"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure."
"Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behavior. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bcl2 showed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bcl2 were increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death. Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats."
"Our investigation has demonstrated the adverse consequences of 2.4-2.48 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of Wi-Fi router devices on divided attention levels of female university students that should be mentioned as a technological risk factor and taken into account by healthcare organizations."
"E-field exposure (at 4.24 and 13.4 kV/m) results in rapid and sensitive responses to 100-ms pulses. H-field excitation elicits no measurable responses, even at 100-fold higher power input levels (equivalent to 183 A/m). The observed effects on bacterial light output partially correlate with measured E-field-induced temperature increases. In conclusion, the endogenous bioluminescence of V. fischeri provides a sensitive and noninvasive method to assess the biological effects of microwave fields."
"Although results of MWM test revealed that Wi-Fi modem EMF caused impairment in spatial learning in rats exposed to EMF but physical activity could reduce negative effect of EMF in pregnant rat's offspring who exposed during pregnancy but performed swimming. In addition, results of open-field test showed that litter's motor function in EMF group significantly declined in comparison with physical activity and combined 2.4GHZ EMF and physical activity groups. According to our findings, it can be concluded that execution physical activity individually or along with wave-exposed pregnancy can significantly progressive effect on offspring' cognitive and motor functions."
"According to the results, oxidative defense system in rats exposed to Wi-Fi signal was significantly affected compared to the control group. Further studies are needed to better understand the possible biological mechanisms of EMR emitted from Wi-Fi device and relevant outcomes."
"From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations."
"Available data indicate that exposure to EMF can cause adverse health effects. It is also reported that biological effects may occur at very low levels of exposure. The RFR effect can be more intensified based on the range and duration of the exposure. The RFR can also exert adverse effects in the first few minutes. Persistent exposures of EMF radiation can result in health hazards because these radiations interfere with normal physiological and biological function of the body. EMF works as an environmental pollutant and has undesirable health effects on animals and humans."
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
"Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure."
"Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure."
"When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1)."
"RESULTS: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were found to be significantly different in the study group compared to the control group (p < .05), but no significant difference was found in serum IL-10, IL-32 levels and testis tissue IL-6, IL-10, IL-32 levels compared to the control group (p > .05). On the other hand, histopathological evaluation of testicular tissue revealed a significant difference in necrosis and spermatogenesis when compared with the control group (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz increases inflammation and testicular damage and negative impact on male reproductive system function."
"The described mechanism of MW field-induced effect confirms that the nature of the effect differs from the thermal effect and that the exposure by MW radiation can create the specific consequences in biology and materials not characteristic for conventional heating."
"Despite the improved exposure assessment approach used in this study, no clear associations were identified. However, the results obtained for recent exposure to RF electric and magnetic fields are suggestive of a potential role in brain tumor promotion/progression and should be further investigated."
"Our results showed that MW radiation exposure decreased the learning and memory performance that was associated with decrement of long-term potentiation induction and excitability of CA1 neurons. However, MW radiation did not have any effects on short-term plasticity and paired-pulse ratio as a good indirect index for measurement of glutamate release probability. The evaluation of hippocampal morphology indicated that the neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 area was significantly decreased by MW."
A significant amount of electromagnetic field/
electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available
that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a
study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania
Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA)
has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges. It is regularly added to, freely accessible online and designed to allow data to be easily retrieved, sorted and analyzed.
"Findings suggest that 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure induced testicular redox imbalance not only leads to enhanced testicular apoptosis via p53 dependent Bax-caspase-3 mediated pathway, but also increases the degree of apoptotic severity in a duration dependent manner."
"These results indicate that prolonged EMR exposure induced physiopathological changes in the ovarian, fallopian tubal, and uterine tissues due to oxidative damage. Under the conditions of this study, Vit C may have protective effects on female reproductive system against oxidative damage."
"These data showed that EMR of Wi-Fi leads to hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress, and impaired insulin secretion in the rat pancreatic islets."