Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Pregled vira sevanja

mobilni telefon

FREKVENCE

800 MHz / 900 MHz / 1800 MHz / 2,1 GHz / 2,6 GHz

OPIS

V le slabih dveh desetletjih so mobilni telefoni postali naši stalni spremljevalci. Omogočajo nam svobodo, da telefoniramo, pošiljamo kratka sporočila in dostopamo do svetovnega spleta kjerkoli in kadarkoli. Veliko ljudi se zaveda njihove potencialne škodljivosti, vendar nas je industrija uspela dovolj pomiriti, da jih uporabljamo brez večjih pomislekov.

Mobilni telefoni delujejo tako, da oddajajo mikrovalove (na frekvencah 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2,1 GHz in 2,6 GHz), ki se jih poslužujemo tudi pri segrevanju hrane v mikrovalovkah. (Tudi mobilni telefoni so pri uporabi tik ob glavi temperaturo okoliškega tkiva zmožni povišati za do 1 stopinjo Celzija!) Sevanje telefona pa je seveda nekoliko odvisno od izbranega modela, s tem da nizka stopnja specifične absorpcije (SAR) nikakor ni zagotovilo, da je telefon varen. Testni model, ki se uporablja za določevanje vrednosti SAR, zaradi svoje velikosti predstavlja le 3% uporabnikov, homogena tekočina v njem pa ni reprezentativna za človeško telo. Obenem je neustrezna tudi metoda sama, saj se upoštevajo povprečja in ne najvišje sevalne obremenitve.

Leta 2017 so v Franciji objavili rezultate meritev sevanja več sto modelov mobilnih telefonov. Ko so jih testirali v kontaktu s telesom, je do 90% telefonov presegalo dovoljene meje SAR. Nekateri telefoni so evropske meje presegli za več kot 3-krat, ameriške meje pa za več kot 9-krat.

Prižgan mobilni telefon seva tudi, kadar ni v uporabi, saj vsakih nekaj minut išče povezavo z najbližjo bazno postajo. V zadnjem času pa se je uveljavila uporaba mobilnih podatkov in Wi-Fi-ja; v tem primeru telefon seva neprestano in smo mikrovalovom izpostavljeni ves čas (če imamo telefon nekje v bližini, tudi med spanjem). Mobilne podatke in Wi-Fi povezavo lahko sicer izključimo, kadar jih ne potrebujemo, vendar to po naših izkušnjah naredi le malo ljudi.

Kljub zagotovilom, da naj bi novejši telefoni sevali manj od starejših, je po naših izkušnjah lahko ravno obratno - pri novejših telefonih smo ob klicu izmerili visoke vrednosti nad 6 V/m tudi pri oddaljenosti en meter od telefona, kar je več kot 100-krat več od priporočil organizacij za zaščito javnega zdravja, kot je npr. britanska Powerwatch. Zelo visoke vrednosti smo izmerili tudi ob brskanju po spletu (vklopljeni mobilni podatki).

Vsekakor pa smo najvišjim sevalnim obremenitvam izpostavljeni, kadar govorimo s telefonom tik ob glavi. Celo podjetja, ki izdelujejo mobilne telefone, priznavajo, da tako močno sevanje ni varno – v navodilih za uporabo opozarjajo uporabnike, naj držijo telefon vsaj 1,5-2,5 cm stran od telesa in zmanjšajo čas pogovorov s telefonom ob ušesu.

