Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


melatonin (57 od skupno 1333 raziskav)
"With the application of radiation, neuronal edema, relatively-decreased numbers of neurons on hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, displacement of the Purkinje neurons and dark neurons findings were observed as a result of histochemical stainings. Radiation also activated the NMDA-receptor 2B/Calpain-1/Caspase-12 pathway, NMDA-receptor 2B and Calpain-1 with the findings being supported by western blot analyses. Pre-increased protein synthesis before apoptosis was identified by electron microscopy."
"Therefore, ELF-EMF exposure can change the content of certain TEs in teeth and, after administering MLT and GL, the values of some of the TEs return to normal."
"This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role."
"We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy."
"Electrohypersensitivity can be caused by successive assaults on human bioelectrochemical dynamics from exogenous electromagnetic fields (EMF) and RFR or a single acute exposure. Once sensitized, further exposures are widely reported to cause reactivity to lower and lower intensities of EMF/RFR, at which point thousand-fold lower levels can cause adverse health impacts to the electrosensitive person. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) based on reports of individuals who first develop one condition, then rapidly develop the other. Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells."
"Calcium imaging showed that MT did not increase the basal intracellular Ca(2+) level, but it significantly elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level evoked by the high K(+) stimulation in cerebellar GC that were either exposed or not exposed to ELF-EMF. In the presence of ruthenium red, a ryanodine-sensitive receptor blocker, the MT-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels was reduced. Our data show for the first time that MT protects against neuronal INa that result from ELF-EMF exposure through Ca(2+) influx-induced Ca(2+) release."
"In conclusion, wireless (2.45 GHz) EMR caused oxidative damage in testis by increasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and decreasing in vitamin A and E levels. Melatonin supplementation prevented oxidative damage induced by EMR and also supported the antioxidant redox system in the testis."
"There are poor oxidative toxic effects of one hour of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens in the animals. However, melatonin supplementation in the lens seems to have protective effects on the oxidant system by modulation of GSH-Px activity."
"Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been increasing with the increasing demand for communication devices. The aim of the study was to discuss the mechanisms and risk factors of EMR changes on reproductive functions and membrane oxidative biology in females and males. It was reported that even chronic exposure to EMR did not increase the risk of reproductive functions such as increased levels of neoantigens abort. However, the results of some studies indicate that EMR induced endometriosis and inflammation and decreased the number of follicles in the ovarium or uterus of rats. In studies with male rats, exposure caused degeneration in the seminiferous tubules, reduction in the number of Leydig cells and testosterone production as well as increases in luteinizing hormone levels and apoptotic cells. In some cases of male and female infertility, increased levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and decreased values of antioxidants such as melatonin, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase were reported in animals exposed to EMR. In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems. However, there is no evidence to this date to support an increased risk of female and male infertility related to EMR exposure."
"There is an apparent protective effect of melatonin on the Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the laryngotracheal mucosa of rats by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the glutathione peroxidase antioxidant system."
"The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data."
"In conclusion, Melatonin supplementation in DRG neurons and brain seems to have protective effects on the 2.45 GHz-induced increase Ca(2+) influx, EEG records and cell viability of the hormone through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels."
Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain
Kesari KK et al, Appl Biochem Biotechnol, januar 2012
"The study concludes that a reduction in melatonin or an increase in caspase-3, creatine kinase, and calcium ion may cause significant damage in brain due to chronic exposure of these radiations. These biomarkers clearly indicate possible health implications of such exposures."
900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain
Kesari KK et al, Electromagn Biol Med, december 2011
"The study concludes that a reduction or an increase in antioxidative enzyme activities, protein kinase C, melatonin, caspase 3, and creatine kinase are related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications."
"Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress."
"The electronic equipment repairers, exposed to ELF-EMF, are at a risk of oxidative stress and sleep insufficiency, which could be explained by lower plasma melatonin levels and higher MDA levels. Health education about the hazards of ELF-EMF, shortening of exposure time per day, and taking antioxidant vitamins should be done to ameliorate the oxidative effect of EMF on those workers."
