Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

50 Hz (151 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
"Results now available from these studies, which started concurrently, have shown that exposure to Sinusoidal-50 Hz Magnetic Field (S-50 Hz MF) combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation or to chronic administration of formaldehyde in drinking water induces a significantly increased incidence of malignant tumours in males and females. A second project of two large life-span carcinogenic bioassays was conducted on over 3000 Sprague Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 1.8 GHz GSM of mobile phone radio base station, alone or combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation. Early results from the experiment on 1.8 GHz GSM alone show a statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart malignant schwannoma among males exposed at the highest dose."
"The results suggest that 50 Hz ELF EMFs emitted from powerlines may represent a prominent environmental stressor for honey bees, with the potential to impact on their cognitive and motor abilities, which could in turn reduce their ability to pollinate crops."
"Overall, studies reported a slightly increased risk of ALS in those exposed to higher levels of ELF-MF compared to lower levels with a summary RR (sRR) of 1.14 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.00-1.30) and for workers in electrical occupations (sRR 1.41, CI 1.05-1.92), but with large heterogeneity between studies (I2  > 70%). Self-reported exposure or occupations determined from death certificates did not show increased risks. Highest-longest types of exposure translated into increased risks of ALS if the studies had evaluated the whole occupational history, in contrast to evaluating only few points in time (e.g., from census records); sRR were 1.89 (CI 1.31-2.73, I2 0%) and 1.06 (CI 0.75-1.57, I2 76%), respectively. In this meta-analysis, we observed an increased risk of ALS in workers occupationally exposed to ELF-MF."
"The results suggest that a weak ELF MF may interact with the static geomagnetic field in producing biological effects, but the effect depends on the relative directions of the static and ELF MFs."
"Our meta-analysis provided conclusive data that ELF-MFs can increase apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. Furthermore, there is a possibly individual intensity and time range with maximum created effect according to window effect."
"Life-span exposure to MF and formaldehyde induces statistically significant carcinogenic effects in male rats."
"Exposure to electromagnetic fields during embryonic development can cause morphological changes in oocytes and affect the differentiation of oocytes and folliculogenesis, resulting in decreased ovarian reserve leading to infertility or reduced fertility."
"According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that EMF has harmful effects on the ovarian follicles."
"We studied groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 20 or 1000 μT S-50 Hz MF and also to 0.1 Gy γ radiation delivered as a single acute exposure at 6 weeks of age. The results of the study showed significant carcinogenic effects for the mammary gland in males and females and a significant increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the heart as well as increased incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males. These results call for a re-evaluation of the safety of non-ionizing radiation."
"Responses to MF were observed in both cell lines, but the effects differed between the cell lines. Micronuclei were significantly increased in SH-SY5Y cells at 30 µT. This effect was largest at the highest MQ dose used. Increased cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide levels were observed in C6 cells. The effects on superoxide levels were independent of MQ, enabling further mechanistic studies without co-exposure to MQ. The micronucleus and mitochondrial superoxide data were consistent with a conventional rising exposure-response relationship. For cytosolic superoxide, the effect size was unexpectedly large at 10 µT. The results indicate that the threshold for biological effects of ELF MFs is 10 µT or less."
"Consistently with the previous study, the level of micronuclei was statistically significantly elevated 15 days after exposure. A similar effect was observed at 30 days, but not at 45 days after exposure. The level of LPO was statically significantly decreased 30 and 45 days after exposure. Consistently with our previous findings, the MF effect did not depend on co-exposure to MQ. Treatment with NAC effectively decreased cellular ROS level and suppressed the effect of MQ on ROS, but it did not block the MF effect, indicating that increase in ROS is not needed as a causal link between MF exposure and induction of delayed effects. The results presented here are consistent with genomic instability that persists in the progeny of MF-exposed cells up to at least 30 days after exposure. Changes in LPO observed at 30 and 45 days after exposure indicates that the MF-initiated process may continue up to at least 45 days after exposure."
"These data support the hypothesis that long-term exposure of 50 Hz magnetic fields is a significant risk factor for neoplastic development and fertility in mice."
"The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low."
"We found that an ELF-MF (0.1 mT, 50 Hz) exposure was capable of entraining expression of clock genes BMAL1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, and CRY2. Moreover, ELF-MF treatment induced an alteration in circadian clock gene expression previously entrained by serum shock stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that ELF-MF may be able to drive circadian physiologic processes by modulating peripheral clock gene expression."
"Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different."
"Elevated GC levels induced by immobilization were significantly reduced by exposure to an EF at 10 kV/m (P < 0.05), and the effect of EFs at 0-10 kV/m on GC levels increased in a kV/m-dependent manner (P < 0.05). In contrast, following treatment with EFs at 50 and 200 kV/m, GC levels were higher than those observed at 10 kV/m."
"M. funereus individuals are sensitive to both sine wave and square wave ELF MF (50 Hz, 2 mT) of different duration, whereby their reactions depend on the characteristics of the applied MF and specificity of each individual."
Experimental model for ELF-EMF exposure: Concern for human health
D'Angelo C et al, Saudi J Biol Sci, januar 2015
"Since, varying the parameters of EMFs different effects may be observed, we have studied MCP-1 expression in HaCaT, SH-SY5Y, THP-1 and K562 exposed to a sinusoidal EMF at 50 Hz frequency with a flux density of 1 mT (rms). Our preliminary results showed that EMF-exposure differently modifies the expression of MCP-1 in different cell types. Thus, the MCP-1 expression needs to be better determined, with additional studies, with different parameters and times of exposure to ELF-EMF."
"The crude odds ratio (OR) for women was 8.50 (CI 95%: 1.73-46.75), suggesting that for women environmental exposure to ELF MF is associated with an increased score on NSPS. As this is an exploratory cross-sectional study in a relatively small sample, no conclusions regarding causality can be drawn."
"For SEPs, all components of PP group, P2, N2 components of Pr group and P1, P2, N2 components of Po group were delayed versus C group. As brain TBARS levels were significantly increased in Pr and Po groups, retina TBARS levels were significantly elevated in all experimental groups versus C group. In conclusion, alterations seen in evoked potentials, at least partly, could be explained by lipid peroxidation in the retina and brain."
"Life-long exposure to ELF-MF induced decrease in the volume of ACTH cells and pituitary volume. We can conclude that the applied ELF-MF has a strong influence on morphometrical parameters of the pituitary ACTH cells and could be considered as a stressogenic factor."
"The results of this study have shown that ELF-EMF changes cell morphology via altering protein expression, but more profound studies have needed to determine the kind of proteins altered."
"After 50 Hz, 1 mT ELF-MFs 5-day exposure on NGF induced PC12 cells, it was observed to increase neurite length as well as an increase in the number of neurite bearing cells. It was also discovered that there was a decrease in proliferation activity, which is associated with an increase in differentiated cells. Neuronal differentiation related mRNA levels and protein levels were increased in NGF induced PC12 cells."