ZADNJE RAZISKAVE

"Earlier animal studies have provided evidence that non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may be caused by exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This was recently confirmed by the U.S. National Toxicology (NTP) study that showed an increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in female mice exposed to the GSM modulated or the CDMA modulated cell phone RF radiation. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignancy in humans with poor prognosis. An increasing incidence has been reported in recent years. Based on a case-report we present the hypothesis that use of the hand-held mobile phone may be a risk factor for PCNSL. The increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Sweden is discussed in relation to etiologic factors."
"The aim of this study was to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) on heart rate variability (HRV) in rabbits with intensity slightly exceeding the limits for occupations. Totally 21 New Zealand white rabbits divided into two groups were used in this double-blind study. The first group of animals without general anesthesia was subjected to HRV examination under exposure to a device generated RF EMF source (frequency 1788 MHz, intensity 160 V/m, lasting 150 min.). The second group (premedications + alpha chloralose mg/kg) underwent the same protocol under the exposure to the real RF EMF signal from the base stations of mobile providers (frequency range 1805 - 1870 MHz - corresponding to the downlink signal of Slovak mobile providers, 160 V/m, 150 min., respectively). Individual 5 min records were used to analyze the HRV parameters: heart rate and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (rMSSD) for time domain analysis and spectral powers in the low (LF-VFS) and high frequency (HF-VFS) bands for frequency domain analysis. Our study revealed the increase in HRV parameters (HF-HRV, rMSSD) associated with lower heart rate indicating increased cardiac vagal control under the exposure to RF EMF in experimental methods."
"The fifth generation, 5G, of radiofrequency (RF) radiation is about to be implemented globally without investigating the risks to human health and the environment. This has created debate among concerned individuals in numerous countries. In an appeal to the European Union (EU) in September 2017, currently endorsed by >390 scientists and medical doctors, a moratorium on 5G deployment was requested until proper scientific evaluation of potential negative consequences has been conducted. This request has not been acknowledged by the EU. The evaluation of RF radiation health risks from 5G technology is ignored in a report by a government expert group in Switzerland and a recent publication from The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Conflicts of interest and ties to the industry seem to have contributed to the biased reports. The lack of proper unbiased risk evaluation of the 5G technology places populations at risk. Furthermore, there seems to be a cartel of individuals monopolizing evaluation committees, thus reinforcing the no-risk paradigm. We believe that this activity should qualify as scientific misconduct."
Mobile phone use during pregnancy: Which association with fetal growth?
Boileau N et al, J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod, julij 2020
"Using a mobile phone for calls for more than 30 min per day during pregnancy may have a negative impact on fetal growth. A prospective study should be performed to further evaluate this potential link."
"The results demonstrated that prenatal long-term but not short-term exposure to mobile phone lead to cognitive impairment, morphological changes in the hippocampal cells, reduced synaptic number, decreased SYN, PSD-95, and BDNF expression in elderly offspring, which were alleviated by postnatal EE housing. These findings suggest that prenatal long-term mobile phone exposure may pose life-long adverse effects on elderly offspring and impair cognition by disrupting the synaptic plasticity, which may be reversed by postnatal EE housing."
"Exposure to RF-EMF for 60 minutes at 5 cm distance causes a significant reduction in the number of CD4+ T cells, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17a expressing T cells."
"Environmental pollutants, such as pesticides, herbicides, additives to food and water, and electromagnetic fields threaten public health by promotion of cancer, heart disease and chronic diseases of aging. Many of these pollutants cause adverse health outcomes by effects on mitochondrial function to produce oxidative stress through loss of the active site complex for oxidative phosphorylation, thioretinaco ozonide oxygen nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, from opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Glyphosate, fluoride, and electromagnetic fields are examples of carcinogenic pollutants that promote loss and decomposition of the active site for oxidative phosphorylation, producing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Ionizing radiation has long been known to be carcinogenic, and non-ionizing electromagnetic fields from microwaves, radar, cell phones and cathode ray screens are carcinogenic and produce deleterious effects on capillaries, nerve cells, blood brain barrier, embryonic and germ cells, lenses and cardiac function. Adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields include cataracts, infertility, congenital malformations, cancer, lymphocytosis, leukemia, hearing loss, blindness, retinal hemorrhages, cardiac arrhythmias, dermatitis, hair loss, depression, memory loss, premature aging, heart attacks, and weaponized mind control."
"This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well."
"In conclusion, current study shows that chronic exposure to MP-RF-EMF radiation emitted from mobile phones may induce oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and HPA axis deregulation. However, changes in hippocampal functionality depend on the complex interplay of several opposing factors that got affected upon MP-RF-EMF exposure."
The Effects of Prenatal Radiation of Mobile Phones on White Matter in Cerebellum of Rat Offspring
Yang ML et al, Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi, januar 2020
"Prenatal mobile phone radiation might lead to the damage of myelin and axon with activity of astrocytes in cerebellum of male rat offspring, which is related to the extent of radiation."