"In cells exposed to 1.2 microT, 50 Hz EMF, binding of CREB was almost completely omitted. Expression of BRCA-1, p53, p21(WAF), and c-myc was increased by estradiol stimulation and subsequently decreased by melatonin treatment in both cell lines, except for p53 expression in the transfected cell line, thereby proving the antiestrogenic effect of melatonin at molecular level. In contrast, in breast cancer cells transfected with MT1 exposed to 1.2 microT of the 50 Hz EMF, the expression of p53 and c-myc increased significantly after melatonin treatment but for p21(WAF) the increase was not significant. These results convincingly prove the negative effect of EMF on the antiestrogenic effect of melatonin in breast cancer cells."
"This means that each experiment with horizontal polarization of magnetic fields has a higher probability to result in "not changed melatonin level" pattern. On the other hand, ANNs, a more powerful model which has not been introduced in predicting melatonin excretion patterns in the rat exposed to ELF-MF, showed high performance measure values and higher reliability, especially obtaining 0.55 value of MCC through jackknife tests. Obtained results showed that such predictor models are promising and may play a useful role in defining guidelines for experimental designs relating to exposure conditions. In conclusion, analysis of the bioelectromagnetic data could result in finding a relationship between electromagnetic fields and different biological processes."
"Thirty years ago, Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper published the first report on the association between childhood cancer and "electrical current configuration" of houses in Denver, Colorado. In 2001 the International Agency for Research on Cancer defined 50-60 Hz magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" because of the "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity of residential exposure relatively to childhood leukemia. With respect to health effects other than cancer, namely neurodegenerative disorders, miscarriage, subtle differences in the timing of melatonin release, altered autonomic control of the heart, and changes in the number of natural killer cells, some open questions still remain. Several authors recommended further investigation of the possible long-term effects of magnetic fields, focussing on populations experiencing high exposure levels. In this frame a research team of ISS searched for a suitable location to implement an epidemiological study aimed at a wide range of outcomes for which a priori hypotheses could be formulated. The recently published findings of this project showed an increase of primary and secondary malignant neoplasms, ischaemic disease and haematological diseases. Future studies should thus address the most exposed sectors of the population, take into account different outcomes (all neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, immunological disorders, specific cardiovascular effects) and follow research protocols that enable subsequent pooled analyses. A precautionary approach may provide the frame for decision making where the available resources for environmental remediation be prioritatively allocated to worst-off situations."
"Results: The evidence indicates that long-term significant occupational exposure to ELF MF may certainly increase the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. There is now evidence that two relevant biological processes (increased production of amyloid beta and decreased production of melatonin) are influenced by high long-term ELF MF exposure that may lead to Alzheimer's disease. There is further evidence that one of these biological processes (decreased melatonin production) may also lead to breast cancer. Finally, there is evidence that exposures to RF MF and ELF MF have similar biological consequences. Conclusion: It is important to mitigate ELF and RF MF exposures through equipment design changes and environmental placement of electrical equipment, e.g., AC/DC transformers. Further research related to these proposed and other biological processes is required."
"We demonstrated two important findings; that mobile phones caused oxidative damage biochemically by increasing the levels of MDA, carbonyl groups, XO activity and decreasing CAT activity; and that treatment with the melatonin significantly prevented oxidative damage in the brain."
"At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies."
"A review of electric field studies provides evidence that (i) diurnal variation in the natural atmospheric electric field may itself act as a weak Zeitgeber; (ii) melatonin disruption by electric fields occurs in rats; (iii) in humans, disturbances in circadian rhythms have been observed with artificial fields as low at 2.5 V/m. Specific suggestions are made to test the aspects of the hypothesis."
"RF and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were associated with increased E1G excretion among postmenopausal women. Women with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion may represent a sensitive subgroup."
