Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


1994 (16 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
"The high number of mast cells present may explain the clinical symptoms of itch, pain, edema and erythema. Naturally, in view of the present public debate, the observed results are highly provocative and, we believe, have to be taken seriously."
"For calculated magnetic field levels of 0.2 microT or more closest in time to diagnosis, we found an elevated relative risk (RR) for acute myeloid leukemia [RR = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-3.5] and chronic myeloid leukemia [RR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.7-3.8]. Using cumulative exposure for the 15 years preceding diagnosis, we found relative risk estimates for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia of 2.3 (95% CI = 1.0-4.6) and 2.1 (95% CI = 0.9-4.7), respectively, for the highest exposure category. For chronic lymphatic leukemia and for central nervous system tumors, relative risk estimates were close to or below unity."
The effects of radiofrequency (< 30 MHz) radiation in humans
Zhao Z et al, Rev Environ Health, julij 1994
"No significant changes in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system and blood parameters (Hb, WBC and blood platelets) occurred in the exposed subjects of either group. Some changes in ECG (ST-T interval and abnormal heart rate) were observed in the group exposed to high intensity (> or = 100 V/m) radiation. 100 V/m is suggested as an exposure limit for RF (< 30 MHz) radiation."
Poly ADP ribosylation as a possible mechanism of microwave--biointeraction
Singh N et al, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, julij 1994
"Twenty-three days old rats weighing 42-48 gms were exposed at a microwave dose level of 1.0 mW/cm2. After exposure for sixty days the animals were sacrificed and an estimation of poly ADPR polymerase activity was undertaken in different organs of these animals. There was an increase of 20% in its activity in liver, 35% in testis, whereas brain showed a 53% decrease in diencephalon and 20% decrease in the cortex in the exposed animals as compared to their respective controls. There was no change in enzyme activity in spleen and kidney. This was accompanied by concomitant changes in NAD+ levels. The above results may be cited as important events in carcinogenesis and tumor promotion related to microwave exposure and the signal transduction mechanism involved. The goal is to shed light on complex ecogenetic interactions leading to cancer modulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanism."
"In its integrated form. SV-40 DNA offers an opportunity to observe the behavior of what is in effect a viral genome within a cellular genome, with transcriptional and translational products that can be clearly distinguished from those of the host cell. Exposure of SV40-transformed human fibroblasts to a 60 Hz continuous-wave sinusoidal electromagnetic (EM) field resulted in increased levels of virally derived mRNA and protein of large T-antigen. These findings provide evidence that a foreign DNA integrated into cells can be affected by EM fields under conditions known to cause increased transcripts from endogenous cellular genes."
Magnetic fields after translation in Escherichia coli
Goodman EM et al, Bioelectromagnetics, maj 1994
"Quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins in E. coli exposed for 60 min to weak, pulsed magnetic fields (1.5 mT peak) show that numerous proteins are both increased and decreased by a factor of 2 or more. An increase in the levels of two proteins, the a subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and NusA, was confirmed by Western blot analysis."
"This excess of anomalies was not significant for the PMF-A-treated embryos (P = 0.173), whereas it was significant for the PMF-B-exposed group (P = 0.007), which showed a particularly high rate of early embryonic death. These results reveal that PMFs can induce irreversible developmental alterations and confirm that the pulse waveform can be a determinant factor in the embryonic response to ELF magnetic fields. The data also validate previous work based on the study of PMFs' effects at day 2 of embryonic development under field exposure."
Prevalence of depression among electrical workers
Savitz DA et al, Am J Ind Med, februar 1994
"Electrical workers in the aggregate showed little evidence of increased risk, with the possible exception of an increase in elevated MMPI depression scores among short-term workers. Data on electricians yielded indications of increased risk for several markers of depression. Despite the limited number of electrical workers, uncertainty regarding exposure, and our inability to address other workplace exposures, these results suggest that electrical workers in general are not at increased risk for depression. However, our results encourage further evaluation of depression among electricians."
"The average life span of animals exposed at 10 mW/cm2 was significantly shorter than that of sham-exposed controls (572 days vs. 706 days; P = .049; truncation > 20%). In contrast, the average lifespan of the animals exposed at 3 mW/cm2 was slightly, but not significantly, longer (738 days) than that of controls (706 days)."
