Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

1800 MHz (69 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"Results now available from these studies, which started concurrently, have shown that exposure to Sinusoidal-50 Hz Magnetic Field (S-50 Hz MF) combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation or to chronic administration of formaldehyde in drinking water induces a significantly increased incidence of malignant tumours in males and females. A second project of two large life-span carcinogenic bioassays was conducted on over 3000 Sprague Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 1.8 GHz GSM of mobile phone radio base station, alone or combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation. Early results from the experiment on 1.8 GHz GSM alone show a statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart malignant schwannoma among males exposed at the highest dose."
"This commentary addresses several unfounded criticisms about the design and results of the NTP study that have been promoted to minimize the utility of the experimental data on RFR for assessing human health risks. In contrast to those criticisms, an expert peer-review panel recently concluded that the NTP studies were well designed, and that the results demonstrated that both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR were carcinogenic to the heart (schwannomas) and brain (gliomas) of male rats."
"Exposure to EMR induced significant changes in amino acid neurotransmitters in the studied brain areas of juvenile and young adult rats, being more prominent in juvenile animals. It could be concluded that the alterations in amino acid neurotransmitters induced by EMR exposure of juvenile and young adult rats may underlie many of the neurological effects reported after EMR exposure including cognitive and memory impairment and sleep disorders. Some of these effects may persist for some time after stopping exposure."
"Decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, sperm count, and viability along with increased germ cells apoptosis and decreased serum testosterone level, was observed in the testes of all the mobile phone exposed mice compared with control. We also observed that, mobile phone radiation exposure in all the three different operative modes alters the testicular redox status via increasing ROS, NO, and MDA level, and decreasing antioxidant enzymes levels leading to enhanced apoptosis of testicular cells by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins along with decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein."
"The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors."
"We observed that mobile phone radiation induces significant elevation in ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, total carbonyl content and serum corticosterone coupled with significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes in hypothalamus, ovary and uterus of mice. Compared to control group, exposed mice exhibited reduced number of developing and mature follicles as well as corpus lutea. Significantly decreased serum levels of pituitary gonadotrophins (LH, FSH), sex steroids (E2 and P4) and expression of SF-1, StAR, P-450scc, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, cytochrome P-450 aromatase, ER-α and ER-β were observed in all the exposed groups of mice, compared to control. These findings suggest that mobile phone radiation induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, which affects the reproductive performance of female mice."
"Significantly higher ROS level was observed for every radiation exposure time. After 60 min of exposure, the applied radiation caused significant lipid and protein damage. The highest GSH concentration was detected after 10 minute-exposure. The results of our study showed enhanced susceptibility of SH-SY5Y cells for development of oxidative stress even after short-term RF exposure."
Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system
Sepehrimanesh M, Davis D, Comp Clin Path, marec 2017
"This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility."
"These results indicate that interference with stem cell proliferation upon short-term exposure to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field depends on the developmental stage of the brain."
"Almost all of the total measured levels were above the precautionary target level of 3-6 µW/m2 as proposed by the BioInitiative Working Group in 2012. That target level was one-tenth of the scientific benchmark providing a safety margin either for children, or chronic exposure conditions. We compare the levels of RF radiation exposures identified in the present study to published scientific results reporting adverse biological effects and health harm at levels equivalent to, or below those measured in this Stockholm Central Railway Station project. It should be noted that these RF radiation levels give transient exposure, since people are generally passing through the areas tested, except for subsets of people who are there for hours each day of work."
"In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats."
"Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10 cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. Using cell phones and Wi-Fi sources which are farther away than 10 cm may provide useful protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis and overload of intracellular Ca2+."
"Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different."
Impact of a small cell on the RF-EMF exposure in a train
Aerts S et al, Int J Environ Res Public Health, februar 2015
"For Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 1800 MHz, we found that by connecting to a small cell, the brain exposure of the user could realistically be reduced by a factor 35 and the whole-body exposure by a factor 11."
"The overall results indicate that there may be adverse effects of RF exposure on antioxidant function, in terms of both the daily antioxidative levels, as well as the circadian rhythmicity."
Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources
Margaritis LH et al, Electromagn Biol Med, september 2014
"All EMF sources used created statistically significant effects regarding fecundity and cell death-apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels (0.3 V/m blue tooth radiation), well below ICNIRP's guidelines, suggesting that Drosophila oogenesis system is suitable to be used as a biomarker for exploring potential EMF bioactivity. Also, there is no linear cumulative effect when increasing the duration of exposure or using one EMF source after the other (i.e. mobile phone and DECT handset) at the specific conditions used."
Cell oxidation-reduction imbalance after modulated radiofrequency radiation
Marjanovic AM et al, Electromagn Biol Med, avgust 2014
"In conclusion, under the given laboratory conditions, modulated RF radiation might cause impairment in cell oxidation-reduction equilibrium within the growing cells."
"Our results indicate that the applications of 900- and 1,800-MHz (2 W/kg) RFR cause to decrease in the proliferation of the Hep G2 cells after 4 h of exposure. Further studies will be conducted on other frequency bands of RFR and longer duration of exposure."
"Moreover, we observed that RF exposure did not increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, but inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells. These findings suggested that autophagy flux could be enhanced by 1800MHz GSM exposure (4w/kg), which is mediated by ROS generation. Autophagy may play an important role in preventing cells from apoptotic cell death under RF exposure stress."
"These results together suggested that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure impairs neurite outgrowth of eNSCs. More attention should be given to the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF exposure on brain development."
"The findings indicated cellular structural damage in the cochlea caused by radiofrequency radiation exposure during cochlear development in the rat model."
"NSe could improve cognitive impairments of mice exposed to RF, the mechanism of which might involve the increasing antioxidation, decreasing free radical content and the changes of cerebra neurotransmitters."
"In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats."
"RESULTS: The exposure to EMR resulted in significant changes in DA, NE and 5-HT in the four selected areas of adult rat brain. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure of adult rats to EMR may cause disturbances in monoamine neurotransmitters and this may underlie many of the adverse effects reported after EMR including memory, learning, and stress."
"There were severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark pyknotic nuclei and less neuron in the EMR groups compared to control groups. The most affected EMR group was the 2450 MHz group. In the frontal cortex and brain stem of the EMR groups, caspase-3 immunoreactivity was increased compared to the control group. The most affected group was again the 2450 MHz group. CONCLUSION: EMR causes to structural changes in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum and impair the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system. This deterioration can cause to disease including loss of these areas function and cancer development."
"In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain."
"The exposure of RF-EMR similar to 1.8 GHz Global system for mobile communication (GSM) leads to protein oxidation in brain tissue and an increase in serum NO. We observed that garlic administration reduced protein oxidation in brain tissue and that it did not have any effects on serum NO levels."
"Using model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate the effects of ELF-MF and RF-EMF exposure on global gene expression."
"The modulation of the expression of Hsps in neuronal cells can be an early response to radiofrequency microwaves."
"Consequently, it can be concluded that GSM-like RF radiation may induce biochemical changes by increasing free radical attacks to structural biomolecules in the rabbit as an experimental animal model."
"The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment."
"A significant increase in albumin was found in the brains of the RF-exposed male rats when compared to sham-exposed male brains. These results suggest that exposure to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz CW RFR at levels below the international limits can affect the vascular permeability in the brain of male rats. The possible risk of RFR exposure in humans is a major concern for the society. Thus, this topic should be investigated more thoroughly in the future."
"Based on the results of this experiment, we conclude that membrane receptors could be one of the main targets that RFR interacts with cells, and the dose-rate threshold, in the case of EGF receptors, is between SAR of 0.1 and 0.5 W/kg. The results indicate a sigmoid dependence of RFR effects on intensity."
In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility
Lukac N et al, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng, oktober 2011
"Detailed in vitro motility analysis of bovine spermatozoa exposed to microwave radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility."
"In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs."
"On measurements of 120 phones, the three-dimensional distribution of SAR in phantom models did not appear to be related to particular external phone characteristics or measurement characteristics, which could be used for refining the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency energy within the brain in epidemiological studies such as the Interphone."
"In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons."