"The resonance solution also suggests that mitochondrial proton gradients may be critical to the process. The model offers an alternative explanation to the variations of Faraday's Law and the Boltzmann constant that have been employed to explain and to dismiss biological effects from weak magnetic fields."
"Magnetic field exposure was associated with decreased 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, but no changes in reproductive hormone levels were observed. Participants using prescription medications and anovulatory participants had more pronounced decreases in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels with magnetic field exposure. This study provides further evidence that exposure to magnetic fields is associated with decreased nocturnal melatonin levels, but does not support the hypothesis that such exposure results in increased urinary levels of estrogens, LH, or FSH."
Occupational magnetic field exposure and melatonin: interaction with light-at-night
Juutilainen J, Kumlin T, Bioelectromagnetics, julij 2006
"Based on questionnaire data on exposure to light-at-night (LAN), and measurement-based MF data, the 60 women were classified to four groups: no MF, no LAN; MF, no LAN; no MF, LAN; MF, LAN. The lowest excretion of 6-OHMS was observed in the group of women who were exposed to both MF and LAN, and the differences between the four groups were significant (P < .0001). The result is based on low numbers, but supports the hypothesis that daytime occupational exposure to MF enhances the effects of nighttime light exposure on melatonin production."
"We conclude that melatonin may prevent MW-induced oxidative changes in the hippocampus by strengthening the anti-oxidant defense system, by reducing oxidative stress products from MW radiation exposure."
"The induced genes encode proteins with diverse functions including neurotransmitter regulation, blood-brain barrier (BBB), and melatonin production. The data shows that GSM MWs at 915 MHz did not induce PFGE-detectable DNA double stranded breaks or changes in chromatin conformation, but affected expression of genes in rat brain cells."
"Before shut down, self-rated sleep quality was reduced by 3.9 units (95% CI: 1.7-6.0) per mA/m increase in magnetic field exposure. The corresponding decrease in melatonin excretion was 10% (95% CI: -32 to 20%). After shutdown, sleep quality improved by 1.7 units (95% CI: 0.1-3.4) per mA/m decrease in magnetic field exposure. Melatonin excretion increased by 15% (95% CI: -3 to 36%) compared to baseline values suggesting a rebound effect. Stratified analyses showed an exposure effect on melatonin excretion in poor sleepers (26% increase; 95% CI: 8-47%) but not in good sleepers. Change in sleep quality and melatonin excretion was related to the extent of magnetic field reduction after the transmitter's shut down in poor but not good sleepers. However, blinding of exposure was not possible in this observational study and this may have affected the outcome measurements in a direct or indirect (psychological) way."
In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE reduce retinal oxidative stress after long-term exposure to 900 MHz emitting mobile phone. Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the efficacies of these two antioxidants against to EMR induced oxidative stress in rat retina. The difference was in only GSH-Px activity in rat retina. Melatonin stimulated the retinal GSH-Px activity more efficiently than CAPE did.
"Melatonin caused a significant decrease in urinary NAG activity and MDA levels which were increased because of EMR exposure. CAPE also reduced elevated MDA levels in EMR exposed renal tissue, but the effect of melatonin was more potent than that of CAPE. Furthermore, treatment of EMR exposed rats with melatonin increased activities of SOD and GSH-Px to higher levels than those of control rats. In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE prevent renal tubular injury by reducing oxidative stress and protect the kidney from oxidative damage induced by 900 MHz mobile phone. Nevertheless, melatonin seems to be a more potent antioxidant compared with CAPE in kidney."
"The concentrations of total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were higher among persons with higher melatonin excretion. Similar associations were seen between melatonin excretion and helper T cells and NK cells when the data were analyzed as continuous variables (table 10). Therefore, we then evaluated the association between exposure to RF and immune markers among persons with total overnight melatonin excretion above and below the median (table 11). Paradoxically, associations between RF exposure and immune markers were found among persons with melatonin excretion below the median but not among persons with melatonin excretion above the median. For the group of individuals with low melatonin excretion, the concentrations of total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells were all significantly increased among persons in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of household RF exposure."