Dosimetric study of fetal exposure to uniform magnetic fields at 50 Hz
Liorni I et al, Bioelectromagnetics, september 2014
"Some specific findings were: (1) the induced fields increased with GA; (2) the maxima E were found in skin and fat tissues at each GA; (3) fetal tissue-specific exposure was modified as a function of GA and polarization; (4) the change of the fetal position in the womb significantly modified the induced E in some fetal tissues; (5) the induced fields were in compliance with ICNIRP Guidelines and the results were quite below the permitted threshold limit."
"Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT activity and a rise in O2(-) levels. Together these studies support the further evaluation of ELF-EMF exposure in cellular and in vivo preclinical models to define mechanisms potentially impacted in humans."
"These results indicate that although the effect size was about half of the effect previously reported, close maternal residential proximity to sources of ELF-EMF remained associated with suboptimal fetal growth."
"There was a decrease in tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 mRNA levels between treated and control cells only at the 1.0 mT intensity level. Transforming growth factor beta-2 mRNA increased in exposed cells, and, simultaneously, fibroblast growth factor-2 mRNA levels decreased. The protein expressions of COL1A1 and MMP-2 were also significantly altered subsequent to exposure (p less than 0.05). This study shows that ELF-EMFs had biological effects on HFSFs and could cause abnormality in scleral collagen."
"When peak-to-peak amplitude of the difference curves was evaluated, MMN amplitude was significantly decreased in the E18-4 group compared with the C4 group. Additionally, the amount of 4-HNE was increased in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Consequently, it could be concluded that electric field decreased MMN amplitudes possibly induced by lipid peroxidation."
"These results indicate that the dynamic and brain-region specific changes in ionotropic glutamate receptor expression induced by ELF-MF are insufficient to influence the rat spatial learning ability."
"RESULTS: ELF magnetic field shortens developmental time, increases viability and does not affect sex ratio of D. subobscura. No matter which developmental stage is exposed, ELF magnetic field significantly decreases locomotor activity of adult flies, but after exposure of just eclosed adults observed change lasts longer. CONCLUSIONS: Applied ELF magnetic field modifies fitness components and locomotor activity of D. subobscura. Observed effects can be attributed to the influence of magnetic field on different stages of development where the hormonal and nervous systems play important role in the control of examined parameters."
"Although cell proliferation and the percentages of neurons and astrocytes differentiated from eNSCs were not affected by 50 Hz ELF-EMF, the expression of genes regulating neuronal differentiation was altered. In conclusion, our results support that 50 Hz ELF-EMF induce molecular changes during eNSCs differentiation, which might be compensated by post-transcriptional mechanisms to support cellular homeostasis."
"Combined exposure of MF and MNP-SiO2 resulted in remarkable cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis in PC12 cells. The results suggested that MF exposure could strengthen the MF of MNPs, which may enhance the bioeffects of ELF MF."
"It is concluded that exposure to EMF during the developmental period could affect both oocyte differentiation and folliculogenesis and may result in reduced fertility, by decreasing ovarian reservoir."
"Long-term exposure to 100 μT and 500 μT ELF-MF did not affect oxidative or antioxidative processes, lipid peroxidation, or reproductive components such as sperm count and morphology in testes tissue of rats. However, long-term exposure to 500 μT ELF-MF did affect active-caspase-3 activity, which is a well-known apoptotic indicator."
"Rats in two experimental groups were exposed to 100- and 500-μT ELF-MFs (50 Hz) for 2 h/day for 10 months, which are the generally accepted safety standards for public and occupational exposures. The same procedures were applied to the rats in the sham group, but with the generator turned off. The results of this study showed that neither ELF-MFs used in this study altered BAP level significantly (p>0.05). However, PC and MDA levels were increased by the exposure to 100- and 500-μT ELF-MFs (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, both PC and MDA levels were altered by long-term exposure to either 100 or 500 μT ELF-MF. However, many further and more comprehensive studies will be required to elucidate the interaction mechanisms between ELF-MFs exposure and living organisms."
"In all gerbils, ELF-MF significantly increased oxidative stress in all tested brain regions. This effect was correlated with the value of magnetic induction and was higher in middle-aged gerbils. Three days after cessation of exposure, the values of examined parameters were closer to control levels. In adult gerbils, the effect of ELF-MF of 0.1 mT on NO level, O2(-) production and SOD activity was almost fully disappeared, and ILP was at the control level regardless of the value of magnetic induction. In middle-aged gerbils, the effect of ELF-MF was still present but to a lesser degree than those observed immediately after cessation of exposure. These findings pointed out the ability of ELF-MF to induce age- and magnetic induction-dependent modification of oxidative stress in the brain."
"Exposure to ELF-EMF alone resulted in an increase in DNA damage compared to control cells. ELF-EMF lessened the effects of oxidative stress and DNA damage that were induced by cisplatin; however, ELF-EMF alone was a mild oxidative stressor and DNA damage inducer. We speculate that ELF-EMF exerts differential effects depending on the exogenous conditions. This information may be of value for appraising the pathophysiologic consequences of exposure to ELF-EMF."
"The data indicate that ELF-EMF is able to affect cellular composition of blastocysts, but it can't omit total volume of blastocysts."
"The results show that PMF-exposed cells had a lower number of both retrotransposition events and DNA DSB compared with sham-exposed samples. These results suggest that exposure to PMF can interfere with retrotransposition activity by inducing a decrease of retrotransposition events."
"The results demonstrate that ELF-MF and Mn can have significant effects on levels of elements in rat teeth. Further experimental and epidemiological studies of ELF-MF and Mn are needed in order to evaluate their dental effects."
"The MF-exposed F344 breast tissue showed alterations in gene expression, which were absent in Lewis and may therefore be involved in the MF-susceptibility of F344. Notably alpha-amylase might serve as a promising target to study MF effects, because first experiments indicate that MF exposure alters the functionality of this enzyme in breast tissue."
"Using model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate the effects of ELF-MF and RF-EMF exposure on global gene expression."
"It can be proposed that the specific temporal patterns of ELF-MF-induced motor behavior changes in 3- and 10-month-old gerbils are a consequence of age-dependent morpho-functional differences in the brain structures responsible for a control of motor behavior."
"Significant (p < 0.05) decreases were determined among groups in memory function and results showed that exposure to an 8 mT, 50 Hz EMF for 4 h has devastating effects on memory consolidation in male and female mice."
"In present experiment, it is suggested that the exposure of adult male fresh semen to a 50-Hz EMF in vitro could inhibit the motoricity and the activity ratio, but not affect the pH value of the semen within 60 min."
"This work shows that subjects exposed over a long period (up to 20 years) and on a daily basis to magnetic fields experienced significant changes in serum sodium, chloride, phosphorus and glucose where an effect for field-hour interaction was noted for exposures greater than 0.3uT. Our data suggest that long-term exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (exposure >0.3uT) in healthy men could induce some biological modifications of certain blood parameters, though their clinical relevance needs further investigation."