"RESULTS: Significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitric oxide (NO(x)) levels and decreases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were observed in the liver of guinea pigs after RFR exposure. Only NAC treatment induces increase in hepatic GSH-Px activities, whereas EGCG treatment alone attenuated MDA level. Extent of oxidative damage was found to be proportional to the duration of exposure (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Mobile phone-like radiation induces oxidative damage and changes the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The adverse effect of RFR may be related to the duration of mobile phone use. NAC and EGCG protect the liver tissue against the RFR-induced oxidative damage and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities."
"RESULTS: The decrease in the reproductive capacity did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The bioactivity window seems to be due to the intensity of radiation-field (10 microW/cm(2), 0.6-0.7 V/m) at 30 or 20 cm from the GSM 900 or 1800 mobile phone antenna, respectively."
"RESULTS: Passive avoidance behaviour was significantly affected in mobile phone RF-EMR-exposed rats demonstrated as shorter entrance latency to the dark compartment when compared to the control rats. Marked morphological changes were also observed in the CA(3) region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats."
"In this article, personal electromagnetic field measurements are converted into whole-body specific absorption rates for exposure of the general public. Whole-body SAR values calculated from personal exposure meter data are compared for different human spheroid phantoms: the highest SAR values (at 950 MHz) are obtained for the 1-year-old child (99th percentile of 17.9 microW/kg for electric field strength of 0.36 V/m), followed by the 5-year-old child, 10-year-old child, average woman, and average man. For the 1-year-old child, whole-body SAR values due to 9 different radiofrequency sources (FM, DAB, TETRA, TV, GSM900 DL, GSM1800 DL, DECT, UMTS DL, WiFi) are determined for 15 different scenarios. An SAR matrix for 15 different exposure scenarios and 9 sources is provided with the personal field exposure matrix. Highest 95th percentiles of the whole-body SAR are equal to 7.9 microW/kg (0.36 V/m, GSM900 DL), 5.8 microW/kg (0.26 V/m, DAB/TV), and 7.1 microW/kg (0.41 V/m, DECT) for the 1-year-old child, with a maximal total whole-body SAR of 11.5 microW/kg (0.48 V/m) due to all 9 sources. All values are below the basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. 95th percentiles of whole-body SAR per V/m are equal to 60.1, 87.9, and 42.7 microW/kg for GSM900, DAB/TV, and DECT sources, respectively. Functions of the SAR versus measured electric fields are provided for the different phantoms and frequencies, enabling epidemiological and dosimetric studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR."
"They were exposed to RFR (1800 MHz GSM; 14 V/m as reference level) for 15 min/day during 7 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were analyzed. MDA and 8-OHdG levels of non-pregnant and pregnant-RFR exposed animals significantly increased with respect to controls (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). No difference was found in the newborns (p > 0.05, Mann-Whitney). There exist very few experimental studies on the effects of RFR during pregnancy. It would be beneficial to increase the number of these studies in order to establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from RFR."
"In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain."
"RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility."
Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation
Sirav B, Seyhan N, Electromagn Biol Med, junij 2009
"The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown."
"GSM-like RFR caused decreases in DPOAE amplitudes mainly in non-pregnant adult rabbits. Prolonged exposure may affect the DPOAE amplitude. Recommendations are given to prevent the potential hazardous effects of RF in humans."
"Prolonged exposure and hyperthermia related to the power density of applied RF, increasing the temperature in the ear canal, may affect DPOAE amplitudes. Harmful effects of RF are mainly observed as a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes at 4.0-6.0 kHz during extrauterine exposure in infancy. During the intrauterine period, the water content of the middle and inner ear and amnion fluid may play a protective role. Therefore, children must be protected from RF exposure. The use of mobile phones at short distances from the ear of the infants should be avoided because of the lower thickness of the anatomical structure in infancy."
"The object of this work was to review recent trends in public health in Sweden. Data on different adverse health indicators were collected from official Swedish registries. We found that population health generally improved during the early 1990s but suddenly started to deteriorate from 1997 onwards. This quite dramatic change is not likely to be explained only by improved diagnostics but physical causes need immediately to be searched for. A connection with the increasing exposure of the population to GHz radiation from mobile phones, base stations and other communication technologies cannot be ruled out."
Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health
Kundi M, Hutter HP, Pathophysiology, marec 2009
"The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating long-term effects of base station exposure have been exaggerated, considering that base station and handset exposure have almost nothing in common both needs to be studied independently. It cannot be accepted that studying base stations is postponed until there is firm evidence for mobile phones."
