Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Pregled vira sevanja

brezvrvični telefon


1900 MHz, 50 Hz


Brezvrvični telefoni nam (za razliko od klasičnih stacionarnih) omogočajo, da smo doma ali v službi pri telefoniranju bolj mobilni, saj se lahko ob tem prosto gibljemo do točke, kamor seže signal bazne postaje. Večina ljudi pa se ne zaveda, da je sevanje brezvrvičnih telefonov lahko še hujše od sevanja mobilnih telefonov in baznih postaj, saj določeni modeli močno sevajo 24 ur/dan, tudi če telefona sploh ne uporabljamo!

Brezvrvični telefoni delujejo na podobni frekvenci kot mobilni telefoni (1900 MHz) in oddajajo mikrovalove, ki potujejo med bazno enoto in telefonom. Jakost in količina sevanja sta zelo odvisni od modela telefona. Starejši (analogni) brezvrvični telefoni so praviloma oddajali šibkejši signal le, ko smo opravljali klic. Večina novejših modelov digitalnih (DECT) telefonov pa 24 ur na dan oddaja mikrovalove z zelo močno jakostjo.

V prostorih z nameščenim brezvrvičnim telefonom smo tako pogosto izmerili vrednosti nad 6 V/m, kar je več kot 100-krat več, kot svetujejo organizacije za zaščito javnega zdravja, včasih pa smo izmerili tako močno sevanje kar po celotni hiši. S tem se ustvarjajo povsem nepotrebna zdravstvena tveganja, katerim so pogosto izpostavljeni tudi sosedje (npr. v blokih).

A rešitev problema je v primeru brezvrvičnih telefonov relativno enostavna - ponovno pričnite uporabljati klasični stacionarni telefon, če nujno potrebujete brezvrvični telefon, pa so na voljo modeli, ki sevajo le, ko je telefon v uporabi (npr. Siemens Gigaset).


