Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Pregled vira sevanja

mobilni telefon

FREKVENCE

800 MHz / 900 MHz / 1800 MHz / 2,1 GHz / 2,6 GHz

OPIS

V le slabih dveh desetletjih so mobilni telefoni postali naši stalni spremljevalci. Omogočajo nam svobodo, da telefoniramo, pošiljamo kratka sporočila in dostopamo do svetovnega spleta kjerkoli in kadarkoli. Veliko ljudi se zaveda njihove potencialne škodljivosti, vendar nas je industrija uspela dovolj pomiriti, da jih uporabljamo brez večjih pomislekov.

Mobilni telefoni delujejo tako, da oddajajo mikrovalove (na frekvencah 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2,1 GHz in 2,6 GHz), ki se jih poslužujemo tudi pri segrevanju hrane v mikrovalovkah. (Tudi mobilni telefoni so pri uporabi tik ob glavi temperaturo okoliškega tkiva zmožni povišati za do 1 stopinjo Celzija!) Sevanje telefona pa je seveda nekoliko odvisno od izbranega modela, s tem da nizka stopnja specifične absorpcije (SAR) nikakor ni zagotovilo, da je telefon varen. Testni model, ki se uporablja za določevanje vrednosti SAR, zaradi svoje velikosti predstavlja le 3% uporabnikov, homogena tekočina v njem pa ni reprezentativna za človeško telo. Obenem je neustrezna tudi metoda sama, saj se upoštevajo povprečja in ne najvišje sevalne obremenitve.

Leta 2017 so v Franciji objavili rezultate meritev sevanja več sto modelov mobilnih telefonov. Ko so jih testirali v kontaktu s telesom, je do 90% telefonov presegalo dovoljene meje SAR. Nekateri telefoni so evropske meje presegli za več kot 3-krat, ameriške meje pa za več kot 9-krat.

Prižgan mobilni telefon seva tudi, kadar ni v uporabi, saj vsakih nekaj minut išče povezavo z najbližjo bazno postajo. V zadnjem času pa se je uveljavila uporaba mobilnih podatkov in Wi-Fi-ja; v tem primeru telefon seva neprestano in smo mikrovalovom izpostavljeni ves čas (če imamo telefon nekje v bližini, tudi med spanjem). Mobilne podatke in Wi-Fi povezavo lahko sicer izključimo, kadar jih ne potrebujemo, vendar to po naših izkušnjah naredi le malo ljudi.

Kljub zagotovilom, da naj bi novejši telefoni sevali manj od starejših, je po naših izkušnjah lahko ravno obratno - pri novejših telefonih smo ob klicu izmerili visoke vrednosti nad 6 V/m tudi pri oddaljenosti en meter od telefona, kar je več kot 100-krat več od priporočil organizacij za zaščito javnega zdravja, kot je npr. britanska Powerwatch. Zelo visoke vrednosti smo izmerili tudi ob brskanju po spletu (vklopljeni mobilni podatki).

Vsekakor pa smo najvišjim sevalnim obremenitvam izpostavljeni, kadar govorimo s telefonom tik ob glavi. Celo podjetja, ki izdelujejo mobilne telefone, priznavajo, da tako močno sevanje ni varno – v navodilih za uporabo opozarjajo uporabnike, naj držijo telefon vsaj 1,5-2,5 cm stran od telesa in zmanjšajo čas pogovorov s telefonom ob ušesu.