"In the EMR-exposed group, while tissue MDA and urine NAG levels increased, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities were reduced. Melatonin treatment reversed these effects as well. In this study, the increase in MDA levels of renal tissue and in urine NAG and also the decrease in renal SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanism induced by 900-MHz mobile phone exposure, and melatonin, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorated oxidative tissue injury in rat kidney. These results show that melatonin may exhibit a protective effect on mobile phone-induced renal impairment in rats."
"Such melatonin disruption has been shown in animals, especially with exposure to electric and/or rapid on/off magnetic fields. Equivocal evidence has been obtained from controlled laboratory magnetic field exposures of volunteers, although the exposure conditions are generally atypical of neighborhood exposures. In contrast, support for the hypothesis is found in the body of studies showing magnetic field disruption of melatonin in human populations chronically exposed to both electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity distribution. Further support comes from the observation that melatonin is highly protective of oxidative damage to the human haemopoietic system. Aspects of the hypothesis are amenable to further investigation."
"Taken together, these EMF induced reactions could lead to a higher incidence of DNA damage and therefore, to an increased risk of tumour development. While the effects on melatonin and the extension of the lifetime of radicals can explain the link between EMF exposure and the incidence of for example leukaemia, the two additional mechanisms described here specifically for mouse macrophages, can explain the possible correlation between immune cell system stimulation and EMF exposure."
"Histopathologic changes in skin were analyzed. In the IR group, increased thickness of stratum corneum, atrophy of epidermis, papillamatosis, basal cell proliferation, increased granular cell layer (hypergranulosis) in epidermis and capillary proliferation, impairment in collagen tissue distribution and separation of collagen bundles in dermis were all observed compared to the control group. Most of these changes, except hypergranulosis, were prevented with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, exposure to 900 MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones caused mild skin changes. Furthermore, melatonin treatment can reduce these changes and may have a beneficial effect to prevent 900 MHz mobile phone-induced rat skin changes."
Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat
Lai H, Singh NP, Environ Health Perspect, maj 2004
"Treatment with the iron chelator deferiprone also blocked the effects of magnetic fields on brain cell DNA, suggesting the involvement of iron. Acute magnetic field exposure increased apoptosis and necrosis of brain cells in the rat. We hypothesize that exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic field initiates an iron-mediated process (e.g., the Fenton reaction) that increases free radical formation in brain cells, leading to DNA strand breaks and cell death. This hypothesis could have an important implication for the possible health effects associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in the public and occupational environments."
"In pineal glands isolated in the morning, 4-h in vitro exposure did not affect the basal release of melatonin from the pineal gland as well as the basal NAT and HIOMT activities. Pineal gland exposure to MF 30 min before norepinephrine addition significantly (p<0.05) increased NAT activity, HIOMT activity and melatonin release (p<0.05). These effects were not observed in pineals co-treated with MF and norepinephrine or in sonicated glands exposed to MF. The results suggest that in pineals isolated in the morning, 4-h MF exposure changes melatonin release by affecting the signal transduction pathway leading from the norepinephrine receptor to NAT and HIOMT and not via a direct effect at the enzyme levels."
Melatonin metabolite excretion among cellular telephone users
Burch JB et al, Int J Radiat Biol, november 2002
"Exposure-related reductions in 6-OHMS excretion were observed in Study 2, where daily cellular telephone use of >25 min was more prevalent. Prolonged use of cellular telephones may lead to reduced melatonin production, and elevated 60-Hz MF exposures may potentiate the effect."