"Earlier animal studies have provided evidence that non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may be caused by exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This was recently confirmed by the U.S. National Toxicology (NTP) study that showed an increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in female mice exposed to the GSM modulated or the CDMA modulated cell phone RF radiation. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignancy in humans with poor prognosis. An increasing incidence has been reported in recent years. Based on a case-report we present the hypothesis that use of the hand-held mobile phone may be a risk factor for PCNSL. The increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Sweden is discussed in relation to etiologic factors."
"The aim of this study was to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) on heart rate variability (HRV) in rabbits with intensity slightly exceeding the limits for occupations. Totally 21 New Zealand white rabbits divided into two groups were used in this double-blind study. The first group of animals without general anesthesia was subjected to HRV examination under exposure to a device generated RF EMF source (frequency 1788 MHz, intensity 160 V/m, lasting 150 min.). The second group (premedications + alpha chloralose mg/kg) underwent the same protocol under the exposure to the real RF EMF signal from the base stations of mobile providers (frequency range 1805 - 1870 MHz - corresponding to the downlink signal of Slovak mobile providers, 160 V/m, 150 min., respectively). Individual 5 min records were used to analyze the HRV parameters: heart rate and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (rMSSD) for time domain analysis and spectral powers in the low (LF-VFS) and high frequency (HF-VFS) bands for frequency domain analysis. Our study revealed the increase in HRV parameters (HF-HRV, rMSSD) associated with lower heart rate indicating increased cardiac vagal control under the exposure to RF EMF in experimental methods."
"Although exposure to low frequency electromagnetic radiation is harmful to plants, LF-EM irradiated Nerium oleander seedlings exhibited enhanced development and growth, probably taking advantage of defined structural leaf deformations. Currently, evidence supports the undesirable, often destructive impact of low frequency electromagnetic (LF-EM) radiation on plants. The response of plants to LF-EM radiation often entails induction in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, a subject matter that is well documented. Nerium oleander is a Mediterranean plant species, which evolved remarkable resistance to various environmental stress conditions. In the current investigation, cultivated N. oleander plants, following their long-term exposure to LF-EM radiation, exhibited major structural modifications as the flattening of crypts, the elimination of trichomes and the reduction of the layers of the epidermal cells. These changes co-existed with an oxidative stress response manifested by a significant increase in reactive oxygen species at both the roots and the above ground parts, a decline in the absorbance of light by photosynthetic pigments and the substantially increased biosynthesis of L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC), an enzyme catalyzing the production of secondary metabolites that alleviate stress. The exposed plants exhibited greater primary plant productivity, despite a manifested photosynthetic pigment limitation and the severe oxidative stress. This unique response of N. oleander to severe abiotic stress conditions may be owed to the advantage offered by a structural change consistent to an easier diffusion of CO2 within the leaves. A major plant response to an emerging "pollutant" was documented."
"Environmental pollutants, such as pesticides, herbicides, additives to food and water, and electromagnetic fields threaten public health by promotion of cancer, heart disease and chronic diseases of aging. Many of these pollutants cause adverse health outcomes by effects on mitochondrial function to produce oxidative stress through loss of the active site complex for oxidative phosphorylation, thioretinaco ozonide oxygen nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, from opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Glyphosate, fluoride, and electromagnetic fields are examples of carcinogenic pollutants that promote loss and decomposition of the active site for oxidative phosphorylation, producing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Ionizing radiation has long been known to be carcinogenic, and non-ionizing electromagnetic fields from microwaves, radar, cell phones and cathode ray screens are carcinogenic and produce deleterious effects on capillaries, nerve cells, blood brain barrier, embryonic and germ cells, lenses and cardiac function. Adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields include cataracts, infertility, congenital malformations, cancer, lymphocytosis, leukemia, hearing loss, blindness, retinal hemorrhages, cardiac arrhythmias, dermatitis, hair loss, depression, memory loss, premature aging, heart attacks, and weaponized mind control."
"However, for exposures at higher GHz frequencies (millimeter waves and 5G), RF energy absorption tends to be more superficial and concentrated. Energy deposition could quickly occur in a smaller tissue area or mass to cause intense temperature elevation within a very short-exposure time period."
"Mounting evidences suggest possible non-thermal biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on brain and behavior. Behavioral studies have particularly concentrated on the effects of RF-EMR on learning, memory, anxiety, and locomotion. The literature analysis on behavioral effects of RF-EMR demonstrates complex picture with conflicting observations. Nonetheless, numerous reports suggest a possible behavioral effect of RF-EMR. The scientific findings about this issue are presented in the current review. The possible neural and molecular mechanisms for the behavioral effects have been proposed in the light of available evidences from the literature."
"• Wireless systems increase radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in buildings. • Scientific evidence identifies adverse effects from RFR below regulatory limits. • Globally, some governments and public health agencies are reducing RFR exposures. • Low RFR best practices include wired technology instead of Wi-Fi, and corded phones. • Safer, sustainable strategies and solutions for “smart” buildings are feasible."
"In conclusion, according to NTP, there is now clear evidence that RFR causes cancer in experimental animals. RFR re-evaluation has also been listed as a priority by IARC. There is also stronger evidence that RFR exposure is responsible for causing alteration of various sperm parameters, thus, affecting male fertility. Although a clear quantification of the carcinogenic and reproductive risk is still lacking, these animal findings suggest that a precautionary approach should be promoted by regulatory and health agencies, especially for children and pregnant women. Caution should also be considered in the development and spread of the upcoming 5G technology, particularly in light of the proposed higher frequencies and intensities of the signal. Long-term animal studies are urgently necessary to verify the possible health effects of 5G technology."
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"Those studies that are far more effective in showing effects employ real-life Mobile Telephony (MT) exposures emitted by commercially available mobile phones. The present review - of results published by my group from 2006 until 2016 - compares DNA fragmentation induced by six different EMFs on the same biological system - the oogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster - under identical conditions and procedures. Such a direct comparison between different EMFs - especially those employed in daily life - on the same biological endpoint, is very useful for drawing conclusions on their bioactivity, and novel. It shows that real MT EMFs are far more damaging than 50 Hz alternating magnetic field (MF) - similar or much stronger to those of power lines - or a pulsed electric field (PEF) found before to increase fertility. The MT EMFs were significantly more bioactive even for much shorter exposure durations than the other EMFs. Moreover, they were more damaging than previously tested cytotoxic agents like certain chemicals, starvation, dehydration. Individual parameters of the real MT EMFs like intensity, frequency, exposure duration, polarization, pulsing, modulation, are discussed in terms of their role in bioactivity. The crucial parameter for the intense bioactivity seems to be the extreme variability of the polarized MT signals, mainly due to the large unpredictable intensity changes."
"It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure."
"Although this study has some limitations, it leads us to this conclusion that higher-than-ever levels of maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields could be linked to offspring speech problems."
"Cell phone use was not associated with thyroid cancer (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.74-1.48). A suggestive increase in risk of thyroid microcarcinoma (tumor size ≤10 mm) was observed for long-term and more frequent users. Compared with cell phone nonusers, several groups had nonstatistically significantly increased risk of thyroid microcarcinoma: individuals who had used a cell phone >15 years (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.83-2.00), who had used a cell phone >2 hours per day (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.35), who had the most cumulative use hours (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54), and who had the most cumulative calls (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.78-1.84)."
"During the use of handheld mobile and cordless phones, the brain is the main target of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. An increased risk of developing glioma and acoustic neuroma has been found in human epidemiological studies. Primarily based on these findings, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) classified in May, 2011 RF radiation at the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B. A carcinogenic potential for RF radiation in animal studies was already published in 1982. This has been confirmed over the years, more recently in the Ramazzini Institute rat study. An increased incidence of glioma in the brain and malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on rats and mice. The NTP final report is to be published; however, the extended reports are published on the internet for evaluation and are reviewed herein in more detail in relation to human epidemiological studies. Thus, the main aim of this study was to compare earlier human epidemiological studies with NTP findings, including a short review of animal studies. We conclude that there is clear evidence that RF radiation is a human carcinogen, causing glioma and vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). There is some evidence of an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, and clear evidence that RF radiation is a multi‑site carcinogen."
Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact
Bandara P, Carpenter DO, Lancet Planet Health, december 2018
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health
Singh R et al, Indian J Med Res, december 2018
"Available data indicate that exposure to EMF can cause adverse health effects. It is also reported that biological effects may occur at very low levels of exposure. The RFR effect can be more intensified based on the range and duration of the exposure. The RFR can also exert adverse effects in the first few minutes. Persistent exposures of EMF radiation can result in health hazards because these radiations interfere with normal physiological and biological function of the body. EMF works as an environmental pollutant and has undesirable health effects on animals and humans."
Electromagnetic Fields of Mobile Phone Jammer Exposure on Blood Factors in Rats
Shojaeifard MB et al, J Biomed Phys Eng, december 2018
"The data from mature rats revealed that jammer usage led to a significant difference in blood factors including RBC, platelet, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and RDWCV (P≤0.05); however, the number of lymphocytes, WBC and MCVH in the blood was the same in all groups."
Radiations and male fertility
Kesari KK et al, Reprod Biol Endocrinol, december 2018
"From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations."

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