ZADNJE RAZISKAVE

"It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure."
"In summary, our results strongly suggest that exposing the brain to RF-EMF can decrease the number of SVs and dopaminergic neurons in the striatum. These primary changes impair the recovery of locomotor activities following MPTP damage to the striatum."
"Although this study has some limitations, it leads us to this conclusion that higher-than-ever levels of maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields could be linked to offspring speech problems."
"During the use of handheld mobile and cordless phones, the brain is the main target of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. An increased risk of developing glioma and acoustic neuroma has been found in human epidemiological studies. Primarily based on these findings, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) classified in May, 2011 RF radiation at the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B. A carcinogenic potential for RF radiation in animal studies was already published in 1982. This has been confirmed over the years, more recently in the Ramazzini Institute rat study. An increased incidence of glioma in the brain and malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on rats and mice. The NTP final report is to be published; however, the extended reports are published on the internet for evaluation and are reviewed herein in more detail in relation to human epidemiological studies. Thus, the main aim of this study was to compare earlier human epidemiological studies with NTP findings, including a short review of animal studies. We conclude that there is clear evidence that RF radiation is a human carcinogen, causing glioma and vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). There is some evidence of an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, and clear evidence that RF radiation is a multi‑site carcinogen."
"This commentary addresses several unfounded criticisms about the design and results of the NTP study that have been promoted to minimize the utility of the experimental data on RFR for assessing human health risks. In contrast to those criticisms, an expert peer-review panel recently concluded that the NTP studies were well designed, and that the results demonstrated that both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR were carcinogenic to the heart (schwannomas) and brain (gliomas) of male rats."
"Cell phone use was not associated with thyroid cancer (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.74-1.48). A suggestive increase in risk of thyroid microcarcinoma (tumor size ≤10 mm) was observed for long-term and more frequent users. Compared with cell phone nonusers, several groups had nonstatistically significantly increased risk of thyroid microcarcinoma: individuals who had used a cell phone >15 years (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.83-2.00), who had used a cell phone >2 hours per day (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.35), who had the most cumulative use hours (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54), and who had the most cumulative calls (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.78-1.84)."
Radiations and male fertility
Kesari KK et al, Reprod Biol Endocrinol, december 2018
"From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations."
Electromagnetic Fields of Mobile Phone Jammer Exposure on Blood Factors in Rats
Shojaeifard MB et al, J Biomed Phys Eng, december 2018
"The data from mature rats revealed that jammer usage led to a significant difference in blood factors including RBC, platelet, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and RDWCV (P≤0.05); however, the number of lymphocytes, WBC and MCVH in the blood was the same in all groups."
"Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure."
"Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure."
"With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed."
The genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system
Yahyazadeh A et al, Environ Res, november 2018
"This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF."
"When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1)."
Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect
Hinrikus H et al, Int J Radiat Biol, oktober 2018
"The described mechanism of MW field-induced effect confirms that the nature of the effect differs from the thermal effect and that the exposure by MW radiation can create the specific consequences in biology and materials not characteristic for conventional heating."
"Exposure to EMR induced significant changes in amino acid neurotransmitters in the studied brain areas of juvenile and young adult rats, being more prominent in juvenile animals. It could be concluded that the alterations in amino acid neurotransmitters induced by EMR exposure of juvenile and young adult rats may underlie many of the neurological effects reported after EMR exposure including cognitive and memory impairment and sleep disorders. Some of these effects may persist for some time after stopping exposure."
"Despite the improved exposure assessment approach used in this study, no clear associations were identified. However, the results obtained for recent exposure to RF electric and magnetic fields are suggestive of a potential role in brain tumor promotion/progression and should be further investigated."
"The study examined the effects of millimeter electromagnetic waves at a frequency of 130 GHz corresponding to the molecular absorption and radiation spectra of NO and O2 with the total exposition time of 6 h on tumor morphogenesis in 3- and 6-month-old tumor-prone BALB/c mice of both sexes. In experimental mice exposed to electromagnetic radiation, the development of cancer process was slowed down throughout the observation period; moreover, no macroscopic signs of the tumors were revealed. However, in contrast to control mice, experimental animals demonstrated the formation of pathological reactions reflected by hepatic biochemical indices accompanied by the development of dystrophic and microcirculatory alterations in the liver tissue."
"Decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, sperm count, and viability along with increased germ cells apoptosis and decreased serum testosterone level, was observed in the testes of all the mobile phone exposed mice compared with control. We also observed that, mobile phone radiation exposure in all the three different operative modes alters the testicular redox status via increasing ROS, NO, and MDA level, and decreasing antioxidant enzymes levels leading to enhanced apoptosis of testicular cells by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins along with decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein."
"The findings reflect persisting acute effects of GSM handset emission on the autonomic nervous system. Exploring its influences on health status and survival needs further studies. Symmetrical breathing can be used as a sensitizing factor in other HRV/HRA analysis studies."
"The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors."
"The largest contributors to total personal environmental RF-EMF exposure were downlink and broadcast, and these exposures showed high repeatability. Urbanicity was the most important determinant of total exposure and mobile phone use was the most important determinant of uplink exposure. It is important to continue evaluating RF-EMF exposure in children as device use habits, exposure levels, and main contributing sources may change."

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