Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Pregled vira sevanja

avtomobil (električni)

FREKVENCE

50 Hz, 2,4 GHz

ZADNJE RAZISKAVE

"Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure."
"We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied. The design of our study does not permit conclusions regarding causality."
"Electrohypersensitivity can be caused by successive assaults on human bioelectrochemical dynamics from exogenous electromagnetic fields (EMF) and RFR or a single acute exposure. Once sensitized, further exposures are widely reported to cause reactivity to lower and lower intensities of EMF/RFR, at which point thousand-fold lower levels can cause adverse health impacts to the electrosensitive person. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) based on reports of individuals who first develop one condition, then rapidly develop the other. Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"A source-exposure matrix has been constructed for the most common sources of EMF in the workplace, based on the responses to the INTERPHONE-INTEROCC study questionnaire. This database currently represents the most comprehensive source of information on occupational EMF exposure and is available on request to researchers."
"About a third of German GPs associate EMF with health complaints and thus deviate considerably from current scientific knowledge."
ELF noise fields: a review
Mild KH, Mattsson MO, Electromagn Biol Med, avgust 2010
"The review also covers the work of other groups on low-level effects and the inhibition of the effects with an applied noise field. The group at CUA has shown that biological effects can be found after exposure to low-level ELF and RF electromagnetic fields, and when effects are observed, applying an ELF magnetic noise field inhibits the effects. Also, other research groups have tried to replicate the studies from the CUA group, or to apply EMF noise to suppress EMF-induced effects. Replications of the CUA effects have not always been successful. However, in all cases where the noise field has been applied to prevent an observed effect, it has been successful in eliminating the effect."
"We explain how a purely magnetic interaction, where in a two-stage ion magnetic resonance model, the conformation of a protein is changed under the influence of ions attached to its surface, which in turn, changes the function of the protein, can overcome the inherent signal-to-noise problem caused by electric thermal noise. The hydrogen nuclear polarization model predicts a biological response for oscillating magnetic field strengths above 0.1 micro-Tesla. The presence of a static magnetic field is required, and biological effects can be expected for frequencies below a few hundred hertz. All models except the forced vibration model can be applied for amplitude modulated microwaves."
Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage
Phillips JL et al, Pathophysiology, marec 2009
"A major concern of the adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) is cancer induction. Since the majority of cancers are initiated by damage to a cell's genome, studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on DNA and chromosomal structure. Additionally, DNA damage can lead to changes in cellular functions and cell death. Single cell gel electrophoresis, also known as the 'comet assay', has been widely used in EMF research to determine DNA damage, reflected as single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks. Studies have also been carried out to investigate chromosomal conformational changes and micronucleus formation in cells after exposure to EMF. This review describes the comet assay and its utility to qualitatively and quantitatively assess DNA damage, reviews studies that have investigated DNA strand breaks and other changes in DNA structure, and then discusses important lessons learned from our work in this area."
"In this article, we present the model of slow non uniform rotation of the charged DNA-domain/nucleoid for the combined effects of MW and static magnetic field. The solution of this model suggests that the combined action of MW and static magnetic field results in slow non uniform rotation of nucleoid with angular speed that depends on Larmor frequency. The model predicts that non thermal effects of MW are dependent on carrier frequency and also static magnetic field in the area of exposure."
Biophysical aspects of cancer--electromagnetic mechanism
Pokorny J et al, Indian J Exp Biol, maj 2008
"Numerical models are used for analysis of Frohlich's vibration states in cells. Reduction of activity and of energy production in mitochondria, and disintegration of cytoskeleton structures by phosphorylation on the pathway of cancer trasformation can diminish excitation of the Frohlich's vibration states and of the generated electromagnetic field, which results in disturbances of the interaction forces between cells. Interaction forces between cancer cells may be smaller than interaction forces between healthy cells and cancer cells as follows from numerical models. Mechanism of malignity, i.e. local invasion, detachment of cancer cells, and metastasis, is assumed to depend on the electromagnetic field."
"In this review, a general overview is given about oxidative stress, as well as experimental studies are reviewed as they are related to changes in oxidant and antioxidant content after ELF-EMF exposure inducing different biological effects. Finally, we conclude from our review that modulations on the oxidant and antioxidant level through ELF-EMF exposure can play a causal role in cancer development."
Twelve institutes in seven countries have found genotoxic effects and modified expressions on numerous genes and proteins after Radio frequency and extremely low frequency EMF exposure at low levels, below current international safety guidance, to living cells in-vitro. These results confirm the likelihood of long-term genetic damage in the blood and brains of users of mobile phones and other sources of electromagnetic fields. The idea behind the REFLEX study was to attempt replicate damage already reported to see if the effects were real and whether, or not, more money should be spent of research into the possible adverse health effects of EMF exposure. They concluded that in-vitro damage is real and that it is important to carry out much more research, especially monitoring the long-term health of people.
"One could speculate that the cardiac MCs are responsible for these changes due to degranulation after exposure to EMFs. However, it is still not known how, and through which mechanisms, all these different cells are affected by EMFs. In this article, we present a theoretical model, based upon observations on EMFs and their cellular effects, to explain the proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans."
"One could speculate that the cardiac MCs are responsible for these changes due to degranulation after exposure to EMFs. However, it is still not known how, and through which mechanisms, all these different cells are affected by EMFs. In this article, we present a theoretical model, based upon observations on EMFs and their cellular effects, to explain the proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans."
"Tissue exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and ELF-modulated microwave fields at levels below those inducing significant thermal effects has revealed highly nonlinear mechanisms as a basis for observed effects. Interactions of phonons and excitons along linear molecules may produce nonlinear molecular vibrations in the form of soliton waves."
"The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard."

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