"Our findings indicate that the EMF exposure in preimplantation stage could have detrimental effects on female mouse fertility and embryo development by decreasing the number of blastocysts and increasing the blastocysts DNA fragmentation."
ELF magnetic fields: Animal studies, mechanisms of action
Lagroye I et al, Prog Biophys Mol Biol, december 2011
"The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure."
"Our results indicated that ELF-MFs exposure altered the proliferative status and other important cell biology-related parameters, such as cell growth pattern, and cytoskeletal organization. These findings support our hypothesis that ELF radiation could trigger a shift towards a more invasive phenotype."
"Results showed that exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (10 uT) significantly increases IL-6 when subjects were exposed to an intermittent magnetic field. However, no effect has been observed on interleukin IL-1B, IL-2, IL-1RA, and IL-2R."
"ELF-MF exposure affects transposition activity and the effects critically depend on the wave shape of the field, but not on the frequency and the exposure time, at least in the range observed."
"Our results could explain one of the mechanisms and sites of action of ELF magnetic fields. A possible explanation of the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields could be a decrease in Ca(2+) influx through inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The detailed mechanism of effect, however, needs to be further studied under voltage-clamp conditions."
"The results of this study show that intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation in cardiac ventricles can increase in rats exposed to ELF magnetic field."
"The results confirm our previous findings showing that pre-exposure to MFs as low as 100 uT alters cellular responses to menadione, and show that increased genotoxicity results from such interaction. The present findings also indicate that complementary data at several chronological points may be critical for understanding the MF effects on DNA damage, repair, and post-repair integrity of the genome."
"This study aimed to determine the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the physiological response of phagocytes to an infectious agent. THP-1 cells (human monocytic leukemia cell line) were cultured and 50 Hz, 1 mT EMF was applied for 4-6 h to cells induced with Staphylococcus aureus or interferon gamma/lipopolysaccharide (IFy/LPS). Alterations in nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, heat shock protein 70 levels (hsp70), cGMP levels, caspase-9 activation, and the growth rate of S. aureus were determined. The growth curve of exposed bacteria was lower than the control. Field application increased NO levels. The increase was more prominent for S. aureus-induced cells and appeared earlier than the increase in cells without field application. However, a slight decrease was observed in iNOS levels. Increased cGMP levels in response to field application were closely correlated with increased NO levels. ELF-EMF alone caused increased hsp70 levels in a time-dependent manner. When cells were induced with S. aureus or IFy/LPS, field application produced higher levels of hsp70. ELF-EMF suppressed caspase-9 activation by a small extent. These data confirm that ELF-EMF affects bacterial growth and the response of the immune system to bacterial challenges, suggesting that ELF-EMF could be exploited for beneficial uses."
Bioelectromagnetic field effects on cancer cells and mice tumors
Berg H et al, Electromagn Biol Med, december 2010
"In conclusion, the synergistic combinations of PEMF or SEMF with hyperthermia (41.5°C) and/or cancerostatic agents presented in the tables for cells and mice offer a basis for further development of an adjuvant treatment for patients suffering from malignant tumors and metastases pending the near-term development of suitable solenoids of 45-60 cm in diameter, producing >20 mT in their cores."
"Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and Calcium assay, ALP staining, and Alizarin red staining were performed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs under the ELF magnetic field exposure. In these experiments, the cells were exposed to ELF for up to 23 days. The results showed that exposure to ELF magnetic field could inhibit the growth and metabolism of hMSC, but have no significant effect on differentiation of hMSCs. These results suggested that ELF magnetic field may influence the early development of hMSCs related adult cells."
Effect of ELF electric field on some on biochemistry characters in the rat serum
Coskun O, Comlekci S, Toxicol Ind Health, november 2010
"Also, plasma triglyceride showed similar changes (control: 84.44 +/- 16.79 mg/dL, 67.33 +/- 15.63 and 51.53 +/- 14.17 mg/dL in group 1 and 2, respectively). Fifty Hz electric field may decrease plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rodents significantly, especially with long-term exposure."
"The results showed that exposure of trophoblasts to MF at 0.2 mT for 72 h did not affect secretion of hCG and progesterone from these cells. There was also no significant change in secretion of these hormones when trophoblasts were exposed to a 0.4 mT MF for 48 h. However, MF significantly inhibited hCG and progesterone secretion of trophoblasts after exposure for 72 h at 0.4 mT. Results of apoptosis-related gene expression analysis showed that, within 72 h of exposure at 0.4 mT, there was no significant difference between MF exposure and control on the expression pattern of each gene. Based on results of the present experiment, it is suggested that exposure to MF for a longer duration (72 h) could inhibit secretion of hCG and progesterone by human first trimester villous trophoblasts, however, the effect might not be related to trophoblast apoptosis."
"RESULTS: An increase in primary DNA damage was detected in all cerebral areas of the exposed mice sacrificed at the end of exposure, as compared to controls. DNA damage, as can be evaluated by the comet assay, appeared to be repaired in mice sacrificed 24 h after a 7-day exposure. Neither a short (15 h) nor long (7 days) MF-exposure induced hsp70 expression, metabolic and behavioural changes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in vivo ELF-MF induce reversible brain DNA damage while they do not elicit the stress response."
"Both the atrazine and the combined treatments, but not the single EMF exposure, increased the number of degranulated mast cells. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the control and both of the combined treatments (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Additionally, low and high doses of atrazine combined with the EMFs were found significantly different when compared to the EMF group alone (both at p<0.001). Considering the biological importance of mast cells in cutaneous immune reactions, future studies should reveal whether combined exposures to chemical and physical environmental agents pose a serious health risk."
"Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model."
"It is by now accepted that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ELF-EMF (0-300 Hz) affect biological systems although the mechanism has not been elucidated yet. In this study the effect of ELFEMF on the number of apoptotic cells of K562 human leukemia cell line induced or not with oxidative stress and the correlation with heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) levels was investigated. One sample was treated with H 2 O 2 while the other was left untreated. ELF-EMF (1 mT, 50 Hz) was applied for 3 hours. ELF-EMF alone caused a decrease in the number of apoptotic cells and a slight increase in viability. However, it increased the number of apoptotic cells. In cells treated with H 2 O 2 . hsp70 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were increased by ELF-EMF. These results show that the effect of ELF-EMF on biological systems depends on the status of the cell: while in cells not exposed to oxidative stress it is able to decrease the number of apoptotic cells by inducing an increase in hsp levels, it increases the number of apoptotic cells in oxidative stress-induced cells."
"ELF-EMFs significantly decreased the number of living sperm and the quality of movement of sperm, although these adversities did not impact on the outcome of the other parameters investigated."
