Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Pregled vira sevanja



30 MHz - 30 GHz


Radarji omogočajo nadzor nad letalskim in ladijskim prometom, uporabljeni pa so tudi za potrebe meteorologije in za vojaške namene. Vsem je znan tudi policijski radar, s katerim se meri hitrost v prometu.

Radarji večinoma oddajajo mikrovalove v frekvenčnem območju od 1,55 do 5,2 GHz. Za kontrolo letenja se uporablja frekvenčno območje 1 - 4 GHz. Ameriška vojna mornarica uporablja frekvenčno območje 3,55 - 3,7 GHz. Nekateri obmorski radarji delujejo na precej nižjih radijskih frekvencah (3 - 30 MHz). Višje frekvence se uporabljajo za napovedovanje vremena (2 - 24 GHz), za policijske potrebe merjenja hitrosti v prometu (24 GHz) in za potrebe letališkega nadzora (24 - 40 GHz).

Radarji sevajo v pulzih, medtem ko »prečesavajo« teren; posledično lahko na radarju izpostavljenem območju vsakih nekaj sekund zaznamo pulz mikrovalovnega sevanja. To sevanje z oddaljenostjo (in zaradi geografskih ovir) počasi upada, vendar lahko tudi na od radarja veliko kilometrov oddaljenih območjih zaznamo še relativno močan signal. V primeru radarjev, ki nadzirajo letalski promet (npr. Brnik), je signal močnejši v višjih legah.

V uvajanju je tudi uporaba radarjev v avtonomnih vozilih (brez radarja takšno vozilo namreč ne more delovati). V te namene bo služilo frekvenčno območje 75 - 110 GHz. Posledično se bodo mikrovalovne sevalne obremenitve (ob že zdaj eksponentni rasti) še dodatno povečevale.