"For selected illnesses, this paper estimates the annual number of excess cases that might occur near high-voltage powerlines in the UK. Within 150m of powerlines, magnetic field exposures above 0.1 microT are postulated to result in 9000 excess cases of depression in adults and 60 cases of suicide. Electric field effects can mediate increased exposure to air pollution. Within 400m of powerlines, this may result annually in 200-400 excess cases of lung cancer, 2000-3000 cases of other illnesses associated with air population and 2-6 cases of childhood leukaemia. Seventeen cases of non-melanoma skin cancer might occur by exposure directly under powerlines."
"The most pronounced effect on proliferation was seen in the cranial thoracic (or cervical) mammary complexes, in which we previously had seen the most marked effects of MF exposure on mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast to the melatonin hypothesis, melatonin levels in pineal or mammary glands were not affected by MF exposure. Topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate increased BrdUrd and Ki-67 labeling in epithelial cells of the skin, particularly in hair follicles, but not in the mammary tissue. The data demonstrate that MF exposure results in an increased proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium, which is a likely explanation for the cocarcinogenic or tumor promoting effects of MF exposure observed previously by us in the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene model of breast cancer."
"In this review, we describe the interaction of MF and biological systems, showing that preceding exposures to MF of 100 µT for 3, 5, and 7 days blocked the melatonin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner, while the functions of three components, such as melatonin receptor, G protein, and adenylyl cyclase that consist of the signal transduction pathway were not affected. It still remains to be developed which theoretical chemistry explains our findings."
"When either 24-hour or sleep-time exposure to magnetic field or electric field measurements was used, no exposure-effect relation was evident. However, the trend of decreasing 6-OHMS concentration with age was more pronounced for women living near the lines, as was a lower 6-OHMS concentration in women with high body mass index. Chronic residential exposure to magnetic fields from high-power lines may accentuate the decrease in melatonin secretion observed in some vulnerable subgroups of the population."
"Lower nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was associated with more hours of daylight, older age, higher body mass index, current alcohol consumption, and current use of medications classified as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, or psychotropics. After adjustment for these factors, higher bedroom magnetic field level was associated with significantly lower urinary concentration of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin during the same night, primarily in women who used these medications and during times of the year with the fewest hours of darkness. These results suggest that exposure to nighttime residential 60-Hz magnetic fields can depress the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin."
"Only 1a melatonin receptors were identified by the [125I]melatonin binding assay and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, preceding exposures to MF of 100 microT for 3, 5 and 7 days blocked the melatonin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner, while none of the melatonin receptor functions or GTPase and adenylyl cyclase activities were affected. Estrogen-evoked cell proliferation was not altered by MF either. Exposure to 1.2 microT MF exerted the same effects on the melatonin-signaling pathway as that to 100 microT. Thus, this is the first study to provide evidence that MF may cause uncoupling of signal transduction from melatonin receptors to adenylyl cyclase."
"Cells were harvested at selected times, and enumerated without knowledge of treatment. In the melatonin study, the experiment was repeated three times, whereas in the tamoxifen study, each experiment was repeated nine times. In the melatonin study, cell numbers per dish were significantly reduced (by 16.7%) in the melatonin treated cultures after 7 days of incubation compared to control cultures, whereas in the presence of 1.2 microT(rms), 60 Hz magnetic fields, the melatonin treated cultures had the same cell populations as the control cultures. In the tamoxifen study, tamoxifen reduced the cell growth by 18.6 and 25% on days 6 and 7, respectively, in the chamber not energized, while in 1.2 microT(rms), 60 Hz fields, tamoxifen reduced the cell growth only by 8.7 and 13.1%, respectively. These results are consistent with those reported by Harland and Liburdy. A critical element of this successful replication effort was the constructive communication established and maintained with the original investigators."
"Suicide mortality was increased relative to work in exposed jobs and with indices of exposure to magnetic fields. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for years of employment as an electrician (OR 2.18; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25 to 3.80) or lineman (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.14), whereas a decreased OR was found for power plant operators (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.40). A dose response gradient with exposure to magnetic fields was found for exposure in the previous year, with a mortality OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.90) in the highest exposure category. Stronger associations, with ORs in the range of 2.12-3.62, were found for men <50 years of age. These data provide evidence for an association between occupational electromagnetic fields and suicide that warrants further evaluation. A plausible mechanism related to melatonin and depression provides a direction for additional laboratory research as well as epidemiological evaluation."