"The ELF-EMF acted on the bacterial population during the biofilm formation displaying significant differences in cell viability, as well as, in morphotypes measured by the prevalence of spiral forms (58.41%) in respect to the controls (33.14%), whereas, on mature biofilm, no significant differences were found when compared to the controls. The measurement of biofilm cell mass was significantly reduced in exposed cultures in both examined experimental conditions. No changes in DNA patterns were recorded, whereas a modulation in amiA gene expression was detected. An exposure to ELF-EMF of H. pylori biofilm induces phenotypic changes on adhering bacteria and decreases the cell adhesion unbalancing the bacterial population therefore reducing the H. pylori capability to protect itself."
"Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were exposed for 10 days to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) at the frequency of 50 Hz and density of 2 mT (rms). The results show an accelerated hatching of F. hepatica eggs in relation to control (non-exposed) group. The host snails, Lymnaea truncatula, were divided into three groups; those of groups I and II were infected with the miracidia of F. hepatica hatched from control egg culture, whereas those of group III were infected with miracidia hatched from eggs affected by ELFMF. Thereafter, snails of groups II and III were exposed to ELFMF for 53 days, whereas those of group I were not exposed. At day 14 post infection, a significant decrease was observed in the number of cocoons laid by snails of group III, compared with control. Also, significant mortality in group III snails was observed 42 days post infection. The increased mortality and a lower number of cocoons laid by group III snails have probably resulted from enhanced stimulation of metacercarial parthenogenetic reproduction in consequence of infecting the molluscs with miracidia reared under ELFMF."
"In cells exposed to 1.2 microT, 50 Hz EMF, binding of CREB was almost completely omitted. Expression of BRCA-1, p53, p21(WAF), and c-myc was increased by estradiol stimulation and subsequently decreased by melatonin treatment in both cell lines, except for p53 expression in the transfected cell line, thereby proving the antiestrogenic effect of melatonin at molecular level. In contrast, in breast cancer cells transfected with MT1 exposed to 1.2 microT of the 50 Hz EMF, the expression of p53 and c-myc increased significantly after melatonin treatment but for p21(WAF) the increase was not significant. These results convincingly prove the negative effect of EMF on the antiestrogenic effect of melatonin in breast cancer cells."
"Collectively, our data reveal that ELF-EMFs (1) induced reactive oxygen species production in myoblasts and myotubes with a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential; (2) activated the cellular detoxification system, increasing catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and (3) altered intracellular Ca(2+)homeostasis, increasing the spontaneous activity of myotubes and enhancing cellular reactivity to a depolarizing agent (KCl) or an agonist (caffeine) of intracellular store Ca(2+)channels. In conclusion, our data support a possible link between exposure to ELF-EMFs and modification of the cellular redox state, which could, in turn, increase the level of intracellular Ca(2+)and thus modulate the metabolic activity of C2C12 cells."
"Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage."
"RESULTS: (a) Mean developmental rate of exposed cohorts was reduced with respect to controls (0.43 vs. 0.48 stages/day, p < 0.001) starting from early larval stages; (b) Exposure increased the mean metamorphosis period of tadpoles by 2.4 days compared with the controls (p < 0.001); (c) Maturation rates of exposed and control tadpoles changed during maturation period; and (d) Important mortality, malformations or teratogenic effects were not observed in exposed matured tadpoles. CONCLUSION: A long-term exposure of X. laevis tadpoles to a relatively weak 50 Hz magnetic field causes a sub-lethal effect that slows down their larval developmental rate and delays their metamorphosis."
"RESULTS: The analysis of mean number of the flushed blastocysts in the EMF group showed significant decrease as compared with the control group (P<0.03). Light microscopic study showed that the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells was significantly increased in the EMF group as compared with the control group (P<0.001). However the height of endometrial epithelial cells in the EMF group showed insignificant increase as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that ELF-EMF has detrimental effect on female reproductive system in mice by decreasing the number of flushed blastocysts and increasing the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells."
"In our earlier experiments, we found that extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) affect heat shock protein (HSP) expression in wild type Escherichia coli cells. In the present work we investigate the ability of ELF-MF exposure to trigger an increase of DnaK and GroEL protein levels also in E. coli cells not exhibiting the classic heat shock response (HSR) when subjected to a 42 degrees C heat stress. We find that these cells, although lacking a HSR to heat shock treatment, show an enhancement of DnaK and GroEL protein levels after 30 or 90 min sinusoidal ELF-MF exposure (50 Hz, 1 mT). This result suggests that the HSP induction pathway triggered by ELF-MF exposure could be different from that elicited by heat shock treatment."
"This study was carried out to investigate the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on protein oxidation and on the 20S proteasome functionality, the complex responsible for the degradation of oxidized proteins. Caco 2 cells were exposed, for 24-72 hours, to 1 mT, 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. The treatment induced a time-dependent increase both in cell growth and in protein oxidation, more evident in the presence of TPA, while no changes in cell viability were detected. Exposing the cells to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields caused a global activation of the 20S proteasome catalytic components, particularly evident at 72 hours exposure and in the presence of TPA. The finding that EGCG, a natural antioxidant compound, counteracted the field-related pro-oxidant effects demonstrates that the increased proteasome activity was due to an enhancement in intracellular free radicals."
"RESULTS: Different effects of electromagnetic fields on circadian rhythms of both male and female rats were observed. Different changes occurred in some haematochemical parameters for glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exposure to different electromagnetic fields is responsible for the variations of some haematochemical parameters in rats."
"In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful."
Influence of a 50 hz extra low frequency electromagnetic field on spermatozoa motility and fertilization rates in rabbits
Roychoudhury S et al, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ, avgust 2009
"Hormonally stimulated adult (9-12 months) females (n = 140) were inseminated with semen samples from G1, G2, G3 and CG (0.88 x 109 spermatozoa/0.5 mL average insemination portion) immediately after ELF EMF exposure and fertilization (kindling) rates were calculated. For the G2 it was 54.28% data indicate 50 Hz ELF EMF induced alterations of spermatozoa motility and kindling rate in rabbits, therefore influencing fertility."
"The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an extremely low-frequency 50 Hz magnetic field (ELFMF) on the oviposition and development of Drosophila melanogaster. The results show that exposure of D. melanogaster females of generation P and all the development stages of generation F1 to an ELFMF weakened the oviposition of these insects in their subsequent generations."
"Thirty years ago, Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper published the first report on the association between childhood cancer and "electrical current configuration" of houses in Denver, Colorado. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined 50-60 Hz magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" because of the "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity of residential exposure relatively to childhood leukemia. With respect to health effects other than cancer, namely neurodegenerative disorders, miscarriage, subtle differences in the timing of melatonin release, altered autonomic control of the heart, and changes in the number of natural killer cells, some open questions still remain. Several authors recommended further investigation of the possible long-term effects of magnetic fields, focussing on populations experiencing high exposure levels. In this frame a research team of ISS searched for a suitable location to implement an epidemiological study aimed at a wide range of outcomes for which a priori hypotheses could be formulated. The recently published findings of this project showed an increase of primary and secondary malignant neoplasms, ischaemic disease and haematological diseases. Future studies should thus address the most exposed sectors of the population, take into account different outcomes (all neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, immunological disorders, specific cardiovascular effects) and follow research protocols that enable subsequent pooled analyses. A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision making where the available resources for environmental remediation be prioritatively allocated to worst-off situations."
