Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

vedenjske motnje (42 od skupno 1310 raziskav)
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"In summary, our results strongly suggest that exposing the brain to RF-EMF can decrease the number of SVs and dopaminergic neurons in the striatum. These primary changes impair the recovery of locomotor activities following MPTP damage to the striatum."
Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact
Bandara P, Carpenter DO, Lancet Planet Health, december 2018
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
"Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure."
Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health
Pall ML, Environ Res, julij 2018
"Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs."
"The study clearly indicates that exposure of rats to microwave radiation of 2.45GHz leads to detrimental changes in brain leading to lowering of learning and memory and expression of anxiety behavior in rats along with fall in brain antioxidant enzyme systems."
Fatal collision? Are wireless headsets a risk in treating patients?
Sage C, Hardell L, Electromagn Biol Med, januar 2018
"Using wireless glasses for extended periods to teach, to perform surgery, or conduct patient exams will expose the medical professional to similar RF exposures which may impair brain performance, cognition and judgment, concentration and attention and increase the risk for brain tumors. The quality of medical care may be compromised by extended use of wireless-embedded devices in health care settings. Both medical professionals and their patients should know the risks of such devices and have a choice about allowing their use during patient exams."
"The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a "possible" human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies."
"Children without emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 7 years, but who had cellphone exposures, had increased odds of emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 11 years, with an OR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.86) for children with both prenatal and age-7 cellphone exposures, 1.41 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.66) for prenatal exposure only, and 1.36 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.63) for age-7 use only. These results did not materially change when early adopters were excluded, or when children with emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 7 years were included in the analysis."
Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review
Gutiérrez JD et al, Front Psychiatry, oktober 2016
"The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use."
"We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002) or history of mobile phone use (months used) and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003)."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"Electrohypersensitivity can be caused by successive assaults on human bioelectrochemical dynamics from exogenous electromagnetic fields (EMF) and RFR or a single acute exposure. Once sensitized, further exposures are widely reported to cause reactivity to lower and lower intensities of EMF/RFR, at which point thousand-fold lower levels can cause adverse health impacts to the electrosensitive person. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) based on reports of individuals who first develop one condition, then rapidly develop the other. Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects."
"The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents."
"Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves. Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation are indicating extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and cerebral cortex. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning."
An Update on Neurological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields
Lai H, 2012 BioInitiative Working Groups, marec 2014
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"It can be proposed that the specific temporal patterns of ELF-MF-induced motor behavior changes in 3- and 10-month-old gerbils are a consequence of age-dependent morpho-functional differences in the brain structures responsible for a control of motor behavior."
"Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended."
"Though results from this study suggest a reduction of human standing balance with MF exposure, as well as an increase of physiological tremor amplitude within the frequency range associated with central nervous system contribution, no exposure effect appeared on other investigated parameters (e.g., EEG or voluntary motor control). These results suggest that 1 h of 60 Hz, 1,800 uT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the cortical electrical activity."
WHO research agenda for radiofrequency fields
van Deventer E et al, Bioelectromagnetics, julij 2011
"The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently published a new research agenda for radiofrequency fields. The document lists high priority and other research needs for health effects research, subdivided into epidemiology, human studies, animal studies, cellular studies and mechanisms, and for social science research."
"Our results suggested that long-term internet addiction would result in brain structural alterations, which probably contributed to chronic dysfunction in subjects with IAD. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of IAD."
Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children
Divan H et al, J Epidemiol Community Health, december 2010
"The findings of the previous publication were replicated in this separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at age 7 years in children, and this association was not limited to early users of the technology. Although weaker in the new dataset, even with further control for an extended set of potential confounders, the associations remained."
Use of mobile phones and changes in cognitive function in adolescents
Thomas S et al, Occup Environ Med, december 2010
"RESULTS: 236 students participated in both examinations. The proportion of mobile phone owners and the number of voice calls and short message services (SMS) per week increased from baseline to follow-up. Participants with more voice calls and SMS at baseline showed less reductions in response times over the 1-year period in various computerised tasks. Furthermore, those with increased voice calls and SMS exposure over the 1-year period showed changes in response time in a simple reaction and a working memory task. No associations were seen between mobile phone exposure and the Stroop test. CONCLUSIONS: We have observed that some changes in cognitive function, particularly in response time rather than accuracy, occurred with a latency period of 1 year and that some changes were associated with increased exposure. However, the increased exposure was mainly applied to those who had fewer voice calls and SMS at baseline, suggesting that these changes over time may relate to statistical regression to the mean, and not be the effect of mobile phone exposure."
Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations
Khurana VG et al, Int J Occup Environ Health, julij 2010
"We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact."
"RESULTS: Passive avoidance behaviour was significantly affected in mobile phone RF-EMR-exposed rats demonstrated as shorter entrance latency to the dark compartment when compared to the control rats. Marked morphological changes were also observed in the CA(3) region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats."
"Seven percent of the children and 5% of the adolescents showed an abnormal mental behaviour. In the multiple logistic regression analyses measured exposure to RF fields in the highest quartile was associated to overall behavioural problems for adolescents (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5) but not for children (1.3; 0.7-2.6). These results are mainly driven by one subscale, as the results showed an association between exposure and conduct problems for adolescents (3.7; 1.6-8.4) and children (2.9; 1.4-5.9). As this is one of the first studies that investigated an association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and mental health behaviour more studies using personal dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings."
Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use
Divan H et al, Epidemiology, maj 2008
"Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology."