"Rats were sacrificed at 12.00 and at 24.00 h for collection of plasma and pineal gland: melatonin was determined by radioimmunoassay. Significant reductions of plasma and pineal gland melatonin contents were observed at 0.02 muT as compared to the control values, and a further reduction was observed at 1 muT. As do albino rats, pigmented rats rats also exhibit melatonin suppression when exposed to time-varying magnetic fields."
"The odds ratio (OR) for having lived within 2.6 miles of the radio towers before diagnosis was 2.0 (95% CI 0.06 to 8.3). The clustering may have been a chance event, but because of its peculiar characteristics, we feel it should be noted."
"Many reports in the literature have suggested the effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) (10 kHz-300,000 MHz) on the functions of the nervous system. Such effects are of great concern to researchers in bioelectromagnetics, since the nervous system coordinates and controls an organism’s responses to the environment through autonomic and voluntary muscular movements and neurohumoral functions. As it was suggested in the early stages of bioelectromagnetics research, behavioral changes could be the most sensitive effects of RFR exposure. At the summary of session B of the proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, Poland, in 1973, it was stated that “The reaction of the central nervous system to microwaves may serve as an early indicator of disturbances in regulatory functions of many systems” [Czerski et al., 1974]."
"The potential mutagenic effect of low power microwave at the DNA sequence level in the mouse genome was evaluated by direct DNA analysis. Animals were exposed to microwave at a power density of 1 mW/cm2 for 2 h/day at a frequency of 2.45 GHz over a period of 120, 150 and 200 days. HinfI digested DNA samples from testis and brain of control and exposed animals were hybridized with a synthetic oligo probe (OAT 36) comprising nine repeats of 5'-GACA-3'. As compared to control animals, band patterns in exposed animals were found to be distinctly altered in the range of 7-8 kb which was also substantiated by densitometric analysis. Though the mechanism of this rearrangement is not yet clear, the results obtained at the present dose are of significance. This dose, which has been set as the safe limit for general public exposure by the Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of the International Radiation Protection Association, may imply a need for (re)evaluation of the mutagenic potential of microwaves at the prescribed safe limit for the personnel and people who are being exposed."
"After 45 min of exposure to pulsed 2450 MHz microwaves (2 microseconds pulses, 500 pps, 1 mW/cm2, average whole body SAR 0.6 W/kg), rats showed retarded learning while performing in the radial-arm maze to obtain food rewards, indicating a deficit in spatial "working memory" function. This behavioral deficit was reversed by pretreatment before exposure with the cholinergic agonist physostigmine or the opiate antagonist naltrexone, whereas pretreatment with the peripheral opiate antagonist naloxone methiodide showed no reversal of effect. These data indicate that both cholinergic and endogenous opioid neurotransmitter systems in the brain are involved in the microwave-induced spatial memory deficit."
"Mg(++)-ATPase activity (Vmax) decreased by 48.5% in the group exposed to microwave radiation, with no significant change in the group exposed to radiant heat. The decrease in Mg(++)-ATPase was partially compensated by a concomitant increase in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity (170% increase in Vmax over control) in animals exposed to microwave radiation, while no change occurred in the group exposed to radiant heat. This alteration in ATPase activity in the group exposed to microwave radiation is associated with a large decrease in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the group exposed to radiant heat had an increase in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. The most dramatic changes were found in the levels of arachidonic acid. Finally, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin label technique used to measure the fluidity of the canalicular membranes of the animals in the three groups (sham, microwave radiation and radiant heat) indicated that the results were different in the three groups, reflecting the changes found in their fatty acid composition."
"Immediately after square modulated (16 Hz) 2450 MHz microwave irradiation at 1 mW/cm2 power densities, we observed a decreased activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase on the lateral membrane regions. The X-ray irradiation (1 Gy) induced a similar decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity which was reversible within 24 hours. "5 Gy" doses resulted in a decrease of enzyme activities on both apical and lateral membrane areas persisting up to 24 hours following irradiation."

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