"Environmental pollutants, such as pesticides, herbicides, additives to food and water, and electromagnetic fields threaten public health by promotion of cancer, heart disease and chronic diseases of aging. Many of these pollutants cause adverse health outcomes by effects on mitochondrial function to produce oxidative stress through loss of the active site complex for oxidative phosphorylation, thioretinaco ozonide oxygen nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, from opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Glyphosate, fluoride, and electromagnetic fields are examples of carcinogenic pollutants that promote loss and decomposition of the active site for oxidative phosphorylation, producing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Ionizing radiation has long been known to be carcinogenic, and non-ionizing electromagnetic fields from microwaves, radar, cell phones and cathode ray screens are carcinogenic and produce deleterious effects on capillaries, nerve cells, blood brain barrier, embryonic and germ cells, lenses and cardiac function. Adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields include cataracts, infertility, congenital malformations, cancer, lymphocytosis, leukemia, hearing loss, blindness, retinal hemorrhages, cardiac arrhythmias, dermatitis, hair loss, depression, memory loss, premature aging, heart attacks, and weaponized mind control."
"However, for exposures at higher GHz frequencies (millimeter waves and 5G), RF energy absorption tends to be more superficial and concentrated. Energy deposition could quickly occur in a smaller tissue area or mass to cause intense temperature elevation within a very short-exposure time period."
"Mounting evidences suggest possible non-thermal biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on brain and behavior. Behavioral studies have particularly concentrated on the effects of RF-EMR on learning, memory, anxiety, and locomotion. The literature analysis on behavioral effects of RF-EMR demonstrates complex picture with conflicting observations. Nonetheless, numerous reports suggest a possible behavioral effect of RF-EMR. The scientific findings about this issue are presented in the current review. The possible neural and molecular mechanisms for the behavioral effects have been proposed in the light of available evidences from the literature."
"• Wireless systems increase radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in buildings. • Scientific evidence identifies adverse effects from RFR below regulatory limits. • Globally, some governments and public health agencies are reducing RFR exposures. • Low RFR best practices include wired technology instead of Wi-Fi, and corded phones. • Safer, sustainable strategies and solutions for “smart” buildings are feasible."
"In conclusion, according to NTP, there is now clear evidence that RFR causes cancer in experimental animals. RFR re-evaluation has also been listed as a priority by IARC. There is also stronger evidence that RFR exposure is responsible for causing alteration of various sperm parameters, thus, affecting male fertility. Although a clear quantification of the carcinogenic and reproductive risk is still lacking, these animal findings suggest that a precautionary approach should be promoted by regulatory and health agencies, especially for children and pregnant women. Caution should also be considered in the development and spread of the upcoming 5G technology, particularly in light of the proposed higher frequencies and intensities of the signal. Long-term animal studies are urgently necessary to verify the possible health effects of 5G technology."
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"Those studies that are far more effective in showing effects employ real-life Mobile Telephony (MT) exposures emitted by commercially available mobile phones. The present review - of results published by my group from 2006 until 2016 - compares DNA fragmentation induced by six different EMFs on the same biological system - the oogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster - under identical conditions and procedures. Such a direct comparison between different EMFs - especially those employed in daily life - on the same biological endpoint, is very useful for drawing conclusions on their bioactivity, and novel. It shows that real MT EMFs are far more damaging than 50 Hz alternating magnetic field (MF) - similar or much stronger to those of power lines - or a pulsed electric field (PEF) found before to increase fertility. The MT EMFs were significantly more bioactive even for much shorter exposure durations than the other EMFs. Moreover, they were more damaging than previously tested cytotoxic agents like certain chemicals, starvation, dehydration. Individual parameters of the real MT EMFs like intensity, frequency, exposure duration, polarization, pulsing, modulation, are discussed in terms of their role in bioactivity. The crucial parameter for the intense bioactivity seems to be the extreme variability of the polarized MT signals, mainly due to the large unpredictable intensity changes."
"It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure."
High ambient radiofrequency radiation in Stockholm city, Sweden
Carlberg M et al, Oncol Lett, februar 2019
"The total mean level was 5,494 µW/m2 (median 3,346; range 36.6-205,155). The major contributions were down links from LTE 800 (4G), GSM + UMTS 900 (3G), GSM 1800 (2G), UMTS 2100 (3G) and LTE 2600 (4G). Regarding different places, the highest RF radiation was measured at the Hay Market with a mean level of 10,728 µW/m2 (median 8,578; range 335-68,815). This is a square used for shopping, and both retailers and visitors may spend considerable time at this place. Also, the Sergel Plaza had high radiation with a mean of 7,768 µW/m2. All measurements exceeded the target level of 30-60 µW/m2 based on non-thermal (no heating) effects, according to the BioInitiative Report. Based on short-term thermal effects, The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection established guideline 2 of 10 W/m2 (2,000,000-10,000,000 µW/m2) depending on frequency in 1998, and has not changed it despite solid evidence of non-thermal biological effects at substantially lower exposure levels. These environmental RF radiation levels are expected to increase with the introduction of 5G for wireless communication."
Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact
Bandara P, Carpenter DO, Lancet Planet Health, december 2018
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health
Singh R et al, Indian J Med Res, december 2018
"Available data indicate that exposure to EMF can cause adverse health effects. It is also reported that biological effects may occur at very low levels of exposure. The RFR effect can be more intensified based on the range and duration of the exposure. The RFR can also exert adverse effects in the first few minutes. Persistent exposures of EMF radiation can result in health hazards because these radiations interfere with normal physiological and biological function of the body. EMF works as an environmental pollutant and has undesirable health effects on animals and humans."
"Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure."
"When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1)."
"Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure."
"Despite the improved exposure assessment approach used in this study, no clear associations were identified. However, the results obtained for recent exposure to RF electric and magnetic fields are suggestive of a potential role in brain tumor promotion/progression and should be further investigated."
Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect
Hinrikus H et al, Int J Radiat Biol, oktober 2018
"The described mechanism of MW field-induced effect confirms that the nature of the effect differs from the thermal effect and that the exposure by MW radiation can create the specific consequences in biology and materials not characteristic for conventional heating."
A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation
Leach V et al, Rev Environ Health , september 2018
A significant amount of electromagnetic field/ electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges. It is regularly added to, freely accessible online and designed to allow data to be easily retrieved, sorted and analyzed.
"The consistent association of RFR and highly elevated HL cancer risk in the four groups spread over three countries, operating different RFR equipment types and analyzed by different research protocols, suggests a cause-effect relationship between RFR and HL cancers in military/occupational settings. While complete measurements of RFR exposures were not available and rough exposure assessments from patients interviews and from partial exposure data were used instead, we have demonstrated increased HL cancers in occupational groups with relatively high RFR exposures. Our findings, combined with other studies, indicate that exposures incurred in the military settings evaluated here significantly increased the risk of HL cancers. Accordingly, the RFR military exposures in these occupations should be substantially reduced and further efforts should be undertaken to monitor and measure those exposures and to follow cohorts exposed to RFR for cancers and other health effects. Overall, the epidemiological studies on excess risk for HL and other cancers together with brain tumors in cellphone users and experimental studies on RFR and carcinogenicity make a coherent case for a cause-effect relationship and classifying RFR exposure as a human carcinogen (IARC group 1)."
"Mean total RF-EMF exposure in various outdoor microenvironments varied between 0.23 V/m (non-central residential area in Switzerland) and 1.85 V/m (university area in Australia), and across modes of public transport between 0.32 V/m (bus in rural area in Switzerland) and 0.86 V/m (Auto rickshaw in urban area in Nepal). For most outdoor areas the major exposure contribution was from mobile phone base stations. Otherwise broadcasting was dominant. Uplink from mobile phone handsets was generally very small, except in Swiss trains and some Swiss buses. This study demonstrates high RF-EMF variability between the 94 selected microenvironments from all over the world. Exposure levels tended to increase with increasing urbanity. In most microenvironments downlink from mobile phone base stations is the most relevant contributor."

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