"Results demonstrated that MF exposure 4h/day increased the anxiety-like behaviors in rats in the open field test and the elevated plus maze test, without altering their locomotor activity, but had no effect in the light/dark box test. Moreover, MF exposure 1h/day had no effect in any test. These findings indicate that chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect in rats, which is dependent on the daily exposure duration and it is more sensitive to void space than to strong light."
"Our results indicate that an extremely low frequency magnetic field is able to affect differently two types of behaviour, which are dependent on both the time course of exposure and the imbalance in the brain mediatory systems."
"This study concludes that, at least in the present developmental level of communication technologies, intensive mobile phone use seems to be part of the same health-related lifestyle as health compromising behaviours."
Dirty Electricity and Electrical Hypersensitivity: Five Case Studies
Havas M, Stetzer D, World Health Organization Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity, oktober 2004
"Deteriorating power quality is becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Poor power quality, also known as dirty electricity, refers primarily to a combination of harmonics and transients generated primarily by electronic devices and by non-linear loads. We have assumed, until recently, that this form of energy is not biologically active. However, when Graham/Stetzer™ filters were installed in homes and schools, symptoms associated with electrical hypersensitivity (such as chronic fatigue, depression, headaches, body aches and pains, ringing in the ears, dizziness, impaired sleep, memory loss, and confusion) were reduced."
"These results demonstrate that acute short-term exposure to ELF-MF is able to modify a motor activity in dependence on the extent of AMPH-induced neurotransmitter imbalance."
"The experimental group were exposed to an electromagnetic field emitted by a 900 MHz mobile phone for 30 min. Cognitive performance was assessed at three points (prior to mobile phone exposure, at 15 and 30 min post-exposure) using six cognitive neuropsychological tests (digit span and spatial span forwards and backwards, serial subtraction and verbal fluency). Significant differences between the two groups were evident after 5 min on two tests of attentional capacity (digit span forwards and spatial span backwards) and one of processing speed (serial subtraction). In all three instances, performance was facilitated following mobile phone exposure."
"Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields."
"During the probe trial, magnetic field-exposed animals spent significantly less time in the quadrant that contained the platform, and their swim patterns were different from those of the controls. These results indicate that magnetic field exposure causes a deficit in spatial "reference" memory in the rat. Rats subjected to magnetic field exposure probably used a different behavioral strategy in learning the maze."
"Pretreatment with the cholinergic agonist physostigmine before magnetic field exposure reversed the field's effect on spatial learning. Data from this experiment indicate that magnetic field-induced spatial learning deficit is caused by the effect of the field on cholinergic systems."
"Changes in neurobehavioral function in workers exposed to high-frequency radiation can reflect its important adverse effects."
"Many reports in the literature have suggested the effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) (10 kHz-300,000 MHz) on the functions of the nervous system. Such effects are of great concern to researchers in bioelectromagnetics, since the nervous system coordinates and controls an organism’s responses to the environment through autonomic and voluntary muscular movements and neurohumoral functions. As it was suggested in the early stages of bioelectromagnetics research, behavioral changes could be the most sensitive effects of RFR exposure. At the summary of session B of the proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, Poland, in 1973, it was stated that “The reaction of the central nervous system to microwaves may serve as an early indicator of disturbances in regulatory functions of many systems” [Czerski et al., 1974]."
"After 45 min of exposure to pulsed 2450 MHz microwaves (2 microseconds pulses, 500 pps, 1 mW/cm2, average whole body SAR 0.6 W/kg), rats showed retarded learning while performing in the radial-arm maze to obtain food rewards, indicating a deficit in spatial "working memory" function. This behavioral deficit was reversed by pretreatment before exposure with the cholinergic agonist physostigmine or the opiate antagonist naltrexone, whereas pretreatment with the peripheral opiate antagonist naloxone methiodide showed no reversal of effect. These data indicate that both cholinergic and endogenous opioid neurotransmitter systems in the brain are involved in the microwave-induced spatial memory deficit."
"Proximity to the line, defined as residing on a property abutting the right-of-way or being able to see the towers from one's house or yard, was positively associated with a measure of depressive symptoms. The association was not explained by demographic variables associated with depression or by attitudes about power lines or other environmental issues. The estimated prevalence odds ratio was 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.1). The estimate did not change appreciably when the definitions of depressive symptoms or of proximity to the line were altered."
"The growing body of Russian and eastern European literature describing a wide variety of functional changes and clinical effects, leading to consideration of "radio-wave sickness" as a possible independent nosologic entity, cannot simply be ignored. With increasing uses and power, the stage is set for the appearance of late effects previously undetected possibly because of their infrequency, lack of distinctiveness or mild character. There may now be a better opportunity to resolve the uncertainties of present knowledge in the face of an increasing risk."
In 1971, the U.S. Office of Naval Medical Research produced a document reporting over 100 different non-thermal effects, listing 40 apparent neuropsychiatric changes produce by non-thermal microwave frequency exposures, including 5 central/peripheral nervous system (NS) changes, 9 central NS effects, 4 autonomic system effects, 17 psychological disorders, 4 behavioral changes and 2 misc. effects. It also listed cardiac effects including ECG changes and cardiac necrosis as well as both hypotension and hypertension, and also 8 different endocrine effects. Changes affecting fertility including tubular degeneration in the testis, decreased spermatogenesis, alterted sex ratio, altered menstrual activity, altered fetal development, programmed cell death (what is now known as apoptosis) and decreased lactation. Many other non-thermal changes where also listed for a total of over 100 non-thermal effects. They also provided over 1000 citations documenting these various health effects.

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