"Non statistically significant increases were observed for all and primary cancers; primary cancers were significantly increased among subjects with > 30 years' residence and latency. A significant increase for all, primary, and secondary cancers, and a two-fold increase for ischaemic diseases, was observed in subjects in the sub-area with the highest exposure. No increase was seen in neoplastic haematological diseases."
"Resting and grazing cattle and deer tend to align their body axes in the geomagnetic North-South direction. The mechanism(s) that underlie this behavior remain unknown. Here, we show that extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELFMFs) generated by high-voltage power lines disrupt alignment of the bodies of these animals with the geomagnetic field. Body orientation of cattle and roe deer was random on pastures under or near power lines. Moreover, cattle exposed to various magnetic fields directly beneath or in the vicinity of power lines trending in various magnetic directions exhibited distinct patterns of alignment. The disturbing effect of the ELFMFs on body alignment diminished with the distance from conductors. These findings constitute evidence for magnetic sensation in large mammals as well as evidence of an overt behavioral reaction to weak ELFMFs in vertebrates. The demonstrated reaction to weak ELFMFs implies effects at the cellular and molecular levels."
"The expression of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator was only marginally increased in 1 of the 2 tested cell lines and expression of the tissue plasminogen activator was at least slightly down-regulated in BC cells exposed to EMFs. EMFs may be able to increase the metastatic potential of breast tumors. The use of our newly established exposure system for EMFs may allow us to study the signaling processes involved in the induction of a metastatic phenotype of breast cancer cells."
"While intermittent magnetic field was effective on plasma lipid peroxidation, continuous magnetic field was found to be effective on plasma MPO activity and NO levels. Augmentation of lipid peroxidation was also observed in liver tissue both intermittent and continuous magnetic field exposures. These results indicate that both the intermittent and continuous magnetic field exposures affect various tissues in a distinct manner because of having different tissue antioxidant status and responses."
"We can conclude that continuous exposure to ELF-MF up to 7 days affects cortical serotonergic neurotransmission, whereby intensity of these changes depends on ELF-MF exposure duration."
"This is the first study to report that ELF-MF exposure generates oxidatively induced DNA base modifications which are mutagenic in mammalian cells, such as FapyGua, FapyAde and 8-OH-Gua, in vivo. This may explain previous studies showing DNA damage and genomic instability. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to 50-Hz MF may be potentially genotoxic. However, the intensity of ELF-MF has an important influence on the extent of DNA damage."
"Our results indicated that ELF-MF exposure significantly affects anti-oxidative capability, both in young and aged animals, although in opposite ways. Indeed, exposed young individuals enhanced their neurotrophic signalling and anti-oxidative enzymatic defence against a possible ELF-MF-mediated increase in oxygen radical species. In contrast, aged subjects were not capable of increasing their defences in response to ELF-MF treatment but, on the contrary, they underwent a significant decrease in the major antioxidant enzymatic activities. In conclusion, our data seem to suggest that the exposure to ELF-MFs may act as a risk factor for the occurrence of oxidative stress-based nervous system pathologies associated with ageing."
"Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) was evaluated in 31 multi-level apartment buildings with built-in step-down transformer stations. In each building, three apartments were selected: one apartment located immediately above the transformer room (index apartment), one located on the same floor and one on a higher floor. The mean value of measured MFs was 0.98 microT in apartments above transformers, 0.13 microT on the same floor, and 0.1 microT in on higher floors. The mean measured MF value was higher than 0.2 microT in 30 (97%) index apartments, 4 (14%) on the same floor as the index apartments and 4 (13%) on higher floors. The corresponding numbers were 25 (81%), 0 and 0, respectively, when 0.4 microT was used as cut-point. It is concluded that apartments in building with built-in transformers can be reliably classified into high and low-exposure categories based on their location in relation to transformers."
"The level of progesterone and estrogen was significantly decreased after 12 weeks of exposure (P < 0.05), while no other effects on progesterone level was observed during exposure or after removing the exposure. The level of estrogen was also significantly reduced at 12 weeks after removing the field (P < 0.05). These results suggest possible adverse effect on mammalian fertility and reproduction. The effects of ELF-MF on sex hormones were shown to be partly reversible."
"The results of this study indicate that ELF-MF could influence the RBC antioxidant activity and might act as an oxidative stressor. Intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPX were found to be the most important markers involving in this process. The influence of magnetic field on the antioxidant activity of RBCs might occur even at the recommended levels of exposure."
Bacterial response to the exposure of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields
Cellini L et al, Bioelectromagnetics, maj 2008
"Atypical lengthened bacterial forms were also observed suggesting a probable alteration during cell division. No changes among DNA fingerprintings and some differences in RNA-AFLP analysis were observed for each 50 Hz EMF intensities evaluated. Our results indicate that an exposure to 50 Hz EMF acts as a stressing factor on bacteria which can represent a suitable model to investigate acute and chronic effects related to ELF-EMF exposure."
"In conclusion, our study suggests that the long-term ELF-MF exposure may enhance the oxidative/nitrosative stress in liver tissue of the female rats and could have a deteriorative effect on cellular proteins rather than lipids by enhancing 3-NT formation."
"The most pronounced MF effect on tumor incidence was seen in the cranial inguinal complexes (L/R5). These data indicate that Fischer 344 rats are a suitable inbred strain to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of MF exposure on mammary tumorigenesis."
"The results of this stakeholder investigation found convincing evidence that there was a small increase in risk of childhood leukaemia for those living in powerfrequency magnetic fields above 0.4 microTesla. It left open unresolved correlations between powerfrequency EMFs and other conditions, such as miscarriage, depression, breast cancer, adult leukaemia, ALS and brain cancer."
Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields
Cech R et al, Phys Med Biol, februar 2007
"It could be shown that the basic restriction (ICNIRP) is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary."
"Alterations in lysosomes, granular endoplasmic reticulum and cell nuclei compared to the control group were also observed. Taken together, the results of this study show the stimulative effect of power-frequency EMF on thyroid gland at both the light microscope and the ultrastructural level."
"Exposure to ELF EMFs during pregnancy period can cause adverse effects on pregnancy of female mice and development of offsprings."
Can EMF exposure during development leave an imprint later in life?
Blackman CF, Electromagn Biol Med, julij 2006
"Initial reports indicated that exposure of chicken eggs during embryonic development to power-line electric fields of 50 and 60 Hz, at 10 V/m in air (which is frequently in locations inhabited by humans), could cause the brain tissues of the hatched chickens to respond differently in a particular test. More recently, an anecdotal report of human sensitivity to EMF has appeared that shows a health-related influence of prior exposure history to particular power-line frequencies in chemically sensitized individuals. These reports open the question of whether the ambient electromagnetic environment can leave an imprint on developing organisms and if such imprint changes have the potential for health consequences."