"There was a magnetic field-dependent reduction in adjusted mean nocturnal and post-work 6-OHMS levels among men working more than 2 hours per day in substation and 3-phase environments and no effect among those working 2 hours or less. No changes were observed among men working in 1-phase environments. The results suggest that circular or elliptical magnetic field polarization, or another factor linked to substations and 3-phase electricity, is associated with magnetic field induced melatonin suppression in humans."
"Geometric mean magnetic field exposures were not associated with 6-OHMS/cr excretion. Men in the highest quartile of temporally stable magnetic field exposure had lower 6-OHMS/cr concentrations on the second and third days compared with those in the lowest quartile. Light exposure modified the magnetic field effect. A progressive decrease in mean 6-OHMS/cr concentrations in response to temporally stable magnetic fields was observed in subjects with low workplace light exposures (predominantly office workers), whereas those with high ambient light exposure showed negligible magnetic field effects. Melatonin suppression may be useful for understanding human biologic responses to magnetic field exposures."
"Modest reductions in the mean 6-OHMS levels occurred after RCMS exposures during work. The greatest reductions occurred when RCMS exposures both at work and at home were combined; therefore the effects of temporally stable magnetic fields may be integrated over a large portion of the day. Results from this study provide evidence that temporally stable magnetic field exposures are associated with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion in humans."
"Since cumulated DNA strand breaks in brain cells can lead to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer and an excess of free radicals in cells has been suggested to be the cause of various human diseases, data from this study could have important implications for the health effects of RFR exposure."
"In controls, DMBA induced tumors in approximately 55% of the animals within the 3 month period of sham-exposure. Already 8 weeks after DMBA application, the MF-exposed group exhibited significantly more tumors than sham-exposed animals. At time of autopsy, significantly more MF-exposed DMBA-treated rats exhibited macroscopically visible mammary tumors than DMBA-treated controls, thus indicating that MF exposure enhances the development and growth of cancers in this model. Comparison of the data from 50 microT with recent data from other flux densities indicated that long-term MF exposure of DMBA-treated rats increases the incidence of palpable and/or macroscopically visible mammary tumors in a highly dose-related fashion. Determination of nocturnal serum melatonin after 9 and 12 weeks of exposure at 50 microT did not yield significant differences between MF-exposed rats and sham-exposed controls, whereas a marked suppression of T cell proliferative capacity was seen in MF exposed rats. The data add further evidence to the hypothesis that hormone-dependent tissues such as breast might be particularly sensitive to MF-effects and indicate that immune system depression is involved in the increased breast cancer growth observed in MF exposed rats."
"Rats were sacrificed at 12.00 and at 24.00 h for collection of plasma and pineal gland: melatonin was determined by radioimmunoassay. Significant reductions of plasma and pineal gland melatonin contents were observed at 0.02 muT as compared to the control values, and a further reduction was observed at 1 muT. As do albino rats, pigmented rats rats also exhibit melatonin suppression when exposed to time-varying magnetic fields."
Chronic exposure to ELF fields may induce depression
Wilson BW, Bioelectromagnetics, februar 1988
"Chronic exposure to ELF electric or magnetic fields can disrupt normal circadian rhythms in rat pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase activity as well as in serotonin and melatonin concentrations. Such disruptions in the circadian rhythmicity of pineal melatonin secretion have been associated with certain depressive disorders in human beings. In the rat, ELF fields may interfere with tonic aspects of neuronal input to the pineal gland, giving rise to what may be termed "functional pinealectomy." If long-term exposure to ELF fields causes pineal dysfunction in human beings as it does in the rat, such dysfunction may contribute to the onset of depression or may exacerbate existing depressive disorders."

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