure for 50 hours. The results suggest that pulsed electric field exposure as heat exposure will after conformation of insulin molecular by breaking some hydrogen bonds and recombining another hydrogen bonds. The intercellular signal molecular may be an important target of electromagnetic fields."
"These findings support the above ST hypothesis and provide experimental evidence for a general biological framework for understanding magnetic field interactions with the cell through signal transduction. In addition, these findings indicate that magnetic fields can act as a co-stimulus at suboptimal levels of mitogen; pronounced physiological changes in lymphocytes such as calcium influx and c-MYC mRNA induction were not triggered by a weak mitogenic signal unless accompanied by a magnetic field. Magnetic fields, thus, have the ability to potentiate or amplify cell signaling."
"The average life span of animals exposed at 10 mW/cm2 was significantly shorter than that of sham-exposed controls (572 days vs. 706 days; P = .049; truncation > 20%). In contrast, the average lifespan of the animals exposed at 3 mW/cm2 was slightly, but not significantly, longer (738 days) than that of controls (706 days)."
"Instead, the microwave pulse, upon absorption by soft tissues in the head, launches a thermoelastic wave of acoustic pressure that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear. There, it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal hearing."
"Cells were exposed to a 50 Hz, 0.1 mT, sinusoidal magnetic field while intracellular free calcium was measured in individual cells, using fura-2 as a probe. An acute response was observed with oscillatory increases in [Ca2+]i, which subsided when the field was turned off. The effect of the magnetic field on [Ca2+]i was comparable to that achieved by an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody."
"Some specific findings were: (1) the induced fields increased with GA; (2) the maxima E were found in skin and fat tissues at each GA; (3) fetal tissue-specific exposure was modified as a function of GA and polarization; (4) the change of the fetal position in the womb significantly modified the induced E in some fetal tissues; (5) the induced fields were in compliance with ICNIRP Guidelines and the results were quite below the permitted threshold limit."
"Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanism of microwaves and ionizing cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts."
"Calcium imaging showed that MT did not increase the basal intracellular Ca(2+) level, but it significantly elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level evoked by the high K(+) stimulation in cerebellar GC that were either exposed or not exposed to ELF-EMF. In the presence of ruthenium red, a ryanodine-sensitive receptor blocker, the MT-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels was reduced. Our data show for the first time that MT protects against neuronal INa that result from ELF-EMF exposure through Ca(2+) influx-induced Ca(2+) release."
"The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration."
"Moreover, we observed that RF exposure did not increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, but inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells. These findings suggested that autophagy flux could be enhanced by 1800MHz GSM exposure (4w/kg), which is mediated by ROS generation. Autophagy may play an important role in preventing cells from apoptotic cell death under RF exposure stress."
"In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons."
"Results demonstrated that MF exposure 4h/day increased the anxiety-like behaviors in rats in the open field test and the elevated plus maze test, without altering their locomotor activity, but had no effect in the light/dark box test. Moreover, MF exposure 1h/day had no effect in any test. These findings indicate that chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect in rats, which is dependent on the daily exposure duration and it is more sensitive to void space than to strong light."
"Microwave could induce up-regulating in multiple stress and apoptosis related genes transcription in cultured human retina pigment epithelial cells, hTERT-RPE1 cells. Microwave radiation has unique effect itself in addition to its heat effect."
"ELF EMF might alter the metabolism of free radicals, decrease anti-oxidant capability and enhance lipid peroxidation. The combination of EMF with lead showed synergic effects on lipid peroxidation."
"An association between the Denver Wertheimer-Leeper wiring configuration and childhood leukemia risk was observed (odds ratio for very high relative to very low current and underground configuration combined = 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.08-4.28; p for trend = 0.008) and was not substantially altered by adjustment for potential confounding factors."
"Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years' duration."
"Twenty-four hours after exposure to combined or single radiation, significant differences were evident in HSP 90 and 70 but not in caspase 3 levels between the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex at high SAR levels. In the cerebellar hemispheres, groups exposed to a single radiofrequency (RF) and high SAR showed significant differences in HSP 90, 70 and caspase-3 levels compared to control animals. The absorbed energy and/or biological effects of combined signals were not additive, suggesting that multiple signals act on nervous tissue by a different mechanism."
"The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation."
"The data demonstrates that long-term exposure of DMBA-treated female rats to an alternating MF of low flux density promotes the growth and increases the incidence of mammary tumors, thus strongly indicating that MF exposure exerts tumor-promoting and/or copromoting effects."