"Our results suggest that exposure to RF of wireless communications can induce expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 and the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in human LECs. The induction of Hsp27 and Hsp70, by a non-thermal stress, together with the activation of signal transduction pathways, provides reliable and sensitive biomarkers that could serve as the basis for improved mobile phone safety guidelines."
"As in other cell systems, in HTR-8/SVneo cells the response to high-frequency EMFs was detected at the mRNA level after exposure to amplitude-modulated GSM signals. The present results suggest that the expression analysis for multiple transcripts, though encoding the same or similar protein products, can be highly informative and may account for subtle changes not detected at the protein level."
Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene expression of rat neurons
Zhang SZ et al, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi, avgust 2008
"The changes of many genes transcription were involved in the effect of 1.8 GHz RF EMF on rat neurons; Down-regulation of Egr-1 and up-regulation of Mbp, Plp indicated the negative effects of RF EMF on neurons; The effect of RF intermittent exposure on gene expression was more obvious than that of continuous exposure; The effect of 24 h RF exposure (both intermittent and continuous) on gene expression was more obvious than that of 6 h (both intermittent and continuous)."
"The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models."
"DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage."
"Microwave radiation induced hLEC DNA damage after G(0)/G(1) arrest does not lead to cell apoptosis. The increased ROS observed may be associated with DNA damage. Superposed electromagnetic noise blocks microwave radiation-induced DNA damage, ROS formation, and cell cycle arrest."
"At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies."
"Since 1989 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leakage of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.(2-6) One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAB-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure 7) but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 clays, but not after 28.(8) in our continued research, also the non-thermal effects on tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.(9) We have also performed microarray analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.(10,11) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields."
"This negative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild."
"Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for screening potential electromagnetic-reaction protein markers. HSP70 and hnRNP K are involved in the stress reaction of HLECs exposed to microwaves. These cell responses are nonthermal effects of the electromagnetic field."
"Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of cells constituting an egg chamber (follicle cells, nurse cells and the oocyte) and in all stages of the early and mid-oogenesis, from germarium to stage 10, during which programmed cell death does not physiologically occur. Germarium and stages 7-8 were found to be the most sensitive developmental stages also in response to electromagnetic stress induced by the GSM and DCS fields and, moreover, germarium was found to be even more sensitive than stages 7-8."
"Analysis of the affected gene families does not point towards a stress response. However, following microwave exposure, some but not all human cells might react with an increase in expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and therefore up-regulating the cellular metabolism."
"No or repairable DNA damage was observed after 2 hour irradiation of 1.8 GHz microwave on LECs when SAR < or = 3 W/kg. The DNA damages caused by 4 W/kg irradiation were irreversible."
"The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained."
Comparison of Electromagnetic Absorption Characteristics in the Head of Adult and a Children for 1800 MHz Mobile Phones
Fernandez C et al, Conference Proceeding from the 2005 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwave and Optoelectronics, julij 2005
"It is shown that in similar conditions, the SAR calculated for the children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10 years old child model, values around 80% higher than those for adults were obtained."
"Effects occurred after 16 h exposure in both cell types and after different mobile-phone modulations. The intermittent exposure showed a stronger effect in the comet assay than continuous exposure. Therefore we conclude that the induced DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects."
The Microwave Syndrome - Further Aspects of a Spanish Study
Oberfeld G et al, Conference Proceedings, oktober 2004
"The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. The inclusion of the distance, which might be a proxy for the sometimes raised "concerns explanation", did not alter the model substantially."
"GSM-217 EMF induced a significant upregulation of mRNA levels of the heat shock protein, hsp70 of p53-deficient ES cells differentiating in vitro, paralleled by a low and transient increase of c-jun, c-myc, and p21 levels in p53-deficient, but not in wild-type cells. Our data indicate that the genetic background determines cellular responses to GSM modulated EMF."
The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain
Navarro EA et al, Electromagn Biol Med, december 2003
"The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure."
"As far as genotoxicity is concerned, the micronucleus frequency result was not affected by CW exposure; however, a statistically significant micronucleus effect was found following exposure to phase modulated field. These results would suggest a genotoxic power of the phase modulation per se."

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