"Modeling of the receptor-ligand-G protein interactions using the extended ternary complex model yielded good fits for all our data and that of Massot et al., showing that the AC field may act by decreasing the ability of the G-protein to alter the ligand-receptor affinity. The hypothesis is that the bipolar nature of the AC field explains the different nature of the effects observed with AC and DC exposures. These findings constitute one of the few documented pieces of evidence for cell-free effects of DC and extremely low frequency (ELF) AC MFs in the mT range."
"TBARS levels in the plasma and brain tissues were higher in EMF-exposed rats with or without zinc supplementation, than those in controls (p < 0.001). In addition, TBARS levels were significantly lower in the zinc-supplemented rats than those in the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.001). GSH levels were significantly decreased in the brain and erythrocytes of the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.01), and were highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). Plasma zinc was significantly lower in the EMF-exposed rats than those in controls (p < 0.001), while it was highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). The present study suggests that long-term exposure to low-frequency EMF increases lipid peroxidation in the brain, which may be ameliorated by zinc supplementation."
Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field in the brain of rats
Jelenković A et al, Brain Res Bull, januar 2006
"The results obtained indicate that a 7-day exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field can be harmful to the brain, especially to the basal forebrain and frontal cortex due to development of lipid peroxidation. Also, high production of superoxide anion in all regions may compromise nitric oxide signaling processes, due to nitric oxide consumption in the reaction with the superoxide radical."
Induction of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields
Girgert R et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, november 2005
"An intensity-dependent shift of tamoxifen dose-response curves to higher concentrations with a maximal response at 1.2muT was observed. Hypothetically, electromagnetic field exposure could contribute to tamoxifen resistance observed in breast cancer after long-term treatment."
"After sacrifice, samples of skin and thyroid were processed for indirect immunohistochemistry or toluidine blue staining and then were analyzed using the methods of stereology. The antibody markers to serotonin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) were applied to skin sections and PGP, CGRP, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) markers to the thyroid. A significantly increased number of serotonin-positive MCs in the skin and NPY-containing nerve fibers in the thyroid of rats exposed to ELF-EMF was found compared to controls, indicating a possible EMF effect on skin and thyroid vasculature."
"Our results indicate that an extremely low frequency magnetic field is able to affect differently two types of behaviour, which are dependent on both the time course of exposure and the imbalance in the brain mediatory systems."
"We may conclude that EMF exposure of ES-derived neural progenitor cells transiently affects the transcript level of genes related to apoptosis and cell cycle control. However, these responses are not associated with detectable changes of cell physiology, suggesting compensatory mechanisms at the translational and posttranslational level."
"ELF-EMF radiation resulted in a time-dependent increase of micronuclei, which became significant after 10 h of intermittent exposure at a flux density of 1 mT. After approximately 15 h a constant level of micronuclei of about three times the basal level was reached. In addition, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 10-fold above basal levels. Our data strongly indicate a clastogenic potential of intermittent low-frequency electromagnetic fields, which may lead to considerable chromosomal damage in dividing cells."
"The results indicate certain alterations of cutaneous and thyroid MC in rats exposed to EMF. However, the possible outcome of changes in the MC population under EMF influence on morphophysiological properties of other structures in skin and thyroid requires further investigation."
"Compared to sham-exposed rats, the glutathione content in the forebrain cortex of the ELF-MF-exposed rats decreased (P < 0.001), but this reverted after giving amphetamine upon ELF-MF exposure. In this group, the glutathione content was increased in the brain stem and cerebellum (P < 0.05 compared to the sham-exposed, ELM-MF-exposed, and amphetamine-treated groups). It is suggested that biogenic monoamines are involved in the reduced glutathione changes observed. The changes are not uniform in the brain regions examined."
"To test whether this controversy might reflect differences between the cellular targets examined we exposed cultured cells derived from different tissues to an intermittent ELF-EMF (50 Hz sinusoidal, 1 mT) for 1-24h. The alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess ELF-EMF-induced DNA strand breaks. We could identify three responder (human fibroblasts, human melanocytes, rat granulosa cells) and three non-responder cell types (human lymphocytes, human monocytes, human skeletal muscle cells), which points to the significance of the cell system used when investigating genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF."
"When residential magnetic fields are evaluated, the 2 upper residential, time-weighted, average magnetic field categories showed elevated odds ratios (ORs) for all brain tumours (OR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.9-2.7 and OR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.3). Occupational exposure showed no association to exposure for any site. We found an elevated risk for residential exposure to magnetic fields and brain tumours, although the risk was not significant, and no clear exposure-response pattern was found. The findings for the occupational exposure groups showed an inverse association."
"In conclusion, 50 Hz magnetic field and 915 MHz microwaves under specified conditions of exposure induced comparable responses in lymphocytes from healthy and hypersensitive donors that were similar but not identical to stress response induced by heat shock."
"Taken together, these EMF induced reactions could lead to a higher incidence of DNA damage and therefore, to an increased risk of tumour development. While the effects on melatonin and the extension of the lifetime of radicals can explain the link between EMF exposure and the incidence of for example leukaemia, the two additional mechanisms described here specifically for mouse macrophages, can explain the possible correlation between immune cell system stimulation and EMF exposure."
"These results indicate that Mono Mac 6 cells are more sensitive to ELF-MF than monocytes. Using diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) a specific inhibitor for the NADPH oxidase, the MF-effect was not inhibited in Mono Mac 6 cells. Therefore, we suggest that ELF-MF exposure induces the activation of NADH oxidase in these cells. However, the MF-effect was inhibited by DPI in monocytes, indicating the activation of the NADPH oxidase after exposure to ELF-MF."
"The odds ratios for exposed women versus unexposed women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative breast cancer were 1.33 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.90) and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.50), respectively (ER status was available for 44% of the cases). Women with the highest occupational exposure had an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.40) when compared with those unexposed at work. The findings suggest an association between exposure to magnetic fields and breast cancer in women."
"These results demonstrate that acute short-term exposure to ELF-MF is able to modify a motor activity in dependence on the extent of AMPH-induced neurotransmitter imbalance."
"MF exposure significantly increased mammary tumor development and growth in SD1 but not SD2 rats. These data indicate that the genetic background plays a pivotal role in effects of MF exposure. Different strains or substrains of rats may serve to evaluate the genetic factors underlying sensitivity to cocarcinogenic or tumor-promoting effects of MF exposure."
"When residential magnetic fields are evaluated, the two upper residential time weighted average magnetic field categories showed non-significant elevated odds ratios (ORs) for all leukemia combined (OR: 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.5 and OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). The increased risk was confined to chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic and acute myeloid leukemia. Lymphoma showed a non-significant lower OR in the upper exposure category. Multiple myeloma showed non-significant elevated ORs. Occupational exposure showed no significant association to exposure for any site. CONCLUSIONS: Some elevated ORs were observed in the present study, but the results are based on small numbers and no firm conclusions can be drawn."