"We investigate the relationship between cell phones and brain cancer using brain cancer death rates for 88 countries between 1990 and 2015 from the World Health Organization and country‐level mobile phone subscription rates from the World Bank. We estimate difference‐in‐difference models including country and year fixed effects and time‐varying country covariates. We find that mobile phone subscription rates are positively and statistically significantly associated with death rates from brain cancer 15–20 years later. In falsification tests, we find few positive associations between mobile phone subscription rates and deaths from rectal, pancreatic, stomach, breast or lung cancer or ischemic heart disease. Finally, differential effects models suggest that mobile phone subscription rates are associated with brain cancer deaths 15–19 years later relative to deaths from other causes."
"However, for exposures at higher GHz frequencies (millimeter waves and 5G), RF energy absorption tends to be more superficial and concentrated. Energy deposition could quickly occur in a smaller tissue area or mass to cause intense temperature elevation within a very short-exposure time period."
Mobile phone induced cognitive and neurochemical consequences
Sharma A et al, J Chem Neuroanat, december 2019
"Exposure of microwave radiation frequency showed significant alterations in cholinesterase activity, muscular strength, learning ability and anxiety. MWR exposure was also associated with significant alteration in the oxidative defense system and hippocampus degeneration. Histopathological observations clearly depicted the neural degeneration. Thus, it can be concluded that MWR significantly affects the central nervous system and may lead to many severe illnesses."
"By contrast, 5 weeks of RF-EME exposure adversely impacted the vitality and motility profiles of mature epididymal spermatozoa. These spermatozoa also experienced increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species after 1 week of exposure, with elevated DNA oxidation and fragmentation across all exposure periods."
"The fifth generation (5G) for wireless communication is about to be deployed worldwide in spite of no thorough studies being made on the potential risks to human health and the environment. The implementation seems to be driven mainly by business interests, not considering mounting public anxiety on the associated risks. In Estonia, an appeal on a moratorium was signed by 1,122 subjects, forcing a hearing in the Social Affairs Commission and the Environment Commission of Estonian Parliament on June 4, 2019. The hearing lasted for 1 h and 40 min. The whole hearing may be found on the web. It clearly demonstrated that decision‑making bodies base their decisions and act on expert statements that tend to be biased and formed by a cartel of members instead of their own science‑based evaluation. Thus, the hearing revealed a lack of knowledge among the Commission members on the risks involved with the use of 5G wireless communication that is exemplified herein. This may create negative consequences for human health and the environment in the future."
Adverse Effect of Mobile Phone on Hearing in Healthy Individuals: A Clinical Study
Jadia S et al, Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, november 2019
"Although our study did not show any significant hearing loss in mobile phone users since 0–25 dB hearing loss is taken for all practical purpose as normal, but we observed significant moderate to severe hearing loss in those participants exposed to mobile phone usage of more than 4 h/day, for continues 4–6 years."
"The National Toxicology Program tested two common radiofrequency radiation (RFR) modulations emitted by cellular telephones in a 2-year rodent cancer bioassay that included interim assessments of additional animals for genotoxicity endpoints. Male and female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats and B6C3F1/N mice were exposed from Gestation day 5 or Postnatal day 35, respectively, to code division multiple access (CDMA) or global system for mobile modulations over 18 hr/day, at 10-min intervals, in reverberation chambers at specific absorption rates of 1.5, 3, or 6 W/kg (rats, 900 MHz) or 2.5, 5, or 10 W/kg (mice, 1,900 MHz). After 19 (rats) or 14 (mice) weeks of exposure, animals were examined for evidence of RFR-associated genotoxicity using two different measures. Using the alkaline (pH > 13) comet assay, DNA damage was assessed in cells from three brain regions, liver cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes; using the micronucleus assay, chromosomal damage was assessed in immature and mature peripheral blood erythrocytes. Results of the comet assay showed significant increases in DNA damage in the frontal cortex of male mice (both modulations), leukocytes of female mice (CDMA only), and hippocampus of male rats (CDMA only). Increases in DNA damage judged to be equivocal were observed in several other tissues of rats and mice. No significant increases in micronucleated red blood cells were observed in rats or mice. In conclusion, these results suggest that exposure to RFR is associated with an increase in DNA damage."
"Mounting evidences suggest possible non-thermal biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on brain and behavior. Behavioral studies have particularly concentrated on the effects of RF-EMR on learning, memory, anxiety, and locomotion. The literature analysis on behavioral effects of RF-EMR demonstrates complex picture with conflicting observations. Nonetheless, numerous reports suggest a possible behavioral effect of RF-EMR. The scientific findings about this issue are presented in the current review. The possible neural and molecular mechanisms for the behavioral effects have been proposed in the light of available evidences from the literature."
"When comparing cells exposed to RF-EMF versus control samples, different results were found for the three cell lines evaluated, indicating that RF-EMF exposure can significantly affect RE-DNA transcription and that the effects strongly depend on the cellular context and the tissue type."
"• Wireless systems increase radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in buildings. • Scientific evidence identifies adverse effects from RFR below regulatory limits. • Globally, some governments and public health agencies are reducing RFR exposures. • Low RFR best practices include wired technology instead of Wi-Fi, and corded phones. • Safer, sustainable strategies and solutions for “smart” buildings are feasible."

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