"These results confirm previous findings of mobile phone-like emissions affecting the EEG during non-REM sleep. Importantly, this low-level effect was also shown to be sensitive to individual variability. Furthermore, this indicates that previous negative results are not strong evidence for a lack of an effect and, given the far-reaching implications of mobile phone research, we may need to rethink the interpretation of results and the manner in which research is conducted in this field."
"The results indicate that EMF, in the presence of a transition metal, is capable of causing DNA damage. These observations support the idea that EMF, probably through secondary generation of reactive oxygen species, can be clastogenic and provide a possible explanation for the observed correlation between EMF exposure and the frequency of certain types of cancers in humans."
"Power density analysis indicated an enhanced activation in the frequency ranges 0.5-1.5 and 5.75-10.5 Hz during the first 30 min of Stage 2 sleep, with 7.5-11.75 Hz being elevated within the first hour of Stage 2 sleep, and bands 4.75-8.25 Hz elevated during the second hour of Stage 2 sleep. No pronounced power changes were observed in SWS or for the third hour of scored Stage 2 sleep. No differences were found between controls and subjects with prior complaints of mobile phone-related symptoms. The results confirm previous findings that RF exposure increased the EEG alpha range in the sleep EEG, and indicated moderate impairment of SWS. Furthermore, reported differences in sensitivity to mobile phone use were not reflected in sleep parameters."
"Although recognizing that this study has limitations, the results raise the possibility that prolonged residence close to high-voltage power lines, especially early in life, may increase the risk of the development of MPD and LPD later."
"Taken together, these results support the view that NOS-dependent NO production is an important factor that contributes to EMP-induced BRB dysfunction, and suggests that NOS induction may play an important role in BRB breakdown."
"We exposed Wistar rats to 2.45 GHz pulsed MW irradiation at a power density of 1 mW/cm(2) for 3 h/day, for up to 30 days. MW exposure induced spatial learning and memory impairments in rats. Hippocampal glucose uptake was also reduced by MW exposure in the absence or presence of insulin, but the levels of blood glucose and insulin were not affected. However, these spatial memory deficits were reversed by systemic glucose treatment. Our results indicate that glucose administration attenuates the spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density MW exposure, and reduced hippocampal glucose uptake may be associated with cognitive impairment caused by MW exposure."
"The activation of ROS is triggered by the conformation disturbance of lipids, protein, and DNA induced by the exposure of GSM RFEMF. Although human PBMC was found to have a self-protection mechanism of releasing carotenoid in response to oxidative stress to lessen the further increase of ROS, the imbalance between the antioxidant defenses and ROS formation still results in an increase of cell death with the exposure time and can cause about 37% human PBMC death in eight hours."
"Detailed in vitro motility analysis of bovine spermatozoa exposed to microwave radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility."
"Cell phone use was not associated with thyroid cancer (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.74-1.48). A suggestive increase in risk of thyroid microcarcinoma (tumor size ≤10 mm) was observed for long-term and more frequent users. Compared with cell phone nonusers, several groups had nonstatistically significantly increased risk of thyroid microcarcinoma: individuals who had used a cell phone >15 years (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.83-2.00), who had used a cell phone >2 hours per day (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.35), who had the most cumulative use hours (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54), and who had the most cumulative calls (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.78-1.84)."
"These results indicate that Mono Mac 6 cells are more sensitive to ELF-MF than monocytes. Using diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) a specific inhibitor for the NADPH oxidase, the MF-effect was not inhibited in Mono Mac 6 cells. Therefore, we suggest that ELF-MF exposure induces the activation of NADH oxidase in these cells. However, the MF-effect was inhibited by DPI in monocytes, indicating the activation of the NADPH oxidase after exposure to ELF-MF."
"These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects."
"Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p<0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60min after the end of exposure (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872MHz CW RF radiation at 5W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR."
"The results confirm our previous findings showing that pre-exposure to MFs as low as 100 uT alters cellular responses to menadione, and show that increased genotoxicity results from such interaction. The present findings also indicate that complementary data at several chronological points may be critical for understanding the MF effects on DNA damage, repair, and post-repair integrity of the genome."
"These data do not indicate that EHS patients or control are affected by low-level 60 Hz magnetic field exposure. However, persons reporting EHS differed from the control subjects in baseline values of investigated physiological characteristics. Perhaps EHS patients have a rather distinctive physiological predisposition to sensitivity to physical and psychosocial environmental stressors."
"They had a higher critical fusion frequency (43 vs. 40 Hz), and a trend to increased amplitude of steady-state VEPs at stimulation frequencies of 30-70 Hz. The data indicated that the observed group of patients had a trend to hyper sympathotone, hyperresponsiveness to sensor stimulation and heightened arousal."