Electrosensibility and electromagnetic hypersensitivity
Leitgeb N, Schrottner J, Bioelectromagnetics, september 2003
"The presented data show that the variation of the electrosensibility among the general population is significantly larger than has yet been estimated by nonionizing radiation protection bodies, but much smaller than claimed by hypersensitivity self-aid groups. These quantitative results should contribute to a less emotional discussion of this problem. The investigation method presented, is capable of exclusion diagnostics for persons suffering from the hypersensitivity syndrome."
"ELF-EMF exposure (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 1-24 h, 20-1,000 mu T, 5 min on/10 min off) induced dose-dependent and time-dependent DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks. Effects occurred at a magnetic flux density as low as 35 mu T, being well below proposed International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. After termination of exposure the induced comet tail factors returned to normal within 9 h. The induced DNA damage is not based on thermal effects and arouses concern about environmental threshold limit values for ELF exposure."
"Cultured fibroblasts of six healthy donors of different age exposed to intermittent ELF-EMF (50 Hz sinus, 1 mT) for 1-24 h exhibited different basal DNA strand break levels correlating with age. The cells revealed a maximum response at 15-19 h of exposure. This response was clearly more pronounced in cells from older donors, which could point to an age-related decrease of DNA repair efficiency of ELF-EMF induced DNA strand breaks."
"In pineal glands isolated in the morning, 4-h in vitro exposure did not affect the basal release of melatonin from the pineal gland as well as the basal NAT and HIOMT activities. Pineal gland exposure to MF 30 min before norepinephrine addition significantly (p<0.05) increased NAT activity, HIOMT activity and melatonin release (p<0.05). These effects were not observed in pineals co-treated with MF and norepinephrine or in sonicated glands exposed to MF. The results suggest that in pineals isolated in the morning, 4-h MF exposure changes melatonin release by affecting the signal transduction pathway leading from the norepinephrine receptor to NAT and HIOMT and not via a direct effect at the enzyme levels."
"The present study provides some support for an association between exposure to calculated residential magnetic fields and cutaneous malignant melanoma, but because of the lack of a biological hypothesis and the known strong association between solar radiation and melanoma, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further studies would be of interest."
"ELF EMF might alter the metabolism of free radicals, decrease anti-oxidant capability and enhance lipid peroxidation. The combination of EMF with lead showed synergic effects on lipid peroxidation."
"The conditions of intermittence showed an impact on the induction of DNA strand breaks, producing the highest levels at 5min field-on/10min field-off. We also found individual differences in response to ELF-EMF as well as an evident exposure-response relationship between magnetic flux density and DNA migration in the comet assay. Our data strongly indicate a genotoxic potential of intermittent EMF. This points to the need of further studies in vivo and consideration about environmental threshold values for ELF exposure."
"The Risk Evaluation analyzes the potential human health risks of magnetic field exposure. Specifically, this document provides an evaluation of the animal, laboratory and human evidence that shows how exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields may or may not increase human health risks. The Risk Evaluation is based on the results of published research studies, with emphasis on new studies, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Working Group Report, and the results of the California EMF Program Studies."
"The most pronounced effect on proliferation was seen in the cranial thoracic (or cervical) mammary complexes, in which we previously had seen the most marked effects of MF exposure on mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast to the melatonin hypothesis, melatonin levels in pineal or mammary glands were not affected by MF exposure. Topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate increased BrdUrd and Ki-67 labeling in epithelial cells of the skin, particularly in hair follicles, but not in the mammary tissue. The data demonstrate that MF exposure results in an increased proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium, which is a likely explanation for the cocarcinogenic or tumor promoting effects of MF exposure observed previously by us in the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene model of breast cancer."
"We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions."
"Combined experiment with BP, TPA and MF did not cause further MN formation. Since initiation during MF exposure caused a significant increased MN formation, our findings suggest that MFs enhance the initiation process of BP. We think that this MF-enhanced co-carcinogenic effect is caused by an indirect "cell activation" process. The resulting genomic instability is proposed to be due to free radicals and/or to the unscheduled "switching-on" of signal transduction pathways."
Association Of Health Problems With 50 Hz Magnetic Fields In Human Adults Living Near Power Transmission Lines
Booth RJ et al, Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine, avgust 2001
"Five of the eight health variables showed a linear dose-response relationship with exposure. After adjustment for possible confounding, significantly elevated odds ratios were obtained at higher exposure levels both for asthma and for combined chronic illnesses. The results are consistent with a possible adverse effect of environmental magnetic field exposure on immune-related and other illnesses."
"Only 1a melatonin receptors were identified by the [125I]melatonin binding assay and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, preceding exposures to MF of 100 microT for 3, 5 and 7 days blocked the melatonin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner, while none of the melatonin receptor functions or GTPase and adenylyl cyclase activities were affected. Estrogen-evoked cell proliferation was not altered by MF either. Exposure to 1.2 microT MF exerted the same effects on the melatonin-signaling pathway as that to 100 microT. Thus, this is the first study to provide evidence that MF may cause uncoupling of signal transduction from melatonin receptors to adenylyl cyclase."
Neuropsychological sequelae of 50 Hz magnetic fields
Keetley V et al, Int J Radiat Biol, junij 2001
"The other significant result occurred during performance of a trail-making task (alternating 1-A-2-B-3-C, etc.), with a decrease in performance as a result of exposure to the 50 Hz field. This task requires executive functioning with a working memory load, involving parietal spatial processing coordinated by prefrontal executive processing. In summary, the data are suggestive of detrimental effects on cognitive processes, particularly short-term learning and executive functioning. However, larger sample sizes are required to demonstrate statistically a more specific pattern of cognitive effects."
"The follicles with failed antrum formation showed lower oestradiol release and granulosa cell DNA synthesis, but these effects were not related to granulosa cell apoptosis. Furthermore, a high percentage of the in-vitro grown oocytes obtained from exposed follicles had a reduced ability to resume meiotic maturation when compared with controls. These results suggest that ELF-EMF exposure might impair mammalian female reproductive potentiality by reducing the capacity of the follicles to reach a developmental stage that is an essential pre-requisite for reproductive success."
A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia
Ahlbom A et al, Br J Cancer, september 2000
"In summary, the 99.2% of children residing in homes with exposure levels < 0.4 microT had estimates compatible with no increased risk, while the 0.8% of children with exposures >/= 0.4 microT had a relative risk estimate of approximately 2, which is unlikely to be due to random variability."
"Overall, there was an increase in risk for senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidences of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effect; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. The increased risk for senile dementia and motorneuron diseases may be associated with above-average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields."
"One could speculate that the cardiac MCs are responsible for these changes due to degranulation after exposure to EMFs. However, it is still not known how, and through which mechanisms, all these different cells are affected by EMFs. In this article, we present a theoretical model, based upon observations on EMFs and their cellular effects, to explain the proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans."
"There was a magnetic field-dependent reduction in adjusted mean nocturnal and post-work 6-OHMS levels among men working more than 2 hours per day in substation and 3-phase environments and no effect among those working 2 hours or less. No changes were observed among men working in 1-phase environments. The results suggest that circular or elliptical magnetic field polarization, or another factor linked to substations and 3-phase electricity, is associated with magnetic field induced melatonin suppression in humans."
"The observations demonstrate a mode of increased exposure to pollutant aerosols under high voltage power lines by increased deposition on the body. The total (indoor + outdoor) 218Po and 214Po dose to the basal layer of facial skin is estimated to be increased by between 1.2 and 2.0 for 10% of time spent outdoors under high voltage power lines."
"More marked intergroup differences were recorded when tumor incidence was separately evaluated for each of the six mammary complexes, the most pronounced MF effect on tumor incidence being seen in the cranial thoracic complex. The data substantiate that, at least under the experimental conditions used in our laboratory, 50-Hz, 100-microT MF exposure significantly facilitates the development and growth of mammary tumors in the DMBA rat model of breast cancer."
"A comparison between the resulting averages showed that the total spectral power of the cytosolic Ca2+ oscillator was reduced by exposure of the cells to an alternating magnetic field and that the effect increased in an explicit dose-response manner. The same relationship was observed within the 0-10 mHz (10 x 10(-3) Hz) subinterval of the Ca2+ oscillation spectrum. For subintervals at higher frequencies, the change caused by the exposure to the magnetic field was not significant."
"A twofold increase in mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a tenfold increase in mortality from electrical accidents were seen on the basis of 14 and 10 deaths, respectively, the former increasing with time since first employment in a utility company. The excess mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis seems to be associated with above-average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields and may be due to repeated episodes with electric shocks."
"Quite similar patterns and amplitudes of induction of these proteins were evidenced after either ionizing radiation or magnetic field exposure. No synergism after both treatments was observed. These findings suggest that magnetic fields explored in the present study may be considered as an insult at the cellular level."
"An increase in norepinephrine levels occurred in the pineal gland of rats exposed to the higher field strength. The major changes in the brain involved the opioid system in frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. From the present findings it may be hypothesized that EMF may cause alteration of some brain functions."
"Performance on most memory and attention measures was unrelated to exposure, but significant linear dose-response relationships were found between exposure and some psychological and mental health variables. In particular, higher time-integrated exposure was associated with poorer coding-test performance and more adverse psychiatric symptomatology. These associations were found to be independent of participants' beliefs about effects of electromagnetic fields."
"In controls, DMBA induced tumors in approximately 55% of the animals within the 3 month period of sham-exposure. Already 8 weeks after DMBA application, the MF-exposed group exhibited significantly more tumors than sham-exposed animals. At time of autopsy, significantly more MF-exposed DMBA-treated rats exhibited macroscopically visible mammary tumors than DMBA-treated controls, thus indicating that MF exposure enhances the development and growth of cancers in this model. Comparison of the data from 50 microT with recent data from other flux densities indicated that long-term MF exposure of DMBA-treated rats increases the incidence of palpable and/or macroscopically visible mammary tumors in a highly dose-related fashion. Determination of nocturnal serum melatonin after 9 and 12 weeks of exposure at 50 microT did not yield significant differences between MF-exposed rats and sham-exposed controls, whereas a marked suppression of T cell proliferative capacity was seen in MF exposed rats. The data add further evidence to the hypothesis that hormone-dependent tissues such as breast might be particularly sensitive to MF-effects and indicate that immune system depression is involved in the increased breast cancer growth observed in MF exposed rats."
"An excess risk was seen for breast cancer (SIR = 1.5). Analysis of a nested case-control study within the cohort showed an association between breast cancer in women aged 50+ years and shift work. In a model with adjustment for age, calendar year, and year of first birth, the rate ratio for breast cancer associated with being a radio and telegraph operator--in comparison with all Norwegian women born 1935 or later--analyzed with Poisson regression, was 1.5 after adjustment for fertility factors. These results support a possible association between work as a radio and telegraph operator and breast cancer. Future epidemiologic studies on breast cancer in women aged 50 and over, should address possible disturbances of chronobiological parameters by environmental factors."
"The effect of continuous (CW; 2.45 GHz carrier frequency) or amplitude-modulated (AM; 50 Hz square wave) microwave radiation on the immune response was tested. CW exposures (6 days, 3 h/day) induced elevations of the number of antibody-producing cells in the spleen of male Balb/c mice (+37%). AM microwave exposure induced elevation of the spleen index (+15%) and antibody-producing cell number (+55%) in the spleen of male mice. No changes were observed in female mice. It is concluded that both types of exposure conditions induced moderate elevation of antibody production only in male mice."
"This excess of anomalies was not significant for the PMF-A-treated embryos (P = 0.173), whereas it was significant for the PMF-B-exposed group (P = 0.007), which showed a particularly high rate of early embryonic death. These results reveal that PMFs can induce irreversible developmental alterations and confirm that the pulse waveform can be a determinant factor in the embryonic response to ELF magnetic fields. The data also validate previous work based on the study of PMFs' effects at day 2 of embryonic development under field exposure."
"Rats were sacrificed at 12.00 and at 24.00 h for collection of plasma and pineal gland: melatonin was determined by radioimmunoassay. Significant reductions of plasma and pineal gland melatonin contents were observed at 0.02 muT as compared to the control values, and a further reduction was observed at 1 muT. As do albino rats, pigmented rats rats also exhibit melatonin suppression when exposed to time-varying magnetic fields."
"A significant association was seen between all major types of childhood cancer combined and exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage installations of > or = 0.4 microT (odds ratio 5.6)."
"Cells were exposed to a 50 Hz, 0.1 mT, sinusoidal magnetic field while intracellular free calcium was measured in individual cells, using fura-2 as a probe. An acute response was observed with oscillatory increases in [Ca2+]i, which subsided when the field was turned off. The effect of the magnetic field on [Ca2+]i was comparable to that achieved by an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody."
"The data demonstrates that long-term exposure of DMBA-treated female rats to an alternating MF of low flux density promotes the growth and increases the incidence of mammary tumors, thus strongly indicating that MF exposure exerts tumor-promoting and/or copromoting effects."
"Exposure conditions vary greatly among different end points measured, making comparisons and conclusions among experiments difficult. Although most of the available evidence does not suggest that electric and/or magnetic fields cause DNA damage, the existence of some positive findings and limitations in the set of studies carried out suggest a need for additional work."
"Surveys were made to determine whether susceptibility to depressive illness and to myocardial infarction of people living in Wolverhampton was related to the intensity of 50 Hz magnetic field outside their homes. Comparing case with control addresses it was found that the field strength was significantly higher for depressive illness (P = 0.033) but not for myocardial infarction"

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